Sapropel (a contraction of ancient Greek words sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively) is a term used in marine geology to describe dark-coloured sediments that are rich in organic matter. Sapropels events occurs periodically (about every 21000 years) and are specific to the Mediterranean Sea. Organic carbon concentrations in sapropels commonly exceed 2% in weight.
Sapropels have been recorded in the Mediterranean sediments since the closure of the Eastern Tethys Ocean 13.5 million years ago. The formation of sapropel events occurs approximately every 21000 years and last between 3000 and 5000 years. The first identification of sapropel events occurred in the middle of the 20th century. Since then, the conditions of formation have been investigated.
The occurrence of sapropels has been found to be related to the Earth's orbital parameter. The Earth's precession cycles influence the African monsoon, which influences the Mediterranean circulation via an increase in freshwater inputs.
Sapropels develop during episodes of reduced oxygen availability in bottom waters, such as an oceanic anoxic event (OAE). Most studies of sapropel formation mechanisms infer some degree of reduced deep-water circulation. Oxygen can only reach the deep sea by new deep-water formation and consequent "ventilation" of deep basins. There are two main causes of OAE: A reduction in deep-water circulation or a raised upper level oxygen demand.
A reduction in deep-water circulation will eventually lead to a serious decrease in deep-water oxygen concentrations due to biochemical oxygen demand associated with the decay of organic matter that sinks into the deep sea as a result of export production from surface waters. Oxygen depletion in bottom waters then favours the enhanced preservation of the sinking organic matter during burial in the sediments. Organic-rich sediments may also form in well-ventilated settings that have highly productive surface waters; here the high surface demand simply extracts the oxygen before it can enter the deep circulation currents so depriving the bottom waters of oxygen.
Sapropelic deposits from global ocean anoxic events form important oil source rocks. Detailed process studies of sapropel formation have concentrated on the fairly recent eastern Mediterranean sapropels, the last of which was deposited between 9.5 and 5.5 thousand years ago.
The Mediterranean sapropels of the Pleistocene reflect increased density stratification in the isolated Mediterranean basin. They record a higher organic carbon concentration than non-sapropel times; an increase in the δ15N and corresponding decrease in δ13C tells of rising productivity as a result of nitrogen fixation. This effect is more pronounced further east in the basin, suggesting that increased precipitation was most pronounced at that end of the sea.
According to Romanian tycoon Dinu Patriciu, the sapropel has a huge potential of being developed into a wide array of products, including a new form of alternative energy. Currently Dinu Patriciu has a marine exploration project in the Black Sea, that examines the sapropel sediments in that region, with sediment cores collected and investigated by several universities and research institutes across the world.
The Bazhenov Formation or Bazhenov Shale is a stratum in the West Siberian basin. It was formed from sediment deposited in a deep-water sea in Tithonian–early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million square kilometers in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. The sea was connected to the world's oceans and contains trace minerals derived from dissolved minerals and organic materials similar to sapropel sediments in the Black Sea.In addition to being a prolific deep water marine source rock (it has been called the world's largest oil source rock) the formation is believed to contain substantial reserves of unconventional liquid hydrocarbons in form of tight oil and solid hydrocarbons in form of kerogen. These deposits occur at depths of 2,500–3,000 metres (8,200–9,800 ft) with the thickness from 10 to 44 metres (33 to 144 ft).An estimate by Wood Mackenzie of the Bazhenov Formation puts oil in place at 2 trillion barrels (3.2×1011 cubic metres). In 2013, the Russian oil company Rosneft estimated recoverable reserves of 22 billion barrels (3.5×109 cubic metres) for the formation. The Russian government agency Rosnedra estimated in 2012 that the Bazhenov contained 180 to 360 billion barrels of recoverable reserves. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates published in June 2013, the total Bazhenov shale prospective area has a resource of a risked tight oil in-place of 1,243 billion barrels (1.976×1011 cubic metres) and a risked shale gas in-place of 1,920 trillion cubic feet (54 trillion cubic metres), with 74.6 billion barrels (1.186×1010 cubic metres) of oil and 1,920 trillion cubic feet (54 trillion cubic metres) of gas as the risked, technically recoverable. Total hydrocarbon resources are estimated in 50 to 150 billion tonnes.Black Sea deluge hypothesis
The Black Sea deluge is the most well known of three hypothetical flood scenarios proposed for the Late Quaternary history of the Black Sea. It is one of the two of these flood scenarios which propose a rapid, even catastrophic, rise in sea level of the Black Sea occurred during the Late Quaternary.Chivyrkuisky Isthmus
The Chivyrkuisky Isthmus is a broad land bridge that connects the island-like mountainous part of the Svyatoy Nos ("Holy Nose") peninsula to the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. The isthmus and the "island" are part of the Zabaykalsky (Trans-Baikal) National Park of the Republic of Buryatia.
