Sapporo

Sapporo (札幌市 Sapporo-shi) is the fifth largest city of Japan by population, and the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Hokkaido Prefecture and Ishikari Subprefecture. It is an ordinance-designated city.

Sapporo hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics (the first ever held in Asia). Its annual Sapporo Snow Festival draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad.[2]

Sapporo

札幌市
City of Sapporo[1]
Left to right, top to bottom: Mount Moiwa night view, Sapporo Clock Tower, Sapporo Beer Museum, Sapporo Station, Hokkaido University, Sapporo Dome, and Sapporo TV Tower seen from Odori Park
Left to right, top to bottom: Mount Moiwa night view, Sapporo Clock Tower, Sapporo Beer Museum, Sapporo Station, Hokkaido University, Sapporo Dome, and Sapporo TV Tower seen from Odori Park
Flag of Sapporo

Flag
Official seal of Sapporo

Emblem
Location of Sapporo in Hokkaido (Ishikari Subprefecture)
Location of Sapporo city Hokkaido Japan
Sapporo is located in Japan
Sapporo
Sapporo
Location in Japan
Sapporo is located in Asia
Sapporo
Sapporo
Sapporo (Asia)
Sapporo is located in Earth
Sapporo
Sapporo
Sapporo (Earth)
Coordinates: 43°4′N 141°21′E / 43.067°N 141.350°ECoordinates: 43°4′N 141°21′E / 43.067°N 141.350°E
CountryJapan
RegionHokkaido
PrefectureHokkaido (Ishikari Subprefecture)
Government
 • MayorKatsuhiro Akimoto
Area
 • Total1,121.12 km2 (432.87 sq mi)
Population
(September 30, 2018)
 • Total1,955,115
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
Symbols
 • TreeLilac
 • FlowerLily of the valley
 • BirdCommon cuckoo
Time zoneUTC+9 (JST)
City hall address2-1-1 Kita-ichijō-nishi, Chūō-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido
060-8611
Websitewww.city.sapporo.jp
Sapporo
Sapporo (Chinese characters)
"Sapporo" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji札幌
Hiraganaさっぽろ
Katakanaサッポロ
Hokkaido University
A view of Sapporo city and Hokkaidō University

History

Early history

Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo (known as the Ishikari Plain) was home to a number of indigenous Ainu settlements.[3] In 1866, at the end of the Edo period, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo village.[4] The settlement's name was taken from the Ainu language sat poro pet (サッ・ポロ・ペッ), and can be translated as "dry, great river", which denotes Toyohira River.[5]

In 1868, the officially recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new Meiji government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of Hakodate, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island. As a result, it was determined that a new capital on the Ishikari Plain should be established. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land which is relatively uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido.

During 1870–1871, Kuroda Kiyotaka, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitaku-shi), approached the American government for assistance in developing the land. As a result, Horace Capron, Secretary of Agriculture under President Ulysses S. Grant, became an oyatoi gaikokujin and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission. Construction began around Odori Park, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city. The city closely followed a grid plan with streets at right-angles to form city blocks.

The continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido continued, mainly due to migration from the main island of Honshu immediately to the south, and the prosperity of Hokkaido and particularly its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882.

Edwin Dun came to Sapporo to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876. He also demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese, ham and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women. He once went back to the US in 1883 but returned to Japan as a secretary of government.

William S. Clark, who was the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the University of Massachusetts Amherst), came to be the founding vice-president of the Sapporo Agricultural College (now Hokkaido University) for only eight months from 1876 to 1877. He taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College.

In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo was renamed as "Sapporo-ku" (Sapporo Ward),[6] and a railroad between Sapporo and Temiya, Otaru was laid. That year the Hōheikan, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park. It was later moved to Nakajima Park where it remains today. Two years later, with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate, Sapporo, and Nemuro. The name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. The office building of Sapporo-ku was also located in the urban district.[6]

Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, and Hokkaidō government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888. The last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in Kita-ku, Sapporo is currently located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced. After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun.[6] The "ku" (district) enforced from 1899 was an autonomy which was a little bigger than towns, and smaller than cities. In Hokkaido at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku also existed.[7]

20th century

明治24年札幌中心部
Sapporo city map in 1891
Odori Park in 1936
Odori Park in 1936

In 1907, the Tohoku Imperial University was established in Sendai Miyagi Prefecture, and Sapporo Agricultural College was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, and districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910.

