Sarah Maslin Nir

Sarah Maslin Nir (born March 23, 1983) is an American journalist, best known for her New York Times report on the working conditions of nail salon workers, for which she was a finalist for the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting.[1] The story generated both extensive regulatory changes and extensive criticism.

Sarah Maslin Nir, Living City, Living Wage
Sarah Maslin Nir at "Living City, Living Wage" discussion in 2015

Early life and education

The daughter of psychiatrist Yehuda Nir and psychologist Bonnie Maslin,[2] Nir was born and grew up in Manhattan, attending Brearley School.[3] Her brother, David Nir, is (as of 2014) the political director of Daily Kos.[2] Sarah Maslin Nir graduated from Columbia University in 2005, majoring in political science and philosophy. As an undergraduate, she was the Style Editor of the Columbia Daily Spectator. She is also a graduate of the Columbia School of Journalism (2009).[4] Before attending journalism school, Nir lived in London and worked as a freelancer for several U.S. and international publications.


Nir initially freelanced for the Times, contributing to 11 different sections of the paper. She covered New York Citys nightlife for the Times from 2010 until the end of 2011, as the paper's “Nocturnalist” columnist, once attending 25 parties in five days.[5][6] She became a trainee reporter in 2011 and worked as a rewrite reporter for late-night news, during which time she camped out overnight at Zuccotti Park with the Occupy Wall Street protesters,[7] and later reported on the dismantling of the camp. She was promoted to staff reporter covering Queens for the Metro section in May, 2013. In February, 2015, she became a general assignment reporter focusing on Manhattan.[8][9]

In May 2015, Nir's "Unvarnished" exposé on the working conditions of manicurists in New York City and elsewhere[10] and the health hazards to which they are exposed[11] attracted wide attention, resulting in emergency workplace enforcement actions by New York governor Andrew Cuomo.[12]


In February 2013, in an article on post-Hurricane Sandy recovery efforts in heavily Irish-American Breezy Point, Queens, Nir wrote about the community's lack of diversity and allegations of prejudice.[13] These allegations were criticized by Niall O'Dowd and other Irish-American community leaders, who stated that the assertions amounted to a "cliched stereotyping" of the neighborhood by Nir.[14]

In July 2015, Unvarnished's claims of widespread "astonishingly low" wages were challenged by former New York Times reporter Richard Bernstein, in the New York Review of Books. Bernstein, whose wife owns two nail salons, asserted that such wages were inconsistent with his personal experience, and were not evidenced by ads in the Chinese-language papers cited by the story.[15] NYT editorial staff subsequently published a rebuttal, refuting Bernstein's criticisms with examples of several published ads and criticizing his response as industry advocacy.[16] The independent NYT Public Editor also reported that she had previously corresponded with Bernstein and looked into his complaints, and expressed her belief that the story's reporting was sound.[17] In August 2015, several nail salons temporarily shut[18] in protest against the new law requiring salons to purchase wage bonds as security for any unpaid wages.

In September and October 2015, hundreds of nail salon owners and workers protested at the NYT offices several times, in response to the story and the ensuing New York State crackdown.[19][20] (A fifth protest was also held a year later after at the "NYT" offices in response to a new rule instituted by Governor Cuomo in response to the article requiring all nail salons in New York State to have ventilation systems, the first such rule in the country.) [21]

In October 2015, Reason published a three part re-reporting of the story by Jim Epstein, charging that the series was filled with misquotes and factual errors with respect to both its claims of illegally low wages and of health hazards. Epstein also argued that the NYT had mistranslated the ads cited in its rebuttal of Bernstein, and that those ads actually validated Bernstein's argument.[22][23][24] In November 2015, the NYT public editor concluded that the exposé's "findings, and the language used to express them, should have been dialed back — in some instances substantially" and recommended that "The Times write further follow-up stories, including some that re-examine its original findings and that take on the criticism from salon owners and others — not defensively but with an open mind."[25]

In November 2015, a follow-on nail salons story by Nir charged that state legislator Ron Kim had reversed his position on nail salon reforms after receiving an influx of campaign contributions from nail salon owners.[26] Shortly afterward, Reason and Crain's New York Business published stories refuting those allegations.[27][28]