The isthmus is a roughly trapezoidal region of low-lying swapy terrain, about 15 km long, 24 km wide at the southeast (mainland) end, and 8 km wide at the northwest ("island") end. Both ends are limited by mountainous terrain. The northeast and southwest shores are smooth and gently curved inward, about 11 and 20 km long, respectively. The southwest shore of the isthmus ends next to the town of Ust-Barguzin. The isthmus divides the strait between the island and the mainland into two bays, Chivyrkuisky Bay at the northeast and Barguzinsky Bay at the southwest.Thousands of years ago the isthmus did not exist, and Svyatoi Nos was an island. It was created by alluvial sediments of the Barguzin River.
Chivyrkuisky Isthmus is one of the three nesting areas of Baikal's waterfowl and birds of prey. It is an unusual alternation of sand bars and coastal marshes, showing species of mountainous and steppe vegetation growing side by side. Some trees like bird cherry and common pines grow close to ground, as creeping bush. Sand levees stretch for many kilometers along the banks of the isthmus.The isthmus is almost divided in two by a shallow body of water, Lake Arangatuy (or Bol'shoy Sor), measuring about 13 by 7 km and about 54 km2 of area. The lake is fed on the eastern side by streams from the mainland, and its outlet is near the north corner of the isthmus, near the "island", just east of the small village of Monakhovo - Zmeyevaya. The lake and its bays are inhabited by dace, perch, pike, and other types of fish. Many rare bird species nest on its shores: whooper swan, black-throated loon, Eurasian curlew, and others.The southwest side of the isthmus is a beach of exceptionally clean sand, Myagkaya Karga. The road leading to the Svyatoi Nos crosses the isthmus parallel to the beach.The Kulina marshes have about 120 mud volcanoes (gryphons) and hydrothermal springs, on land and underwater, scattered over about 40 km2. The waters may be up to 80 °C, and contain high levels of dissolved salts and other chemicals, up to 3 g/L – chiefly sodium sulfate, chloride, and fluoride, as well as silicic acid. The gryphons range in diameter from 20 cm to 7 m, and are responsible for many small shallow warm brackish ponds, round or oval, with depths ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 m, and areas from 10 to 300 m2, whose level may be up to 1 meter above or below the level of Lake Baikal. The largest ones cover up to 2500 m2. The springs also form wam rivers that rarely or never freeze in winter. The main group of those hydrothermal-fed lakes, which includes Lake Bormashov, near the mouth of the Barguzin river. The waters and bottom mud (sapropel) are reputed to have health properties.Until recently, the settlement Kulinoe, Buryatia was located near an active mud volcano. Due to the threat of gas poisoning and livestock poisoning by the salty water, residents were forced to relocate.Chuvashia
The Chuvash Republic (Russian: Чува́шская Респу́блика — Чува́шия, Chuváshskaya Respúblika — Chuváshiya; Chuvash: Чӑваш Республики, Čăvaš Respubliki), or Chuvashia (Russian: Чува́шия Chuváshiya; Chuvash: Чӑваш Ен, Čăvaš Jen), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is the homeland of the Chuvash people, a Turkic ethnic group. Its capital is the city of Cheboksary. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,251,619.Dinosporin
Dinosporin is a macromolecular, highly resistant organic compound which forms or partly forms, the enclosing wall of fossilizable organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts.Gavys
Gavys - lake in eastern Lithuania, Ignalina district, about 2 km southwest of Ignalina. The western part of the lake edge Aukštaitija National Park. Gavys lake length 1.9 cm, width 1.2 km. Depth up to 56 m.