The Sapporo Streetcar was opened in 1918, and Hokkaido Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth Imperial University in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, which was ultimately abolished in 1969.

In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo government, and Sapporo-ku was officially changed to Sapporo City.[4] The Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was cancelled the next year. Maruyama Town was integrated as a part of Chūō-ku in 1940, and the Okadama Airport was constructed in 1942.

The first Sapporo Snow Festival was held in 1950. In the same year, adjacent Shiroishi Village was integrated into Sapporo City, rendered as a part of Shiroishi-ku, and Atsubetsu-ku.[8] In 1955, Kotoni Town, the entire Sapporo Village, and Shinoro Village were merged into Sapporo, becoming a part of the current Chūō-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, and Teine-ku.[8] The expansion of Sapporo continued, with the merger of Toyohira Town in 1961, and Teine Town in 1967, each becoming a part of Toyohira-ku, Kiyota-ku, and Teine-ku.[8]

The ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the foundation of Sapporo and Hokkaido was held in 1968. The Sapporo Municipal Subway system was inaugurated in 1971, which made Sapporo the fourth city in Japan to have a subway system. From February 3 to 13, 1972, the 1972 Winter Olympics were held, the first Winter Olympics held in Asia.[4] On April 1 of the same year, Sapporo was designated as one of the cities designated by government ordinance, and seven wards were established.[8] The last ever public performance by the opera singer, Maria Callas, was in Sapporo at the Hokkaido Koseinenkin Kaikan on 11 November 1974.[9] The Sapporo Municipal Subway was expanded when the Tōzai line started operation in 1976, and the Tōhō line was opened in 1988. In 1989, Atsubetsu-ku and Teine-ku were separated from Shiroishi-ku and Nishi-ku. Annual events in Sapporo were started, such as the Pacific Music Festival in 1990, and Yosakoi Sōran Festival in 1992. A professional football club, Consadole Sapporo, was established in 1996. In 1997, Kiyota-ku was separated from Toyohira-ku. In the same year, Hokkaidō Takushoku Bank, a Hokkaido-based bank with headquarters in Odori, went bankrupt.[10]

21st century

2008 G8 Summit Antiglobalist Demonstration March
The 34th G8 summit protest march in 2008

In 2001 the construction of the Sapporo Dome was completed, and in 2002 the Dome hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup; Germany vs Saudi Arabia, Argentina vs England and Italy vs Ecuador, all of which were in the first round. Fumio Ueda, was elected as Sapporo mayor for the first time in 2003. Sapporo became the home to a Nippon Professional Baseball team, Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters, in 2004, which won the 2006 Japan Series, and the victory parade was held on Ekimae-Dōri (a street in front of Sapporo Station) in February 2007.

The 34th G8 summit took place in Tōyako in 2008, and a number of people including anti-globalisation activists marched in the heart of the city to protest. Police officers were gathered in Sapporo from all over Japan, and the news reported that four people were arrested in the demonstrations.[11] The Hokkaidō Shinkansen line, which currently connects Honshu to Hakodate through the Seikan Tunnel, is planned to link to Sapporo by 2030.[12]

Geography

Sapporo tower
The Sapporo TV Tower located west of the Sōsei River

Sapporo is a city located in the southwest part of Ishikari Plain and the alluvial fan of the Toyohira River, a tributary stream of the Ishikari River.[13] Roadways in the urban district are laid to make a grid plan. The western and southern parts of Sapporo are occupied by a number of mountains including Mount Teine, Maruyama, and Mount Moiwa, as well as many rivers including the Ishikari River, Toyohira River, and Sōsei River.

Sapporo has many parks, including Odori Park, which is located in the heart of the city and hosts a number of annual events and festivals throughout the year. Moerenuma Park is also one of the largest parks in Sapporo, and was constructed under the plan of Isamu Noguchi, a Japanese-American artist and landscape architect.

