Sardar

Sardar (Persian: سردار‎, Persian pronunciation: [sær'dɑr]; "Commander" literally; "Headmaster"), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Emir.

The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār (سردار) and have been historically used across Persia (Iran), Ottoman Empire and Turkey (as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia (now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt (as "Sirdar").[4]

The term was widely used by Maratha nobility, who held important positions in various Maratha States of the imperial Maratha Empire.

After the decline of feudalism, Sardar later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an Army military rank. As a military rank, a Sardar typically marked the Commander-in-Chief or the highest-ranking military officer in an Army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy.

In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas.[5] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by the individual Sherpas, which factors into their compensation. Sardar is also colloquially used to refer to adult male followers of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have served in high-ranking positions within the Indian Army. Sometimes, it has also been used to describe Punjabi Muslims.[6]

Jackiesardar
President Sardar Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".[1]
Ein-oddole
Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Brigadir Janko Vukotic
Serdar Janko Vukotić of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro.
King Amanullah Khan
King Amānullāh Khān conferred the title Sardar-i-Ala to those of exceptional service to the Crown.
Sardar Ranoji Shinde
A plaque commemorating Sardar Ranoji Shinde Bahadur, Prince of Gwalior. The title of Sardar is used by the Maratha nobility of Gwalior State[2] and as such is used by the most senior Mahratta nobles.[3]

Princes

Noblemen

Aristocrats

  • In the Hazara Division of Pakistan, the word Sardar is used by the Karlal tribe before their names, traditionally, to stress their upper-caste status, e.g., Sardar Muhammad Aslam, Sardar Haider Zaman etc.
  • In the small district of Sudhanoti, Kashmir, Sardar is used by the hybrid Sudhan tribe to refer to their putative part-descent from the Sadduzai clan of King Ahmad Shah Durrani. Also, Poonch families in this region use Sardar at the beginning of their names.
  • Similarly Sardar is used by Khattar tribe noble men, native to the districts of Attock and adjacent areas of Rawalpindi.
  • Sardar was used for important political, tribal, military and religious officers rankings by the Sikhs during the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and this title was borrowed from Muslims.
  • Gujjar from the Mansehra district of Hazara Division also use Sardar as their surname, e.g., Sardar Muhammad Yousaf, Sardar Fakhr-e-Alam, Air Marshal (R) Sardar Asif Khattana, Lt. Gen. (R) Sardar Khalid Khattana and Sardar Said Ghulam Gujjar are the few names in this.

Head of state

  • In Persian, Sardar i-Azam was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shahanshah's Head of government, normally styled Vazir i-Azam, notably in 1904-06 for a Qajar prince, Prince Major General Abdol Majid Mirza.
  • Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister of India was referred to as Sardar Patel; he is also now known as the "Iron Man of India".
  • Sadar-i-Riyasat was the title of one Constitutional Head of State of the princely state of Kashmir, Yuvaraj Shri Karan Singhji Bahadur, who was appointed as Heir Apparent in 1931. After his father had acceded to India, ending the sovereign Monarchy, Regent in 1949 to 1956. Sardar-i-Riyasat 1956 to 1965 (succeeded on the death of his father as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, 1961, no longer carrying any hereditary power), next Governor of the Indian constitutive State of Jammu and Kashmir 1965 to 1967.

Military title

A Sikh sardar
A Sikh sardar

Modern usage

  • In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar is the local leader of the Sherpas and porters.[8] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by individual Sherpas, which dictates the amounts the Sherpas will be paid.
  • HMS Sirdar was a World War II Royal Navy submarine.
  • "Siridar" is a title of planetary rulers in Frank Herbert's Dune. The Padishah Emperor's elite troops are also called the Sardaukar.
  • Sardar is also colloquially used to refer to adult male followers of the religion of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have honorably served in many high-ranking positions within the Indian Army. Notable examples include Generals Joginder Jaswant Singh and Harbaksh Singh.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan - Mar 23, 1962 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  2. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=r2O3W7mkAwAC&pg=PA252&dq=title+of+sardar+maratha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=T12gUf_RJ4P4rQew-IC4CQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=title%20of%20sardar%20maratha&f=false
  3. ^ "gwalior". www.royalark.net. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16.
  4. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sirdar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
  5. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.
  6. ^ Piara Singh Gill (1992), Up Against Odds: Autobiography of an Indian Scientist, p. 79, ISBN 9788170233640
  7. ^ "Royal Kapurthala Dynasty History".
  8. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.