Shores tall on the west forested. In the northern part of the bays and peninsulas. There are 3 small islands (total area of 2.3 ha). The lake bottom is covered mainly sapropel elsewhere - sludge. The sandbar is narrow, covered with gravel or sand.
To the streets in the north-east of the creek empties (duct) from Gavaitis lake and southwest of the creek flows Gavys creek (Nasrupė tributary) Water transparency of 4.6 to 11 m.
Gavys the fish caught in the lake: pike fish, rope fishes, roaches, breams, crucian carps, perches, alburnus, ruffs, smelts, burbots, whitefishes (whitefishes breed)Near Gavys villages: Pagavaitis, Pagavė, Antagavė, and Ignalina south purlieus.Kontinentale Öl
Kontinentale Öl AG (Konti Öl) was a German oil company during World War II.Lake Nero
Lake Nero (Russian: Не́ро) is a shallow, highly eutrophic lake in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. The lake has an area of 54.4 km², a maximum length of 13 km, width 8 km and depth 3.6 m. The bottom of the lake is covered with thick layer of silt sapropel (a sort of ooze used as fertilizer and for other purposes).
The lake is estimated to be about 500 thousand years old, making it one of a few pre-ice age lakes in central Russia.
The first people settled at the lake at 6 thousand years ago. It is historically certain that the Merya tribe had their capital in Sarskoe Gorodishche on the southern shore of the lake. They named the lake Nero (meaning "silty", "marshland") or Kaovo ("place where gulls live").
In the 9th Century East Slavs came to the lake. They called the lake Rostovian Lake in the honor of town Rostov.
There are two significant islands, Lvovsky (Львовский, "Lvy Island"), also known as Lesny (Лесный, "Forest Island"), and Rozhdestvenskij (Рождественский, "Christmas Island"), also known as Gorodskoj (Городской, "Town Island"). The latter formed a pre-ice age monolith.
Flowing into Nero Lake are eight rivers (Sara (Russian: Сара), Ishnya (Russian: Ишня), Kuchibosh (Russian: Кучибош), Mazikha (Russian: Мазиха), Varus (Russian: Варус), Chucherka (Russian: Чучерка), Unitsa (Russian: Уница), Sula (Russian: Сула) etc.), one flows out (Veksa (Russian: Векса)).
Near Nero Lake is located the town of Rostov (on the western shore of the lake) and a few villages (on perimeter): Porech’e-Rybnoe (Russian: Поречье-Рыбное), Ugodichi (Russian: Угодичи), Vorzha (Russian: Воржа), L’vy (Russian: Львы) etc.
The first steamboat Emel’yan (Russian: Емельян) appeared on the Lake in 1883.Lamalginite
Lamalginite is a structured organic matter (alginite) in sapropel, composed of thin-walled colonial or unicellular algae that occur as distinct laminae, cryptically interbedded with mineral matter. It displays few or no recognisable biologic structures. Lamalginite fluoresce brightly in shades of yellow under blue/ultraviolet light. The term of lamalginite was introduced by Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong.Madona Municipality
Madona Municipality (Latvian: Madonas novads) is a municipality in Vidzeme, Latvia. The municipality was formed in 2009 by merging Arona parish, Barkava parish, Bērzaune parish, Dzelzava parish, Kalsnava parish, Lazdona parish, Liezēre parish, Ļaudona parish, Mārciena parish, Mētriena parish, Ošupe parish, Prauliena parish, Sarkaņi parish, Vestiena parish and Madona town the administrative centre being Madona.