Neighbouring cities are Ishikari, Ebetsu, Kitahiroshima, Eniwa, Chitose, Otaru, Date, and adjoining towns are Tōbetsu, Kimobetsu, Kyōgoku.

Climate

Sapporo has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa), with a wide range of temperature between the summer and winter. Summers are generally warm but not overly humid, and winters are cold and very snowy, with an average snowfall of 5.96 m (19 ft 7 in) per year.[14] Sapporo is one of few metropolises in the world with such heavy snowfall,[15] enabling it to hold events and festivals with snow statues. The heavy snowfall is due to the Siberian High developing over the Eurasian land mass and the Aleutian Low developing over the northern Pacific Ocean, resulting in a flow of cold air southeastward across Tsushima Current and to western Hokkaido. The city's annual average precipitation is around 1,100 mm (43.3 in), and the mean annual temperature is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F).[13]

Wards

Sapporo has ten wards ( ku):

Sapporo CityMap
Atsubetsu-ku (厚別区) (purple)
Chūō-ku (中央区) (blue) – administrative center
Higashi-ku (東区) (skyblue)
Kita-ku (北区) (orange-red)
Kiyota-ku (清田区) (green)
Minami-ku (南区) (red)
Nishi-ku (西区) (orange)
Shiroishi-ku (白石区) (brown)
Teine-ku (手稲区) (forest green)
Toyohira-ku (豊平区) (pink)

Color shows the location of each ku in the map above.

Economy

Sapporo Metropolitan Employment Area 2015
Sapporo MEA

The tertiary sector dominates Sapporo's industry. Major industries include information technology, retail, and tourism, as Sapporo is a destination for winter sports and events and summer activities due to its comparatively cool climate.[19]

The city is also the manufacturing centre of Hokkaido, manufacturing various goods such as food and related products, fabricated metal products, steel, machinery, beverages, and pulp and paper.[20]

Hokkaido International Airlines (Air Do) is headquartered in Chūō-ku.[21] In April 2004, Air Nippon Network was headquartered in Higashi-ku.[22]

Greater Sapporo, Sapporo Metropolitan Employment Area (2.3 million people), had a total GDP of US$84.7 billion in 2010.[23][24]

2014 Sapporo's GDP per capita(PPP) was US$32,446.[25]

Culture and entertainment

Music

Art

Literature

Film

Points of interest

Spectaculars of Susukino-Sapporo
Susukino, the entertainment district of Sapporo

Registered Tangible Cultural Properties in Sapporo

Sapporo JR Tower adjacent to Sapporo Station.[26]

Sapporo Ramen Yokocho and Norubesa (a building with a Ferris wheel) are in Susukino district. The district also has the Tanuki Kōji Shopping Arcade, the oldest shopping mall in the city.

The district of Jōzankei in Minami-ku is a site that has many hotels with steam baths and hot springs.

Peace Pagoda, one of many such monuments across the world built by the Buddhist order Nipponzan Myohoji to promote and inspire world peace. Stupa was built in 1959, halfway up Mount Moiwa, to commemorate peace after World War II. It contains some of the ashes of the Buddha that were presented to the Emperor of Japan by Prime Minister Nehru in 1954. Another part were presented to Mikhail Gorbachev by the Nipponzan-Myohoji monk, Junsei Terasawa.

Parks/gardens

Events/festivals

YOSAKOI Soran Festival
Dancers in the Yosakoi Sōran Festival

February: the Sapporo Snow Festival The main site is at Odori Park, and other sites include Susukino (known as the Susukino Ice Festival) and Sapporo Satoland. Many of the snow and ice statues are built by members of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.[27]

May: the Sapporo Lilac Festival. Lilac was brought to Sapporo in 1889 by an American educator, Sarah Clara Smith. At the festival, people enjoy the flowers, wine and live music.