In December 2015, the New York Post intimated that Nir had edited her Wikipedia page nearly 20 times, including from inside the New York Times building, to "defend her controversial exposé of the nail salon industry and attack her critics."[29]

In December 2015, the Columbia Journalism Review investigated the effects of Nir's Unvarnished series on nail salon workers and owners, concluding that many nail salon workers were empowered and saw working conditions improved as a result of attention and legal reforms spurred by the reporting. The article praised Nir's exposure of exploitation and racism within the nail salon industry, but also acknowledged criticisms of her reporting, finding that "At times, though, Nir does seem to overstate the case against salon owners."[30]

Awards and recognition

In September 2015, Nir was recognized with the New York Newswomen's Club award for in-depth reporting.[31]

In November 2015, The Forward named Nir one of the 2015 Forward 50.[32]

Nir was a finalist for the 2016 Pulitzer Prize in Local Reporting for Unvarnished.[1]


  1. ^ a b "2016 Pulitzer Prizes". April 18, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Joseph Berger, "Yehuda Nir, a Psychiatrist and Holocaust Survivor, Dies at 84", New York Times (July 19, 2014)
  3. ^ "Law and Disorder | Only in New York | Arts Initiative Columbia University". Retrieved 2017-04-09.
  4. ^ WikiCU, "Sara Maslin Nir"
  5. ^ The New York Times, "Timestopics: Sara Maslin Nir"
  6. ^ Columbia Journalism School, "Sarah Maslin Nir '09 is the Nocturnalist"
  7. ^ Randall, Eric. "Zuccotti Park Is Not a Nightclub". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
  8. ^ Jeremy Barr, "New York Times Metro Makes Some Changes"
  9. ^ Barr, Jeremy (2015-02-19). "New York Times Metro makes some changes". Politico.
  10. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (2015-05-07). "The Price of Nice Nails". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  11. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (2015-05-08). "Perfect Nails, Poisoned Workers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  12. ^ Sarah Maslin Nir, "Cuomo Orders Emergency Measures to Protect Workers at Nail Salons", New York Times, (May 11, 2015)
  13. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (2013-02-17). "Ireland Aids Breezy Point, Queens, After Hurricane Sandy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  14. ^ O'Dowd, Niall (2013-02-18). "Defending the Irish community against racist claims in New York Times -- Same old story as Hurricane Sandy relief efforts questioned". IrishCentral. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  15. ^ Richard Bernstein, "What the 'Times' Got Wrong About Nail Salons", New York Review of Books, (July 25, 2015)
  16. ^ Dean Baquet, et al , "Rebuttal to The NYRB's Article on NYT Nail Salon Series," The New York Times, (July 28, 2015)
  17. ^ Margaret Sullivan, "Criticism of 'Unvarnished' Brings a Strong Times Defense" The New York Times, (July 29, 2015)
  18. ^ Tempey, Nathan. "Nail Salons Close In Protest Of State Crackdown". Gothamist. Archived from the original on 2015-12-12. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  19. ^ Sage Lazzaro, "Nail Salon Industry Stages Protest Outside NYT Building," Observer (September 21, 2015)
  20. ^ Helen Holmes, "Here's Why Hundreds of Nail Salon Owners Are Protesting the New York Times," Jezebel (October 7, 2015)
  21. ^ (July 22, 2016)
  22. ^ Jim Epstein, "The New York Times' Nail Salons Series Was Filled with Misquotes and Factual Errors. Here's Why That Matters. (Part 1)," Reason (October 27, 2015)
  23. ^ Jim Epstein, "How The New York Times' Flawed Reporting on Nail Salons Closed Opportunities For Undocumented Immigrants (Part 2)," Reason (October 28, 2015)
  24. ^ Jim Epstein, "The New York Times Says Working in Nail Salons Causes Cancer and Miscarriages. The Evidence Says Otherwise. (Part 3)," Reason (October 29, 2015)
  25. ^ "New Questions on Nail Salon Investigation, and a Times Response". Public Editor's Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
  26. ^ Nir, Sarah Maslin (2015-11-08). "Backed by Nail Salon Owners, a New York Legislator Now Fights Reforms". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  27. ^ "The New York Times Publishes Another Misleading Story About Nail Salons". Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  28. ^ "Nailed by the Times, Queens assemblyman wages war for reputation". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  29. ^ Johnson, Richard (2015-12-05). "Is NY Times nail salon writer censoring her own Wiki page?". Page Six. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  30. ^ "The everyday effects of The New York Times' nail salon exposé". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  31. ^ "Front Page Awards Winners Announced - Newswomen's Club of New York". Newswomen's Club of New York. Archived from the original on 2015-12-25. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  32. ^ November 11, 2015 (2015-11-07). "Forward 50 2015 –". Retrieved 2015-11-11.
2016 Pulitzer Prize