Total area is 2,153.4 square kilometres (831.4 sq mi).
Municipality's population is 26,953 people (01.01.2013.).
Economically active people ~ 15800 in Madona county and 32,000 economically active people in the closest region.
On January 1, 2013 in Madona county were registered 2032 business units, from those 4,3% were sole proprietorships, 0,2% joint-stock companies, 35,8% limited liability companies, 0,4% affiliates, 0,2% general partnerships, 9,4% individual businesses, 48,6% farms and 1,1% cooperative societies. In 2012 the number of enterprises per 1000 population reached 78 enterprises, that is relatively higher than the average of Vidzeme region (71) and Latvia (69). During the period from 2009 the number of enterprises per 1000 population in Madona county has increased by 22%. On January 1, 2012 the majority – 94,7% of all economically active enterprises – are micro enterprises, 4,7% small and 6% medium- sized companies. The registered equity capital of enterprises registered in Madona county in January 2013 reached LVL 17'317'302,00, ranking Madona county in 92nd place out of 120.Forests are one of the most important natural resources in the county. They take up about 45% (97'526,9 hectares) of county territory and 91,5% of the total forest land of county. In general, forest land covers 49% (106'572,1 hectares) of the county area. By the type of ownership, 60% are the private forest land, 38,8% are national forest land and 1,2% are local government forest land. The largest proportion of forests in Madona county is in Lazdona, Sarkaņi, Mārciena, Ļaudona and Liezēre parishes. Agricultural land covers about 39% of the county area. Most of the agricultural lands takes arable lands (63%), pastures (22%), grasslands (14%), fruit orchards (1%). The largest agricultural areas are located Ošupe, Barkava, Prauliena, Ļaudona un Liezēre parishes. Madona county is rich in mineral resources: peat, dolomite, clay, sand and sand-gravel, freshwater limestone, sapropel.
The available agricultural land and forest resource is the determining factor for main lines of business. The largest number of enterprises working in the agricultural and forestry sector (49%), trade and auto repair sectors (11%), manufacturing (6%), professional and technical services (6%). An important business sector in Madona county is tourism.
The largest companies by turnover in 2011 are Ltd."Latvāņi", agricultural cooperative company "Barkavas arodi", Ltd. "Henis", JSC "Lazdonas Piensaimnieks", Ltd. "Baltic Eko Park", Ltd. "IMA Signāls", Ltd. "Turbo AK".
Madona county is proud of ecological and natural food producers: JSC "Lazdonas Piensaimnieks", farms "Līvi", "Sveķi", "Kalna Maruškas", "Aizupes", "Jāņkalni", Ltd. "Madonas Patērētāju biedrība" production unit "Madonas Maiznieks", sole trader "55 Mārītes", who in December 2012 set up the joint offer under the brand "Made in Madona county".
Madona county with a branched road network provides needs of the county population and the cargo transport of good through the county. Five national first-class roads, which intersect at the center of the county − in Madona, provides good connections to other regional centers − Cesvaine, Ērgļi, Cēsis, Gulbene, Varakļāni, Pļaviņas, and provides access to the main motorways A6 (Rīga -Daugavpils), A12 (Rīga-Rēzekne), A2 (Rīga - Pskov).
Madona county is located in the hearth of East Latvia, there is the same distance to the neighbouring borders and the International Airport (RIX) and Port of Riga. Municipality location provides a solid base for logistics connections with the rest of the Baltic States in Europe as well as with Russia and other markets of CIS countries:
Riga (Capital of Latvia, Port of Riga, Riga International Airport) − 160 km
Estonia − 130 km
Russia − 120 km
Lithuania − 150 kmThe Rīga−Madona−Gulbene railway line crosses Madona county.
Madona municipality has nine foreign cooperation partners in Germany, France, Sweden, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia and Belarus.