June: the Yosakoi Soran Festival. The sites of the festival are centered on Odori Park and the street leading to Susukino, and there are other festival sites. In the festival, many dance teams dance to music composed based on a Japanese traditional song, "Sōran Bushi". Members of the dancing teams wear special costumes and compete on the roads or stages constructed on the festival sites. In 2006, 350 teams were featured with around 45,000 dancers, and over 1,860,000 people visited the festival.[27]

the Sapporo Summer Festival. People enjoy drinking at the beer garden in Odori Park and on the streets of Susukino. This festival consists of a number of fairs such as Tanuki Festival and Susukino Festival.[27]

September: the Sapporo Autumn Festival

December: Christmas market in Odori Park, similar to German Christmas markets.

From November through January, many citizens enjoy the Sapporo White Illuminations.

Cuisine

Soupcurry-hareruya
Soup curry

The city is known home to Sapporo Brewery, and the white chocolate biscuits 'shiroi koibito' (白い恋人), also as the birthplace of miso ramen.[28] The Kouraku Ramen Meitengai in Susukino district, an alley lined with many miso ramen restaurants since 1951. After its demolition due to plans for the Sapporo Olympics, the Ganso Sapporo Ramen Yokocho was established in the same place. It attracts many tourists throughout the year.[28] From the year 1966, a food company named Sanyo Foods began to sell instant ramen under the brand name "Sapporo Ichiban".

Haskap, a local variety of edible honeysuckle, similar to blueberries, is a specialty in Sapporo. Other specialty dishes of Sapporo are soup curry, a soupy curry made with vegetables and chicken or other meats, and jingisukan, a barbecued lamb dish, named for Genghis Khan. Sapporo Sweets is a confectionery using many ingredients from Hokkaido and the Sapporo Sweets Competition is held annually.[29] Sapporo is also well known for fresh seafood including salmon, sea urchin and crab.

Sports

SapporoDome2004-2
The Sapporo Dome in winter

The Sapporo Dome was constructed in 2001 and currently is the host to the local soccer team, Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo, the baseball team Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters and the basketball team Levanga Hokkaido.

Sapporo was selected to be the host of the 5th Winter Olympics scheduled on February 3 to 12, 1940, but Japan had to give the Games back to the IOC, after the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937.

In 1972, Sapporo hosted the 11th Winter Olympics. Some structures built for Olympic events remain in use today, including the ski jumps at Miyanomori and Okurayama. Olympic representatives in Sapporo have said that the city is considering a bid for the 2026 or 2030 Winter Olympics. The city predicts it may cost as much as 456.5 billion yen ($4.3 billion) to host the games and is planning to have 90 percent of the facilities within half an hour of the Olympic village, according to a report published 12 May 2016. The Alpen course would be in Niseko, the world's second-snowiest resort, while the village would be next to the Sapporo Dome, the report said.[30] The plans were presented to the Japanese Olympic Committee on 8 November 2016.[31][32] In 2002, Sapporo hosted three group matches of the FIFA World Cup at the Sapporo Dome. In 2006, Sapporo hosted some games of the 2006 Basketball World Championship and also for the 2006 Women's Volleyball World Championship. In 2007, Sapporo hosted the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships at the Sapporo Dome, Miyanomori ski jump, Okurayama ski jump, and the Shirahatayama cross country course. It has been host city of two Asian Winter Games and hosted the 2017 Asian Winter Games with Obihiro.

Skiing remains a major sport in Sapporo with almost all children skiing as a part of the school curriculum. Okurayama Elementary School is unusual in having its own ski hill and ski jumping hill on the school grounds. Within the city are commercial ski hills including Moiwayama, Bankeiyama, KobaWorld, Sapporo Teine and Fu's.

Many sports stadiums and domes are located in Sapporo, and some of them have been designated as venues of sports competitions. The Sapporo Community Dome, also known by its nickname "Tsu-Dome", has hosted the Golden Market, a huge flea market event which is usually held twice a year, along with some sports events. The Makomanai Ice Arena, in Makomanai Park, was one of the venues of the Sapporo Olympics in 1972. It was renamed the Makomanai Sekisuiheim Ice Arena in 2007, when Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd., acquired naming rights and renamed the arena after their real estate brand.[33] Other large sports venues include the Makomanai Open Stadium, Tsukisamu Dome, Maruyama Baseball Stadium, and the Hokkaido Prefectural Sports Center.