The 2016 Pulitzer Prizes were awarded by the Pulitzer Prize Board for work during the 2015 calendar year. Prize winners and nominated finalists were announced on April 18, 2016.

American Athletic Conference

The American Athletic Conference (also known as The American and AAC) is an American collegiate athletic conference, featuring 12 member universities and six associate member universities that compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Member universities represent a range of private and public universities of various enrollment sizes located primarily in urban metropolitan areas in the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the United States.The American's legal predecessor, the original Big East Conference, was considered one of the six collegiate power conferences of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) era in college football, and The American inherited that status in the BCS's final season. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, The American became a "Group of Five" conference, which shares one automatic spot in the New Year's Six bowl games.The league is the product of substantial turmoil in the old Big East during the 2010–14 conference realignment period. It is one of two conferences to emerge from the all-sports Big East in 2013. While the other successor, which does not sponsor football, purchased the Big East Conference name, The American inherited the old Big East's structure and is that conference's legal successor. However, both conferences claim 1979 as their founding date, and the same history up to 2013. The American is headquartered in Providence, Rhode Island, and led by Commissioner Michael Aresco.

Amy Braunschweiger

Amy Braunschweiger is an American freelance writer and the author of Taxi Confidential: Life, Death and 3 A.M. Revelations in New York City, published by 671 Press. Her articles have appeared in publications including The New York Times, Tango, The Wall Street Journal, Worth, The Village Voice and The New York Sun, and New York magazine. Her work has also appeared in Germany's Welt am Sonntag and Leipziger Volkszeitung.

Braunschweiger was born and raised in Toledo, Ohio. She currently lives in the Brooklyn borough of New York City.She also serves on the five-member board that oversees the Vietnam Relief Effort, a charity that has been involved in humanitarian public works projects in Vietnam since 1999.

Big East Conference

The Big East Conference (stylized as BIG EAST) is a collegiate athletic conference that competes in NCAA Division I in all sports except football, which is not sponsored. The conference has been officially recognized as a Division I multi-sport conference, effective on August 1, 2013. The conference was originally founded by Dave Gavitt on May 31, 1979.Its nucleus is composed of the "Catholic Seven" members of the original Big East Conference: DePaul University, Georgetown University, Marquette University, Providence College, Seton Hall University, St. John's University, and Villanova University. In December 2012, these schools chose to split from the football playing schools in order to focus on basketball, and in March 2013 reached a settlement, whereby they acquired the Big East Conference name, logos, history, and the rights to the men's basketball tournament at Madison Square Garden. Butler University, Creighton University, and Xavier University also joined the conference on its July 1, 2013 launch date. The conference also entered into a 12-year, $500 million television contract with Fox Sports, Fox Sports 1 (FS1), Fox Sports 2 (FS2), and Fox Sports Networks (FSN) and a 6-year television contract with CBS and CBS Sports Network (CBSSN).The football-playing members of the old Big East, along with several other schools, formed the American Athletic Conference, which retains the old Big East's charter and structure. However, both conferences claim 1979 as their founding date. As part of the separation agreement, the basketball schools were able to retain the basketball records while the football schools retained the football records respectively.Val Ackerman, former WNBA president, has been commissioner since June 26, 2013. On the same day Ackerman was named as commissioner, it announced that it will be headquartered in New York City. None of the conference's schools sponsor varsity football in the top-level Division I FBS. Georgetown, Villanova, and Butler do operate football programs in the second-level Division I FCS, though only Villanova offers scholarships to its players.