Following the total foreign direct investments in capital during the period from 01.01.1991. to 22.11.2012. Madona municipality is in the 38th place between the Latvian municipalities. Foreign direct investments draw up to 12.08% of the total authorized capital amount of companies registered in Madona county. Since 1991, 40 foreign investors invested in enterprises registered in Madona county. Approximately 50% of foreign investments are from European countries. States with the largest number of investors are Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and Italy. In terms of business activities, the largest foreign direct investments have been in farming, forestry, printing, and wholesale of food products. Countries with the largest amount of investments: Germany, Finland, Denmark, Netherlands, Italy.The registered unemployment rate in Madona county on July 31, 2012 was 12,8% (2011 unemployed persons), of them 56% (1118) were women and 44% (893) men.Middle Pleistocene
The Middle Pleistocene is a subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago (781–126 ka). It is preceded by the Calabrian stage, beginning with the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, and succeeded by the Tarantian stage (equivalent to the Late or Upper Pleistocene), taken as beginning with the last interglacial (MIS 5).
The tripartite subdivision of the Pleistocene into Lower (Early), Middle and Upper (Late) has been in use since the 1930s.
It is in use as a provisional or "quasi-formal" designation by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) as of 2018,
pending the ratification of the 2017 proposal by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, ICSSQS) of the Chibanian stage.The Middle Pleistocene contains the transition from the Lower to Middle Paleolithic in palaeoanthropology, i.e. the emergence of Homo sapiens at 300,000 years ago. The oldest known human DNA dates to the Middle Pleistocene.Mudrock
Mudrocks are a class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. The varying types of mudrocks include: siltstone, claystone, mudstone, slate, and shale. Most of the particles of which the stone is composed are less than 0.0625 mm (1/16th mm or 0.0025 inches) and are too small to study readily in the field. At first sight the rock types look quite similar; however, there are important differences in composition and nomenclature. There has been a great deal of disagreement involving the classification of mudrocks. There are a few important hurdles to classification, including:
Mudrocks are the least understood, and one of the most understudied sedimentary rocks to date
It is difficult to study mudrock constituents, due to their diminutive size and susceptibility to weathering on outcrops
And most importantly, there is more than one classification scheme accepted by scientistsMudrocks make up fifty percent of the sedimentary rocks in the geologic record, and are easily the most widespread deposits on Earth. Fine sediment is the most abundant product of erosion, and these sediments contribute to the overall omnipresence of mudrocks. With increased pressure over time the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of parallel layering (fissility). This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due either to the original texture or to the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification.
From the beginning of civilization, when pottery and mudbricks were made by hand, to now, mudrocks have been important. The first book on mudrocks, Geologie des Argils by Millot, was not published until 1964; however, scientists, engineers, and oil producers have understood the significance of mudrocks since the discovery of the Burgess Shale and the relatedness of mudrocks and oil. Literature on this omnipresent rock-type has been increasing in recent years, and technology continues to allow for better analysis.North African climate cycles
North African climate cycles have a unique history that can be traced back millions of years. The cyclic climate pattern of the Sahara is characterized by significant shifts in the strength of the North African Monsoon. When the North African Monsoon is at its strongest, annual precipitation and consequently vegetation in the Sahara region increase, resulting in conditions commonly referred to as the "green Sahara". For a relatively weak North African Monsoon, the opposite is true, with decreased annual precipitation and less vegetation resulting in a phase of the Sahara climate cycle known as the "desert Sahara".Variations in the climate of the Sahara region can, at the simplest level, be attributed to the changes in insolation because of slow shifts in Earth's orbital parameters. The parameters include the precession of the equinoxes, obliquity, and eccentricity as put forth by the Milankovitch theory. The precession of the equinoxes is regarded as the most important orbital parameter in the formation of the "green Sahara" and "desert Sahara" cycle.