Toyota Big Air is a major international snowboarding event held annually in Sapporo Dome. As one of the richest events of its kind in the world, it draws many of the world's best snowboarders.

Professional sport teams

Club Sport League Venue Established
Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters Baseball Nippon Professional Baseball Sapporo Dome 2004
Levanga Hokkaido Basketball B.League Division 1 Hokkaido Prefectural Sports Center,
Tsukisamu Dome
2006
Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo Football (soccer) J1 League Sapporo Atsubetsu Park Stadium,
Sapporo Dome
1996

Demographics

The city has an estimated population of 1,947,097 as of September 30, 2016 and a population density of 1,700 persons per km2 (4,500 persons per mi2). The total area is 1,121.12 km2 (432.87 sq mi).

Transportation

Sapporo has one streetcar line, three JR Hokkaido lines, three subway lines and JR Bus, Chuo Bus and other bus lines. Sapporo Subway trains have rubber-tyred wheels.

Rapid transit

Sapporo 9000 9001 Odori 20150521
Sapporo Municipal Subway is the only rubber tyre metro system in Asia
Sapporo Street Car Type A1200 027
Sapporo Streetcar is the only circular tram system in Asia

Rail

  • JR Hokkaido Stations in Sapporo
    • Hakodate Line: (Zenibako) – Hoshimi – Hoshioki – Inaho – Teine – Inazumi Kōen – Hassamu – Hassamu Chūō – Kotoni – Sōen – Sapporo – Naebo – Shiroishi – Atsubetsu – Shinrinkōen – (Ōasa)
    • Chitose Line: Heiwa – Shin Sapporo – Kami Nopporo – (Kita-Hiroshima)
    • Sasshō Line (Gakuentoshi Line): Sōen – Hachiken – Shinkawa – Shinkotoni – Taihei – Yurigahara – Shinoro – Takuhoku – Ainosato Kyōikudai – Ainosato Kōen – (Ishikari Futomi)

Air

The Sapporo area is served by two airports: Okadama Airport, which offers regional flights within Hokkaido, and New Chitose Airport, a larger international airport located in the city of Chitose 30 miles (48 km) away connected by regular rapid trains taking around 40 minutes.

Airport shuttle, tour and charter bus service

An airport shuttle bus servicing all hotels in Sapporo operates every day of the year. SkyExpress was founded in 2005 and also provides transport to and from various ski resorts throughout Hokkaido, including Niseko.

Education

Universities

Sapporo clock tower
The Sapporo Clock Tower, formerly a part of Hokkaido University in the 19th century
131103 Hokkaido University Sapporo Hokkaido Japan12s5
At Hokkaido University

National

See Japanese national university

Public

Private

Primary and secondary schools

Sapporo Odori High School provides Japanese-language classes to foreign and Japanese returnee students, and the school has special admissions quotas for these groups.[34]

The city has two private international schools:

Twin towns – sister cities

Sapporo-City-Hall-01
Sapporo City Hall (June 2007)

Sapporo has twinning relationships with several cities worldwide.[35][36]