Bronx-Lebanon Hospital attack

On June 30, 2017, at around 2:45 PM EDT, a doctor opened fire at the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center in the Bronx, New York City, United States, killing a doctor on the 17th floor and wounding six people on the 16th floor with an AR-15-type Semi-automatic Rifle. The shooter was later identified as 45-year-old Nigerian-born Dr. Henry Michael Bello, a family physician formerly employed by the hospital.


Cee-lo is a gambling game played with three six-sided dice. There is not one standard set of rules, but there are some constants that hold true to all sets of rules. The name comes from the Chinese Sì-Wŭ-Liù (四五六), meaning "four-five-six". In America it is also called "See-Low," "Four-Five-Six," "The Three Dice Game," "Chinchirorin," "Roll-off!," and by several alternative spellings, as well as simply "Dice." In China it is also called "Sān Liù Bàozi" (三六豹子), or "Three-Six Leopards".

The constants include the number of dice used, which is always three. All rules describe certain winning combinations that can be rolled, and 4-5-6 is always treated as a winning combination for the first player who rolls it (though in some variants without a banker, it may be possible for several players to make a "winning combination," requiring a second shootout). Besides the winning combinations, all Cee-lo rules include certain rolls that establish a "point," and there are situations where two or more players will roll and compare their points to determine a winner. If for any reason the dice were to leave the playing area (ex: rolling off of the table and hitting the floor) the player would be deemed an automatic loss.

The various sets of rules can be divided into two broad categories according to how betting is handled. In banking games, one player serves as a banker, who covers the individual bets of the other players, each of whom competes directly with the bank. In non-banking games, each player has essentially equal status, and rules must exist for the players to pool their bets and attempt to win from a common pot.

Chabad messianism

Chabad messianism, or Lubavitch messianism, generally refers to the passion among adherents of the Chabad movement regarding the coming of the Messiah and their goal to raise awareness that his arrival is imminent. In addition, the term also refers more specifically to the belief that Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is the Messiah.A few years before the seventh Rebbe's passing, members of the Chabad movement expressed their belief that the Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is the Jewish Messiah. These beliefs have been termed "Chabad messianism", and those subscribing to the beliefs have been termed Meshichists (messianists). A number of Jewish leaders have publicly voiced their concerns and/or opposition towards certain aspects of Chabad messianism.

A mantra recited by a number of Chabad messianists proclaiming Schneerson as the messiah is the "Yechi". Customs vary among messianists as to when the phrase is recited.

Messianic beliefs concerning Schneerson vary a great deal. Controversy exists over whether he actually died and will be resurrected as the messiah, or whether he is simply "in hiding" until his final advent. To date, no study reports the number of Chabad Chasidim who hold these beliefs.The concept that the Messiah can come at any given moment is a basic tenet of Judaism. The idea that the leader of a Hasidic group could be the Messiah is a nuanced and complex idea that traces itself back to the times of the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism. During Rabbi Schneerson’s life many Jews hoped that he would be the Messiah. This idea gained great vocal attention during the last years of Schneerson life.

During those years, there were strong forces within the Chabad–Lubavitch movement, led by the two executors of Schneerson's will; Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky, and Rabbi Abraham Shemtov, resisting the messianic movement.Since the Rebbe's death, there are those who have persisted in the belief that Schneerson is still the Messiah, sometimes extremely vocally. Chabad messianists (meshichists) either believe Schneerson will be resurrected, or (a vocal minority) refuse to admit that Schneerson died, instead proclaiming that he is still alive. The Chabad–Lubavitch umbrella organization, Agudas Chasidei Chabad, and the governing body of Chabad–Lubavitch rabbis, Vaad Rabonei Lubavitch, have both denounced the messianic behavior. The issue received much negative attention. To this day it remains controversial.