External links

Ali Sardar Jafri

Ali Sardar Jafri (29 November 1913 – 1 August 2000) was an Urdu writer from India. He was also a poet, critic and film lyricist.

Baban-e Sardar Qasemkhan

Baban-e Sardar Qasemkhan (Persian: بابان سردارقاسم خان‎, also Romanized as Bābān-e Sardār Qāsemkhān; also known as Bābān Yāvar and Bāvān) is a village in Sanjabi Rural District, Kuzaran District, Kermanshah County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 320, in 65 families.

Hesar Kharabeh

Hesar Kharabeh (Persian: حصارخرابه‎, also Romanized as Ḩeşār Kharābeh; also known as Ḩeşār and Ḩeşār Sardār) is a village in Nazluchay Rural District, Nazlu District, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 84, in 16 families.

Karimabad-e Sardar

Karimabad-e Sardar (Persian: كريم ابادسردار‎, also Romanized as Karīmābād-e Sardār) is a village in Mahan Rural District, Mahan District, Kerman County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 13, in 4 families.

Mehdiabad-e Sardar

Mehdiabad-e Sardar (Persian: مهدي ابادسردار‎, also Romanized as Mehdīābād-e Sardār and Mehdi Abad Sardar) is a village in Qasemabad Rooral District, in the Central District of Rafsanjan County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,170, in 291 families.

Mohammed Daoud Khan

Mohammed Daoud Khan or Daud Khan (18 July 1909 – 28 April 1978) was the 5th Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and the President of Afghanistan from 1973 to 1978. Born into the royal family, he overthrew the Musahiban monarchy of his first cousin Mohammed Zahir Shah and declared himself as the first President of Afghanistan in 1973 with Soviet backing. He would hold this position until his assassination in 1978 during the Saur Revolution led by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) after he fell out of favor with the USSR. Khan was known for his progressive policies, efforts to improve women's rights, Pashtun nationalism, irredentist claims to land in northwest Pakistan, and for initiating two five-year modernization plans which increased the labor force by about 50 percent. The 1978 coup and assassination plunged Afghanistan into an ongoing civil war.

Qaleh-ye Sardar, Khuzestan

Qaleh-ye Sardar (Persian: قلعه سردار‎, also Romanized as Qal‘eh-ye Sardār; also known as Ghal‘eh Sardar) is a village in Choghamish Rural District, Choghamish District, Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 283, in 55 families.

Qaleh Sardar, West Azerbaijan

Qaleh Sardar (Persian: قلعه سردار‎, also Romanized as Qal‘eh Sardār; also known as Qal‘eh) is a village in Nazluchay Rural District, Nazlu District, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 387, in 90 families.

R. P. Singh (politician)

Sardar R. P. Singh is an Indian politician and member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Sardar R. P. Singh was a member of the Delhi Legislative Assembly from the Rajinder Nagar in New Delhi district. He National secretary of the Delhi Bharatiya Janata Party and well as national spokeperson.

Sapu Sardar

Sapu Sardar (Persian: سپوسردار‎, also Romanized as Sapū Sardār) is a village in Dehdasht-e Sharqi Rural District, in the Central District of Kohgiluyeh County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65, in 10 families.

Sardar, Kermanshah

Sardar (Persian: سردار‎, also Romanized as Sardār) is a village in Sar Firuzabad Rural District, Firuzabad District, Kermanshah County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 228, in 40 families.

Sardar Kahdun

Sardar Kahdun (Persian: سردركاهدون‎, also Romanized as Sardar Kāhdūn) is a village in Shahi Rural District, Sardasht District, Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Sardar Patel Stadium

Sardar Patel Stadium commonly known as, Motera Stadium is one of the premier cricket stadiums of India in the Motera locality of Ahmedabad and Sardar Patel stadium is owned by Gujarat Cricket Association and comes under the aegis of the West Zone. It is equipped with floodlights for day-and-night games and is a regular venue for Test cricket and One Day Internationals (ODI) matches. It is currently undergoing redevelopment after being demolished completely in late 2015. The new stadium will be the largest cricket stadium in the world with a seating capacity of 110,000 spectators, overtaking the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Australia.Apart from cricket, the ground has played host to a number of programs arranged by the Government of Gujarat. The pitch once favoured the bowlers but has lately been host to competitive games. As of December 2011, the Motera stadium had played host to 23 ODI matches. In India, only Eden Gardens (31 ODI matches) has hosted more ODI matches than Motera Stadium. The stadium was one of the host venues for 2011 Cricket World Cup held in India. It hosted three matches, including a quarter final match between India and Australia.