See also

References

  1. ^ "City of Sapporo". City of Sapporo.
  2. ^ さっぽろ雪まつり実行委員会. 前回のさっぽろ雪まつりの様子.
  3. ^ "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu ". BBC News. July 6, 2008
  4. ^ a b c サイト閉鎖のお知らせ.
  5. ^ ふるさとの川史話いっぱい. City of Sapporo.
  6. ^ a b c New Sapporo History 2nd edition (新札幌市史 第2巻 Shin Sapporo Shishi)
  7. ^ 北海道市町村自治制の沿革概要 (pdf) (in Japanese). Government of Hokkaido.
  8. ^ a b c d New Sapporo History 5th edition (新札幌市史 第5巻 Shin Sapporo Shishi)
  9. ^ Sutherland, Robert Maria Callas Diaries of a Friendship London Constable 1999 p265 ISBN 0-09-478790-5
  10. ^ "lawsuit against the bankruptcy of the Takushoku Bank". Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  11. ^ "Arrests made during scuffles at G8 protest in Japan". 5 July 2008.
  12. ^ "Celebrating the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen—travel by train from Hakodate to Sapporo while exploring along the way".
  13. ^ a b 札幌市のあらまし. City of Sapporo.
  14. ^ 気象庁 | 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency.
  15. ^ City of Sapporo. "General Overview of Sapporo" (PDF). City of Sapporo via Web.Archive.org (in English and Japanese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  16. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
  17. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
  18. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値) (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  19. ^ Sapporo Winter Sport Museum Guide
  20. ^ 工業統計調査/札幌市 (in Japanese). City of Sapporo.
  21. ^ "会社概要 (in Japanese). Hokkaido International Airlines. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  22. ^ "会社概要 (in Japanese). Air Nippon Network. April 6, 2004. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  23. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  24. ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
  25. ^ https://www.brookings.edu/research/global-metro-monitor/
  26. ^ Tourism Statistics of Sapporo Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine, 2006, p.35 (pdf file)
  27. ^ a b c Tourism Statistics of Sapporo, 2006, p.29 (pdf file)
  28. ^ a b 元祖さっぽろラーメン横丁公式サイト.
  29. ^ "Sapporo, the sweets republic". Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  30. ^ Sapporo to Show JOC Plan for 2026 Olympic Winter Games After Rio
  31. ^ 札幌で再びオリンピックを JOCに開催提案書 (in Japanese). NHK. 8 November 2016. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Olympics: Sapporo shows 2026 Winter Games plan to JOC". kyodonews.net. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  33. ^ Makomanai Sekisuiheim Ice Arena Homepage
  34. ^ "Education" (Archive). City of Sapporo. Retrieved on October 12, 2015.
  35. ^ 札幌市 – 国際交流 – 姉妹都市 (in Japanese). City of Sapporo.
  36. ^ Sister Cities | International Community Bureau Archived 2012-07-12 at Archive.today (in Japanese)

External links

1972 Winter Olympics

The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XI Olympic Winter Games (Japanese: 第十一回オリンピック冬季競技大会, Dai Jūichi-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai) (French: Les XIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held from February 3 to February 13, 1972, in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It was the first Winter Olympics to be held outside Europe and North America, and only the third game (summer or winter) held outside those regions overall, after Melbourne (1956 Summer Olympics) and Tokyo (1964 Summer Olympics).

Chūō-ku, Sapporo

Chūō-ku (中央区, Chūō-ku) is one of the ten wards in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Chūō-ku means "central ward" in Japanese. As its name suggests, city administration and entertainment facilities are centred in this ward.

Higashi-ku, Sapporo

Higashi-ku (東区) is one of the 10 wards in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is directly translated as "east ward", and is neighboured to Kita-ku, Chūō-ku, Shiroishi-ku, Ebetsu, Tōbetsu.

Hokkaido

Hokkaido (北海道, Hokkaidō, literally "Northern Sea Circuit"; Japanese pronunciation: [hokːaꜜidoː] (listen), Ainu: アィヌ・モシリ aynu mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu. The two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, Sapporo, which is also its only ordinance-designated city. About 43 km north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island, Russia. To its east and north-east are the disputed Kuril Islands.

Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo

Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo (北海道コンサドーレ札幌, Hokkaidō Konsadōre Sapporo) is a Japanese professional football club, which plays in the J1 League. The team is based in Sapporo, on the island of Hokkaido.

The club name of "Consadole" is made from consado, a reverse of the Japanese word Dosanko (道産子, meaning "people of Hokkaido") and the Spanish expression Ole.

Unlike other teams, their main home ground at Sapporo Dome is also used by the Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters baseball team, so some home games are moved to Sapporo Atsubetsu Stadium.

Kita-ku, Sapporo

Kita-ku (北区, lit. "north ward") is a ward of Sapporo composed of residential neighborhoods mostly arranged in grid patterns, and each built surrounding a train station, broken up by areas of farmland and some light-industrial areas. With 260,000 people, it is the most populated ward in Sapporo.