Cutting in line

Cutting in line, also known as line/queue jumping, butting, barging, budding, skipping, breaking, shorting, pushing in, or cutsies, is the act of entering a queue or line at any position other than the end. The act, which may be taboo in some instances, stands in stark contrast to the normal policy of first come, first served that governs most queue areas.

Douglaston Hill Historic District

Douglaston Hill Historic District is a national historic district in Douglaston, Queens, New York. It includes 83 contributing buildings and two contributing sites. The buildings include Zion Episcopal Church (1830), houses and garages, and commercial buildings. The sites are Zion cemetery and public park. It was laid out with very large lots in 1853, at the very beginning of a movement in the United States to create suburban gardens. The buildings include a number of fine examples of late-19th- and early 20th-century architectural styles such as Queen Anne, Shingle Style, and Colonial Revival. The majority of the buildings date between 1890 and 1940.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. The area was recognized as a Historic District of New York City in December 2004 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.In 2012, some numbered streets in the historic district were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street.

Kate Spade

Katherine Noel Valentine Brosnahan (December 24, 1962 – June 5, 2018), known professionally as Kate Spade and Kate Valentine, was an American fashion designer and businesswoman. She was the founder and former co-owner of the designer brand Kate Spade New York.

After working in the accessories department at the fashion magazine Mademoiselle, Brosnahan and her husband, Andy Spade, identified a market for quality stylish handbags, and founded Kate Spade New York in 1993. The handbags Spade designed and produced quickly found popularity, owing to their sophistication and affordability, and have been described as a symbol of New York City in the 1990s.

The company expanded into other product lines. In 1999, Spade sold a 56-percent stake in her business to Neiman Marcus Group, and in 2006 sold the rest of her shares. In 2016, Spade and her partners launched a new fashion brand, Frances Valentine. On June 5, 2018, Spade was found dead in her apartment, her death being ruled a suicide.

Korean Americans

Korean Americans (Hangul: 한국계 미국인, Hanja: 韓國系美國人, Hangukgye Migukin) are Americans of Korean heritage or descent, mostly from South Korea, and with a very small minority from North Korea, China, Japan, and the Post-Soviet states. The Korean American community comprises about 0.6% of the United States population, or about 1.8 million people, and is the fifth largest Asian American subgroup (which exclude some those of West Asian descent), after the Chinese American, Filipino American, Indian American, and Vietnamese American communities. The U.S. is home to the second largest Korean diaspora community in the world after the People's Republic of China.

List of Columbia College people

The following list contains only notable graduates and former students of Columbia College, the undergraduate liberal arts division of Columbia University, and its predecessor, from 1754 to 1776, King's College. For a full list of individuals associated with the university as a whole, see the List of Columbia University people. An asterisk (*) indicates a former student who did not graduate.


Manhattan (), often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the setting for numerous books, films, and television shows. Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals roughly US$1038 in current terms. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US$1,600 per square foot ($17,000/m2) as of 2018, with Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commanding the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017.Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898.

New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area (larger only than Kalawao County, Hawaii), and is also the most densely populated U.S. county. It is also one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles (59.13 km2), or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154/km2), higher than the density of any individual U.S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km2). Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is often informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, and Grand Central Terminal. The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge; skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building; and parks, such as Central Park. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, and the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world.


A manicure is a cosmetic beauty treatment for the fingernails and hands performed at home or in a nail salon. A manicure consists of filing and shaping the free edge, pushing and clipping (with a cuticle pusher and cuticle nippers) any nonliving tissue (but limited to the cuticle and hangnails), treatments with various liquids, massage of the hand, and the application of fingernail polish. When the same is applied to the toenails and feet, the treatment is referred to as a pedicure.

Some manicures include painting pictures or designs on the nails, or applying small decals or imitation jewels. Other nail treatments may include the application of artificial gel nails, tips, or acrylics, which may be referred to as French manicures.In many areas, manicurists are licensed and follow regulations. Since skin is manipulated and is sometimes trimmed, there is a risk of spreading infection when tools are used across many people. Therefore, having proper sanitation can be a serious issue.

