Sarcophagus

A sarcophagus (plural sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried. The word "sarcophagus" comes from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh", and φαγεῖν phagein meaning "to eat"; hence sarcophagus means "flesh-eating", from the phrase lithos sarkophagos (λίθος σαρκοφάγος), "flesh-eating stone". The word also came to refer to a particular kind of limestone that was thought to rapidly facilitate the decomposition of the flesh of corpses contained within it due to the chemical properties of the limestone itself.[1][2]

Egypt.KV8.01
Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah
Contantinople Christian sarcophagus circa 400
Constantinople Christian sarcophagus with XI monogram, c. 400

History

Worms sarcophagi
Roman-era sarcophagi at Worms, Germany

Sarcophagi were most often designed to remain above ground. In Ancient Egypt, a sarcophagus acted like an outer shell.

The Hagia Triada sarcophagus is a stone sarcophagus elaborately painted in fresco; one style of later Ancient Greek sarcophagus in painted pottery is seen in Klazomenian sarcophagi, produced around the Ionian Greek city of Klazomenai, where most examples were found, between 550 BC (Late Archaic) and 470 BC. They are made of coarse clay in shades of brown to pink. Added to the basin-like main sarcophagus is a broad, rectangular frame, often covered with a white slip and then painted. The huge Lycian Tomb of Payava, now in the British Museum, is a royal tomb monument of about 360 BC designed for an open-air placing, a grand example of a common Lycian style.

Ancient Roman sarcophagi—sometimes metal or plaster as well as limestone—were popular from about the reign of Trajan,[3] and often elaborately carved, until the early Christian burial preference for interment underground, often in a limestone sepulchre, led to their falling out of favor.[2] However, there are many important Early Christian sarcophagi from the 3rd to 4th centuries.

Roman - Sarcophagus with the Triumph of Dionysus - Walters 2331
The limestone relief on this Roman sarcophagus, c. AD 190, depicts the Triumph of Dionysus. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

Most Roman examples were designed to be placed against a wall and are decorated on three of the sides only. Sarcophagi continued to be used in Christian Europe for important figures, especially rulers and leading church figures, and by the High Middle Ages often had a recumbent tomb effigy lying on the lid. More plain sarcophagi were placed in crypts, of which the most famous examples include the Habsburg Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Austria. The term tends to be less often used to describe Medieval, Renaissance, and later examples.

In the early modern period, lack of space tended to make sarcophagi impractical in churches, but chest tombs or false sarcophagi, empty and usually bottomless cases placed over an underground burial, became popular in outside locations such as cemeteries and churchyards, especially in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, where memorials were mostly not highly decorated and the extra cost of a false sarcophagus over a headstone acted as an indication of social status.

United States

Warner in Laurel Hill
Warner Tomb in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Sarcophagi, usually "false", made a return to the cemeteries of America during the last quarter of the 19th century, at which time, according to a New York company which built sarcophagi, "it was decidedly the most prevalent of all memorials in our cemeteries".[4] They continued to be popular into the 1950s, at which time the popularity of flat memorials (making for easier grounds maintenance) made them obsolete. Nonetheless, a 1952 catalog from the memorial industry still included eight pages of them, broken down into Georgian and Classical detail, a Gothic and Renaissance adaptation, and a Modern variant.[5] The image shows sarcophagi from the late 19th century located in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The one in the back, the Warner Monument created by Alexander Milne Calder (1879), features the spirit or soul of the deceased being released.

Asia

In the Mekong Delta in southwestern Vietnam, it is common for families to inter their members in sarcophagi near their homes, thus allowing ready access for visits as a part of the indigenous tradition of ancestor worship.

In Sulawesi, Indonesia, waruga are a traditional form of sarcophagus.

India

Nearly 140 years after British archaeologist Alexander Rea unearthed a sarcophagus from the hillocks of Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, an identical artifact dating back by more than 2,000 years has been discovered in the same locality.[6]

Spain

Phoenician and Paleochristian sarcophagi have been found in the Iberian Peninsula.[7][8]