Kiyota-ku, Sapporo

Kiyota-ku, Sapporo (清田区、札幌) is one of the 10 wards in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. It is translated as "pure" or "clean" for "清", and "(rice) field" for "田". The ward was split from Toyohira-ku on November 4, 1997.

Minami-ku, Sapporo

Minami-ku (南区) is one of the 10 wards in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. Minami-ku is directly translated as "south ward". Having the area of 657.23 km² in total, Minami-ku occupies 60 percent of the area of Sapporo.

New Chitose Airport

New Chitose Airport (新千歳空港, Shin-Chitose Kūkō) (IATA: CTS, ICAO: RJCC) is an international airport located 2.7 NM (5.0 km; 3.1 mi) south-southeast of Chitose and Tomakomai, Hokkaidō, Japan, serving the Sapporo metropolitan area. By both traffic and land area, it is the largest airport in Hokkaidō.

It is adjacent to Chitose Air Base, a Japan Air Self-Defense Force base which houses F-15 Eagle fighter jets, the Japanese Air Force One government aircraft and a number of smaller emergency response aircraft and helicopters. Chitose and New Chitose have separate runways but are interconnected by taxiways, and aircraft at either facility can enter the other by ground if permitted; the runways at Chitose are occasionally used to relieve runway closures at New Chitose due to winter weather. JASDF provides air traffic control for both facilities.

As of 2005, New Chitose Airport was the third-busiest airport in Japan (behind Narita and Haneda), although it has now dropped to fifth, and ranked 64th in the world in terms of passengers carried. The 819 km (509 mi) Sapporo–Tokyo Haneda route is the third busiest air route in the world, with 8.7 million passengers carried in 2017.

Nishi-ku, Sapporo

Nishi (西区; -ku, lit. "west ward") is a ward of Sapporo composed of residential neighborhoods mostly arranged in grid patterns, with some areas of farmland and forested mountainous terrain mostly near its western and southern edges. It is located the west part of Sapporo city and the second largest of Sapporo's 10 wards. Neighbourhoods within Nishi-ku include Kotoni (琴似), Hachiken (八軒), Nijuyonken (二十四軒), Yamanote (山の手), Nishimachi (西町), Nishino (西野), Fukui (福井), Heiwa (平和), Hassamu (発寒), Miyanosawa (宮の沢), and Kobetsuzawa (小別沢).

Sapporo Breweries

Sapporo Breweries Ltd. (サッポロビール株式会社, Sapporo Bīru Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese beer brewing company founded in 1876. Sapporo is the oldest brand of beer in Japan. It was first brewed in Sapporo, Japan, in 1876 by brewer Seibei Nakagawa. The world headquarters of Sapporo Breweries is in Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo. The company purchased the Canadian company Sleeman Breweries in 2006.

The company has five breweries in Japan, the Sleeman brewery in Canada, and Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, U.S. The main brands are Sapporo Draft (Premium in North America); Yebisu; and Sleeman Cream Ale. Sapporo Premium has been the #1 selling Asian beer in the United States since Sapporo U.S.A., Inc. was first founded in 1984.

Sapporo Breweries is a member of the Mizuho keiretsu.

Sapporo Dome

The Sapporo Dome (札幌ドーム, Sapporo Dōmu) is a stadium located in Toyohira-ku, Sapporo, Japan, and is primarily used for baseball and association football. It is the home field of the baseball team Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters and the association football club Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo. It is one of the planned football venues for the 2020 Summer Olympics, was the venue for the opening ceremony of the 2017 Asian Winter Games, and is a planned venue of the 2019 Rugby World Cup. The stadium was previously a venue of the 2002 FIFA World Cup.

Sapporo Municipal Subway

The Sapporo Municipal Subway (札幌市営地下鉄, Sapporo-shiei-chikatetsu) is a mostly-underground rubber-tyred metro system in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Operated by the Sapporo City Transportation Bureau, it is the only subway system on the island of Hokkaido.

Sapporo Station

Sapporo Station (札幌駅, Sapporo-eki) is a railway station in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. It is served by Hakodate Main Line and other lines of Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and is also connected to the Subway Sapporo Station.