Menachem Mendel Schneerson

Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 / AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754, Hebrew: מנחם מענדל שניאורסאהן‎, known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or simply as the Rebbe, was a Russian Empire–born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the last rebbe of the Lubavitcher Hasidic dynasty. He is considered one of the most influential Jewish leaders of the 20th century.As leader of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, he took an insular Hasidic group that almost came to an end with the Holocaust and transformed it into one of the most influential movements in religious world Jewry, with an international network of over 3,000 educational and social centers. The institutions he established include kindergartens, schools, drug-rehabilitation centers, care-homes for the disabled and synagogues.Schneerson's published teachings fill more than 300 volumes, and he is noted for his contributions to Jewish continuity and religious thought, as well as his wide-ranging contributions to traditional Torah scholarship. He is recognized as the pioneer of Jewish outreach. Many of his adherents believe that he is the Messiah.

In 1978, the U.S. Congress asked President Jimmy Carter to designate Schneerson's birthday as the national Education Day U.S.A. It has been since commemorated as Education and Sharing Day. In 1994, he was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for his "outstanding and lasting contributions toward improvements in world education, morality, and acts of charity." Schneerson's resting place attracts Jews and non-Jews for prayer.

Nail salon

A nail salon or nail bar is a specialty beauty salon establishment that primarily offers nail care services such as manicures, pedicures, and nail enhancements. Often, nail salons also offer skin care services. Manicures are also offered by general beauty salons, spas and hotels. People who work at nail salons are usually called "nail technicians or manicurists or 'Nailists' (the well-known appellation of nail technicians in Vietnam, Japan and some Southeast Asian countries)."

Nail salons offer a variation of options for nail care. This includes acrylics, silk or fiberglass wraps, French manicures, polish, pedicures, etc. Some nail salons are offering one-stop beauty services. In addition to nail services, these one-stop nail salons offer facial treatments, waxing, and skin care.

Generally, those working in nail salons are called nail technicians. In some areas throughout the UK and USA, districts require nail technicians to have formal, state recognised qualifications in order to be able to grant licenses to the salons. Also nail salons have always been mainly for women, but since then men have become more distant from them.

Currently, the industry estimates that almost 40% of nail salon technicians in the US are Vietnamese women. The highest density of Vietnamese nail technicians is in California, where it is roughly 59%-80%. The majority of these women are Vietnamese immigrants.

The dominance of Vietnamese in the nail salon industry begun when many of them arrived in US in the aftermath of Vietnam war. Tippi Hedren, the Hollywood actress, as a part of charity working in Vietnamese refugee camp was trying to find vocations to help them integrate into U.S. society. She brought in her personal manicurist to teach a group of 20 wives of Vietnamese military office. The training required for nail salon work is short and inexpensive, the work does not require high English proficiency, and the work hours tend to be flexible enough to allow immigrant mothers to attend to family obligations. Also, the money involved in opening nail salon was small.

New York City

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world.New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as the NYT and NYTimes) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 125 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U.S.

The paper is owned by The New York Times Company, which is publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, and his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper.Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page.

Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has greatly expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports, and features. Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York (metropolitan), Business, Sports of The Times, Arts, Science, Styles, Home, Travel, and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review (formerly the Week in Review), The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine. The Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, and was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, especially on the front page.

The Village Voice

The Village Voice was an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly. Founded in 1955 by Dan Wolf, Ed Fancher, John Wilcock, and Norman Mailer, the Voice began as a platform for the creative community of New York City.

It still is kept alive online.

Over its 63 years of publication, The Village Voice received three Pulitzer Prizes, the National Press Foundation Award, and the George Polk Award. The Village Voice hosted a variety of writers and artists, including writer Ezra Pound, cartoonist Lynda Barry, and art critics Robert Christgau, Andrew Sarris, and J. Hoberman.

In October 2015, The Village Voice changed ownership and severed all ties with former parent company Voice Media Group (VMG). The Voice announced on August 22, 2017, that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture, on a date to be announced. The final printed edition, featuring a 1965 photo of Bob Dylan on the cover, was distributed on September 21, 2017.After halting print publication in 2017, the Voice provided daily coverage through its website until August 31, 2018, when it announced it was ceasing production of new editorial content.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.