A January 2019 MIT paper in Science Advances shows a cycle from wet to dry approximately every 20,000 years.Oil shale geology
Oil shale geology is a branch of geologic sciences which studies the formation and composition of oil shales–fine-grained sedimentary rocks containing significant amounts of kerogen, and belonging to the group of sapropel fuels. Oil shale formation takes place in a number of depositional settings and has considerable compositional variation. Oil shales can be classified by their composition (carbonate minerals such as calcite or detrital minerals such as quartz and clays) or by their depositional environment (large lakes, shallow marine, and lagoon/small lake settings). Much of the organic matter in oil shales is of algal origin, but may also include remains of vascular land plants. Three major type of organic matter (macerals) in oil shale are telalginite, lamalginite, and bituminite. Some oil shale deposits also contain metals which include vanadium, zinc, copper, and uranium.Most oil shale deposits were formed during Middle Cambrian, Early and Middle Ordovician, Late Devonian, Late Jurassic, and Paleogene times through burial by sedimentary loading on top of the algal swamp deposits, resulting in conversion of the organic matter to kerogen by diagenetic processes. The largest deposits are found in the remains of large lakes such as the deposits of the Green River Formation of Wyoming and Utah, USA. Oil-shale deposits formed in the shallow seas of continental shelves generally are much thinner than large lake basin deposits.Oil shale in Serbia
Oil shale in Serbia is a large, but undeveloped energy resource. Serbia is estimated to have a total resource of 4.81 billion tonnes of oil shale, with up to 3.6 billion tonnes of recoverable reserves, all concentrated within the Aleksinac, Vranje, Senonian Tectonic Trench, Valjevo, Western Morava, Kruševac, Babušnica, Kosanica, Niš and Levač basins, which are all located in the Central - Eastern part of the country. Serbia has around 21 oil shale deposits of various qualities and oil content. The biggest deposits of commercial potential are near Aleksinac and Vina-Zubetin. Serbian oil shale is of sapropel type (Aleksinac, Mionica and Petnica) and sapropel-coaly type.Telalginite
Telalginite is a structured organic matter (alginite) in sapropel, composed of large discretely occurring colonial or thick-walled unicellular algae such as Botryococcus, Tasmanites and Gloeocapsomorpha prisca. Telalginite is present in large algal bodies. It fluoresce brightly in shades of yellow under blue/ultraviolet light. The term of telalginite was introduced by Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong.Tver Oblast
Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть, Tverskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Tver. From 1935 to 1990, it was known as Kalinin Oblast (Кали́нинская о́бласть), named after Mikhail Kalinin. Population: 1,353,392 (2010 Census).Tver Oblast is a region of lakes, such as Seliger and Brosno. Much of the remaining area is occupied by the Valdai Hills, where the Volga, the Western Dvina, and the Dnieper have their source.
Tver Oblast is one of the tourist regions of Russia with a modern tourist infrastructure. There are also many historic towns: Torzhok, Toropets, Zubtsov, Kashin, Vyshny Volochyok, and Kalyazin. The oldest of these is Rzhev, primarily known for the Battles of Rzhev in World War II. Staritsa was the seat of the last appanage principality in Russia. Ostashkov is a major tourist center.Tyumen Oblast
Tyumen Oblast (Russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Western Siberia region of Siberia, and is administratively part of the Urals Federal District. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs: Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen Oblast including its autonomous okrugs is the third-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 3,395,755 (2010)Tyumen is the largest city and capital of Tyumen Oblast, and the first Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains.
Tyumen Oblast is the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the country, and has experienced an oil boom since the early 2000s. The rapid growth of the fuel industry has made the oblast by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average since 2006.Yaroslavl Oblast
Yaroslavl Oblast (Russian: Яросла́вская о́бласть, Yaroslavskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), which is located in the Central Federal District, surrounded by Tver, Moscow, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Vologda Oblasts. This geographic location affords the oblast the advantages of proximity to Moscow and St. Petersburg. Additionally, the administrative center of the oblast—the city of Yaroslavl—is an intersection of major highways, railroads, and waterways. Population: 1,272,468 (2010 Census).