Sapporo Station is the starting point and terminus for most limited express services operated by JR Hokkaido. It also has the tallest building (JR Tower) in Hokkaido. Sapporo station is developing into a commercial center as large as Ōdōri Park and Susukino.

Shiroishi-ku, Sapporo

Shiroishi-ku (白石区) is one of the ten wards in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

As of February 1, 2012, the ward has a population of 205,363, with 102,049 households.

Teine-ku, Sapporo

Teine-ku (手稲区) is one of the 10 wards in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. The ward is located in northwest of Sapporo, which is neighboured to three other wards in Sapporo and two cities. The area was established as one of the wards in Sapporo in 1989, when it was split from Nishi-ku, Sapporo.

Toyohira-ku, Sapporo

Toyohira-ku (豊平区) is one of the 10 wards in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. The ward was established in 1972, when the Sapporo Olympics was held in Sapporo. Four other wards in Sapporo are bounded on Toyohira-ku.

As of April 1, 2012, the ward has an estimated population of 214,437, with 109,510 households and a population density of 4,626.47 persons per km². The total area is 46.35 km².

Ulmus 'Sapporo Autumn Gold'

Ulmus 'Sapporo Autumn Gold' is one of the most commercially successful hybrid elm cultivars ever marketed, widely planted across North America and western Europe, although it has now been largely supplanted by more recent introductions. Arising from a chance crossing of the Japanese elm (female parent) and Siberian elm, seed was sent in 1958 by Prof. Nobuku Takahashi and his colleagues at the Sapporo Botanical Garden of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, to Eugene Smalley at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The patent issued in 1975 has expired, and there are now no propagation restrictions.

Ulmus 'Sapporo Gold 2'

Ulmus 'Sapporo Gold 2' (Resista) [1] is an elm cultivar raised by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), United States, but only registered and released to commerce in Europe.

Transcriptions
RomanizationSapporo
Climate data for Sapporo, Hokkaido (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
10.8
(51.4)
16.8
(62.2)
28.0
(82.4)
31.1
(88.0)
33.7
(92.7)
36.0
(96.8)
36.2
(97.2)
32.7
(90.9)
26.4
(79.5)
22.4
(72.3)
14.8
(58.6)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
0.1
(32.2)
4.0
(39.2)
11.5
(52.7)
17.3
(63.1)
21.5
(70.7)
24.9
(76.8)
26.4
(79.5)
22.4
(72.3)
16.2
(61.2)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.6
(33.1)
7.1
(44.8)
12.4
(54.3)
16.7
(62.1)
20.5
(68.9)
22.3
(72.1)
18.1
(64.6)
11.8
(53.2)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
8.9
(48.0)
Average low °C (°F) −7
(19)
−6.6
(20.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
3.2
(37.8)
8.3
(46.9)
12.9
(55.2)
17.3
(63.1)
19.1
(66.4)
14.2
(57.6)
7.5
(45.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.1
(24.6)
5.3
(41.5)
Record low °C (°F) −27.0
(−16.6)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−14.6
(5.7)
−4.2
(24.4)
0.0
(32.0)
5.2
(41.4)
5.3
(41.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15.5
(4.1)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−28.5
(−19.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 113.6
(4.47)
94.0
(3.70)
77.8
(3.06)
56.8
(2.24)
53.1
(2.09)
46.8
(1.84)
81.0
(3.19)
123.8
(4.87)
135.2
(5.32)
108.7
(4.28)
104.1
(4.10)
111.7
(4.40)
1,106.5
(43.56)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 173
(68)
147
(58)
98
(39)
11
(4.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
32
(13)
132
(52)
597
(235)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 21.8 19.0 18.5 11.7 10.2 8.3 9.7 9.5 11.1 13.9 17.5 19.2 170.3
Average snowy days 28.8 25.4 23.5 6.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 13.9 26.5 125.9
Average relative humidity (%) 70 69 66 62 66 72 76 75 71 67 67 69 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5 104.0 146.6 176.5 198.4 187.8 164.9 171.0 160.5 152.3 100.0 85.9 1,740.4
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (records 1872–present)[16][17][18]

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