References

  1. ^ WordInfo etymology. As a noun the Greek term was further adopted to mean "coffin" and was carried over into LATIN, where it was used in the phrase lapis sarcophagus, "flesh-eating stone", referring to those same properties of limestone.
  2. ^ a b "Columbia University Department of Archaeology". Archived from the original on 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2008-01-01.
  3. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 p. 79
  4. ^ Veit, Richard Francis (2008). New Jersey Cemeteries and Tombstones: History in the Landscape. Rutgers University Press/Rivergate Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0813542362.
  5. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 pp. 79–85
  6. ^ Kabirdoss, Yogesh (28 June 2018). "ASI finds 2,300-year-old sarcophagus in Tamil Nadu". Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  7. ^ "Sarcófagos antropomorfos fenicios de Cádiz". Cultura en Andalucía (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Sarcófago paleocristiano". España es Cultura (in Spanish). Sociedad Mercantil Estatal para la Gestión de la Innovación y las Tecnologías Turísticas, S.A.M.P. (SEGITTUR). Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte. Retrieved 29 September 2018.

Bibliography

  • Mont Allen, "Sarcophagus", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Michael Gagarin, vol. 6, p. 214–218 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  • Robert Manuel Cook, Clazomenian Sarcophagi (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1981).
  • R. R. R. Smith, Sculptured for Eternity: Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Art from Istanbul Archaeological Museum (Istanbul: Ertuǧ and Kocabıyık, 2001).
  • Paul Zanker and Björn C. Ewald, Living with Myths: The Imagery of Roman Sarcophagi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

External links

Ahiram sarcophagus

The Ahiram sarcophagus (also spelled Ahirom) was the sarcophagus of a Phoenician king of Byblos (c. 1000 BC), discovered in 1923 by the French excavator Pierre Montet in tomb V of the royal necropolis of Byblos. Ahirom is not attested in any other Ancient Oriental source, although some scholars have suggested a possible connection to the contemporary King Hiram mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (see Hiram I).

The sarcophagus is famed for its bas relief carvings, and its Phoenician language inscription. One of five known Byblian royal inscriptions, the inscription is considered to be the earliest known example of the fully developed Phoenician alphabet. For some scholars it represents the terminus post quem of the transmission of the alphabet to Europe.

Albertosaurus

Albertosaurus (; meaning "Alberta lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaurs that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 70 million years ago. The type species, A. sarcophagus, was apparently restricted in range to the modern-day Canadian province of Alberta, after which the genus is named. Scientists disagree on the content of the genus, with some recognizing Gorgosaurus libratus as a second species.

As a tyrannosaurid, Albertosaurus was a bipedal predator with tiny, two-fingered hands and a massive head that had dozens of large, sharp teeth. It may have been at the top of the food chain in its local ecosystem. While Albertosaurus was large for a theropod, it was much smaller than its larger and more famous relative Tyrannosaurus rex, growing nine to ten meters long and possibly weighing less than 2 metric tons.

Since the first discovery in 1884, fossils of more than 30 individuals have been recovered, providing scientists with a more detailed knowledge of Albertosaurus anatomy than is available for most other tyrannosaurids. The discovery of 26 individuals at one site provides evidence of pack behaviour and allows studies of ontogeny and population biology, which are impossible with lesser-known dinosaurs.

Balbinus

Balbinus (Latin: Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Pius Augustus; c. 178 – 29 July 238), was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.

Chernobyl New Safe Confinement

The New Safe Confinement (NSC or New Shelter) is a structure built to confine the remains of the number 4 reactor unit at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which was destroyed during the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The structure also encloses the temporary Shelter Structure (sarcophagus) that was built around the reactor immediately after the disaster. The New Safe Confinement is designed to prevent the release of radioactive contaminants from the existing shelter, protect the reactor from external influence, facilitate the disassembly and decommissioning of the reactor, and prevent water intrusion.The New Safe Confinement is a megaproject that is part of the Shelter Implementation Plan and supported by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund. It was designed with the primary goal of confining the radioactive remains of reactor 4 for the next 100 years. It also aims to allow for a partial demolition of the original sarcophagus, which was hastily constructed by Chernobyl liquidators after a beyond design-basis accident destroyed the reactor.

The word confinement is used rather than the traditional containment to emphasize the difference between the containment of radioactive gases—the primary focus of most reactor containment buildings—and the confinement of solid radioactive waste that is the primary purpose of the New Safe Confinement.

In 2015, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) stated that the international community was aiming to close a €100 million funding gap, with administration by the EBRD in its role as manager of the Chernobyl decommissioning funds. The total cost of the Shelter Implementation Plan, of which the New Safe Confinement is the most prominent element, is estimated to be around €2.15 billion (US$2.3 billion). The New Safe Confinement accounts for €1.5 billion.The French consortium Novarka with partners Vinci Construction Grands Projets and Bouygues Travaux Publics designed and built the New Safe Confinement. Construction was completed in the end of 2018.