Sardar Sarovar Dam

The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada river near Navagam, Gujarat in India. Four Indian states, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra and Rajasthan, receive water and electricity supplied from the dam. The foundation stone of the project was laid out by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 5 April 1961. The project took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme funded by the World Bank through their International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity, using a loan of US$ 200 million. The construction for dam begun in 1987, but the project was stalled by the Supreme Court of India in 1995 in the backdrop of Narmada Bachao Andolan over concerns of displacement of people. In 2000-01 the project was revived but with a lower height of 110.64 metres under directions from SC, which was later increased in 2006 to 121.92 meters and 138.98 meters in 2017. One of the 30 dams planned on river Narmada, Sardar Sarovar Dam (SSD) is the largest structure to be built. It is one of the largest dams in the world. It is a part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada river. Following a number of controversial cases before the Supreme Court of India (1999, 2000, 2003), by 2014 the Narmada Control Authority had approved a series of changes in the final height – and the associated displacement caused by the increased reservoir, from the original 80 m (260 ft) to a final 163 m (535 ft) from foundation. The project will irrigate more than 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi), most of it in drought prone areas of Kutch and Saurashtra.

The dam's main power plant houses six 200 MW Francis pump-turbines to generate electricity and include a pumped-storage capability. Additionally, a power plant on the intake for the main canal contains five 50 MW Kaplan turbine-generators. The total installed capacity of the power facilities is 1,450 MW.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport (SVPIA) (IATA: AMD, ICAO: VAAH) is an international airport serving the cities of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in Gujarat, India. The airport is located in Hansol, 9 km (5.6 mi) north of central Ahmedabad. It is named after Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the 1st Deputy Prime Minister of India.

In fiscal year 2018-19, it handled about 11.17 million passengers making it the seventh-busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in India. The airport serves as a focus city for GoAir. In 2015, the government started the procedure for the privatization of the airport. New Dholera International Airport is being developed due to expansion constraints at the current airport.

It was awarded as “Most improved airport” in Asia-Pacific region by the Airports Council International for 2017.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum is a museum that traces the history and growth of the police force in India. It is located just opposite the Kollam Junction Railway Station in Kollam, India. The museum is dedicated to barrister and statesman, Vallabhbhai Patel.

Statue of Unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and independence activist Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950), who was the first Home minister of independent India and the chief adherent of Mahatma Gandhi during the non-violent Indian Independence movement. He was highly respected for his leadership in uniting the 552 princely states of India to form the single Union of India. It is located in the state of Gujarat, India. It is the world's tallest statue with a height of 182 metres. It is located on a river island facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada in Kevadiya colony, 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150km from Surat.

The project was first announced in 2010 and the construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Larsen & Toubro, who received the contract for ₹2,989 crore (US$420 million) from Government of Gujarat. It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar, and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Patel's birth.

Tangab-e Sardar

Tangab-e Sardar (Persian: تنگ اب سردار‎, also Romanized as Tangāb-e Sardār; also known as Tangāb) is a village in Sepidar Rural District, in the Central District of Boyer-Ahmad County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 27, in 8 families.

Vallabhbhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian barrister and statesman, a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and a founding father of the Republic of India who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning "chief" in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.Patel was raised in the countryside of state of Gujarat. He was a successful lawyer. He subsequently organised peasants from Kheda, Borsad, and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against the British Raj, becoming one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat. He was appointed as the 49th President of Indian National Congress, organising the party for elections in 1934 and 1937 while promoting the Quit India Movement.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that had been "allocated" to India.

Besides those provinces that had been under direct British rule, approximately 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Threatening military force, Patel persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India. His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India". He is also remembered as the "patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system. He is also called the "Unifier of India". The Statue of Unity, the world's tallest statue, was dedicated to him on 31 October 2018 which is approximately 182 metres (597 ft) in height.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.