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Chornobyls'ka Atomna Elektrostantsiya, Russian: Чернобыльская АЭС, Chernobyl'skaya AES) is a closed, but not yet fully decommissioned, nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, 14.5 km (9.0 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 km (9.9 mi) from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about 110 km (68 mi) north of Kiev. Reactor Number 4 was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the power plant is now within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Both the zone and the former power plant are administered by the State Agency of Ukraine of the Exclusion Zone (Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources). All four reactors have been shut down.

The nuclear power plant site clean-up is scheduled for completion in 2065. On January 3, 2010, a Ukrainian law stipulating a programme toward this objective came into effect.

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus or Shelter Structure (Ukrainian: Об'єкт "Укриття") is a massive steel and concrete structure covering the nuclear reactor number 4 building of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It was designed to limit radioactive contamination of the environment following the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, by encasing the most dangerous area and protecting it from climate exposure. It is located within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

The original Russian name is Объект "Укрытие" (Obyekt Ukrytiye), which means sheltering or covering, as opposed to sarcophagus.The sarcophagus locked in 200 tons of radioactive corium, 30 tons of highly contaminated dust and 16 tons of uranium and plutonium.In 1996, it was deemed impossible to repair the inside of the sarcophagus as radiation levels were estimated to be as high as 10000 röntgens per hour (normal background radiation in cities is usually around 20–50 microröntgens per hour, and a lethal dose is 500 röntgens over 5 hours). A decision to replace the sarcophagus with the New Safe Confinement was taken, and a project to construct the enclosure has since been completed.

Eshmunazar II sarcophagus

The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II (Phoenician: ʾšmnʿzr), a Phoenician king of Sidon and the son of King Tabnit (possibly the Greek Tenes), was created in the early 5th century BCE. It was unearthed in 1855 at a site near Sidon and is now in the Louvre. The sarcophagus was likely created in Egypt, being carved from amphibolite from Wadi Hammamat.

The inscription states that the "Lord of Kings" granted the Sidonian kings territory in Palestine: Dor, Jaffa, the Plain of Sharon.The inscription is the first discovered in the Phoenician language from the area known as Phoenicia.

Flesh fly

Flies in the family Sarcophagidae (from the Greek σάρκο sarco- = flesh, φάγε phage = eating; the same roots as the word "sarcophagus") are commonly known as flesh flies. They differ from most flies in that they are ovoviviparous, opportunistically depositing hatched or hatching maggots instead of eggs on carrion, dung, decaying material, or open wounds of mammals, hence their common name. Some flesh fly larvae are internal parasites of other insects such as Orthoptera, and some, in particular the Miltogramminae, are kleptoparasites of solitary Hymenoptera. The adults mostly feed on fluids from animal bodies, nectar, sweet foods, fluids from animal waste and other organic substances. Juveniles need protein to develop and may be laid on carrion, dung or sweet plant foods (including fruit, nuts, and artificial foodstuffs).

Goa'uld technology in Stargate

This is a list of Goa'uld technologies in the Stargate franchise. The Goa'uld are the main adversaries for most of the run of Stargate SG-1. They scavenged or conquered most of their advanced technologies from other races. However, there are innovators amongst the Goa'uld; Anubis and Ba'al in particular have been depicted with a great deal of technological ingenuity. Rather than being designed as practical, many Goa'uld devices, such as the staff weapon, are designed to have higher visual impact, meant to intimidate and reinforce their position as gods to their followers. Some pieces of Goa'uld technology, such as the hand device and the healing device, respond only to mental commands and require naqahdah in the bloodstream of the user to operate.

Kʼinich Janaabʼ Pakal

Kʼinich Janaab Pakal I (Mayan pronunciation: [kʼihniʧ xanaːɓ pakal], also known as Pacal, Pacal the Great, 8 Ahau and Sun Shield (March 603 – August 683), was ajaw of the Maya city-state of Palenque in the Late Classic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. He acceded to the throne in July 615 and ruled until his death. During a reign of 68 years—the fourth-longest verified regnal period of any sovereign monarch in history, the longest in world history for more than a millennium, and still the longest in the history of the Americas—Pakal was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque's most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental architecture. Pakal is perhaps best-known in popular culture for his depiction on the carved lid of his sarcophagus, which has become the subject of pseudoarchaeological speculations.

Layos

Layos is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2006 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 378 inhabitants. In Layos in 1627 it was found the paleochristian sarcophagus named Layos Sarcophagus.

List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments. Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.

List of fictional Oxford colleges

Fictional colleges are found in many modern novels, films, and other works of fiction, probably because they allow the author greater licence for invention and a reduced risk of being accused of libel or slander, as might happen if the author depicted unsavory events as occurring at a real-life institution. Below is a list of some of the fictional colleges of the University of Oxford.

Lyre

The lyre (Greek: λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. In organology, lyres are defined as "yoke lutes", being lutes in which the strings are attached to a yoke that lies in the same plane as the sound-table and consists of two arms and a cross-bar.

In Ancient Greece, recitations of lyric poetry were accompanied by lyre playing. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete). The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete (c. 1400 BC).The lyre of classical antiquity was ordinarily played by being strummed with a plectrum (pick), like a guitar or a zither, rather than being plucked with the fingers as with a harp. The fingers of the free hand silenced the unwanted strings in the chord. Later instruments, also called "lyres", were played with a bow in Europe and parts of the Middle East, namely the Arabic rebab and its descendants, including the Byzantine lyra.

Pano Arodes

Pano Arodes (Greek: Πάνω Αρόδες) is a village in the North West of Cyprus close to the Akamas peninsula. It is about 23 km from the town of Paphos.

The population of Pano Arodes has decreased in the past 30 years as the population has aged and younger residents move to towns for employment.

In his book "Historic Cyprus" (Second ed. 1947) at page 177, Rupert Gunnis (who was Inspector of Antiquities on the island at the time) described the village as follows:

"The mediaeval name of the village was Rhodes, from the fact that it was the property of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, whose headquarters were until 1522 in the island of Rhodes.

"The Christian village contains an eighteenth-century Church of St. Kelandion, an early bishop of Paphos. To the north side of the church lies the large stone sarcophagus of St. Agapiticos, while the companion one of St. Misiticos is to the south. The village legend is that those who wish to win the love of a person, be it a girl or boy, come secretly at night and chip off a fragment of the sarcophagus of St. Agapiticos. This is powedered and introduced into the loved one's drink, who will immediately reciprocate the donor's passion. Conversely, should a person desire to quarrel with another, he merely carries out the same procedure with powedered stone from the sarcophagus of St. Misiticos. The latter is far more worn away than that of St. Agapiticos, but this is explained by the fact that its powers are much in request by young men and women who wish to change their lovers."

Sarcophagus (The Outer Limits)

"Sarcophagus" is an episode of The Outer Limits (new series) television show. It was first aired on August 7, 1998, during the fourth season.

Sarcophagus of the Spouses

The Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Italian: Sarcofago degli Sposi) is considered one of the great masterpieces of Etruscan art. It is a late sixth-century BC Etruscan anthropoid sarcophagus from Caere, and is in the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, Rome. It is 1.14 m high by 1.9 m wide, and is made of terracotta which was once brightly painted. It depicts a married couple reclining at a banquet together in the afterlife, and was found in 19th-century excavations at the necropolis of Cerveteri (ancient Caere). The portrayal of a married couple sharing a banqueting couch is distinctly an Etruscan style; in contrast, Greek vases depicting banquet scenes reflect the custom that only men attended dinner parties.

Tabnit

Tabnit was the Phoenician king of Sidon circa 490 BCE, He was the father of King Eshmunazar II.

He is well known from his sarcophagus, decorated with two separate and unrelated inscriptions – one in Egyptian hieroglyphics and one in Phoenician script. It was created in the early 5th century BC, and was unearthed in 1887 by Osman Hamdi Bey at the Ayaa Necropolis near Sidon together with the Alexander Sarcophagus and other related sarcophagi. Tabnit's body was found floating perfectly preserved in the original embalming fluid. Both the sarcophagus and Tabnit's decomposed skeleton are now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.The sarcophagus, together with the Eshmunazar II sarcophagus, were possibly acquired by the Sidonians following their participation in the Battle of Pelusium (525 BC), and served as models for later Phoenician sarcophagi.

İstanbul Archaeology Museums

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archaeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums consists of three museums:

Archaeological Museum (in the main building)

Museum of the Ancient Orient

Museum of Islamic Art (in the Tiled Kiosk).It houses over one million objects that represent almost all of the eras and civilizations in world history.

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