Sappony

The Saponi or Sappony are a Native American tribe historically based in the Piedmont of North Carolina and Virginia. They spoke the Siouan Tutelo-Saponi language, which was related to the languages of the Tutelo, Occaneechi, Monacan, Manahoac and other eastern Siouan peoples. Reduced by disease and warfare, the surviving members of the tribe migrated north to merge with other tribes. They disappeared from the historic record as a tribe by the end of the 18th century and were considered extinct as a tribe.

Since the late 20th century, certain groups in the Southeast have organized to assert their American Indian cultural identity; some claim descent from the historic Sappony. Among them are the Haliwa-Saponi, and the Occaneechi Band of the Sappony Nation of North Carolina, who took names referring to the historic tribe; and the Indians of Person County. Other Sappony bands are located in Ohio, Georgia and Texas.

None of these organizations have federal recognition as a tribe, which grants to tribes the right to certain benefits and requires documentation as regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Saponi
Regions with significant populations
Virginia and North Carolina (historically)
Languages
Tutelo-Saponi, English
Religion
Indigenous religion
Related ethnic groups
Tutelo, Occaneechi, Monacan, Manahoac, other eastern Siouan tribes

Etymology

The Saponi, allegedly, gain their name from a specific tribe among them, known as the Sapon.[1] While their language is extinct, it can be assumed that the correct translation of Sapon is 'black,' as the Lakota word is Sapa. However, there is a precedent in Siouan language to contract words into each other to make a name, so the use of Sapon as the name of a tribe may have actually been meant to mean 'Blackfoot,' hence the title Eastern Blackfoot. In Lakota, this is Si-sapa.[2]

Pre-Revolutionary history

In their oral history, they claim to have migrated from Ohio to Virginia, chasing out a rival nation known as the Doeg.[3] It is believed that the Doeg may be the same as either the Powhatan, or the Nanticoke. While this isn't much to go on, this mirrors the oral histories of most other Siouan-speaking peoples. Most experts agree with the claims of the Dhegihan Sioux (Osage, Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, Kaw) tribes.[4] It was possibly invasions of Iroquoian people who chased them out.

Early 20th-century anthropologist John R. Swanton agreed with James Mooney, Hale, Bushnell and other scholars that the Sappony were probably the same as the Monasuccapanough, a Virginia people mentioned in 1608 by John Smith as tributary to the Monacan. Their main village as described then is believed to have been in the vicinity of present-day Charlottesville, Virginia.

The first known contact between a European explorer and the Sappony was in 1670, when John Lederer found their village on the Staunton River at Otter Creek, southwest of present-day Lynchburg, Virginia. In 1671 Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam led an expedition that passed through the same village, as well as a second in Long Island in the Stauton River between present-day Campbell County, Virginia. Here settlers during Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 attacked the friendly Sappony, as well as the closely related Occaneechi, without justification. The colonists were retaliating for raids conducted by the unrelated Doeg tribe.

Nearly decimated, the Sappony relocated to three islands at the confluence of the Dan and Staunton rivers in Clarksville with their allies, the Occaneechi, Tutelo, and Nahyssans.[5]

By 1701, the Sappony and allied tribes, often collectively referred to as "Saponi" or "Tutelo," had begun moving to the location of present-day Salisbury, North Carolina to gain distance from the colonial frontier. By 1711 they were just east of the Roanoke River and west of modern Windsor, North Carolina. In 1714, Governor Spotswood resettled them around Fort Christanna in Virginia.[6] The tribes agreed to this for protection from hostile tribes. Although in 1718 the House of Burgesses voted to abandon the fort and school, the Siouan tribes continued to stay in that area for some time. They gradually moved away in small groups over the years 1730–1750. One record from 1728 indicated that Colonel William Byrd II made a survey of the border between Virginia and North Carolina, guided by Ned Bearskin, a Sappony hunter. Byrd noted several abandoned fields of corn, indicating serious disturbance among the local tribes.

In 1740, the majority of the Saponi and Tutelo moved to Shamokin, Pennsylvania. They surrendered to the Iroquois and joined the latter in New York. They were formally adopted by the Cayuga Nation in 1753.

Smaller bands were noted in Pennsylvania as late as 1778. Some were still in North Carolina much later.[7] Since most of the Iroquois sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War, after the victory by the United States, the Sappony and Tutelo who had joined the Iroquois were forced with them into exile in Canada. After that point, recorded history was silent about the tribe.[5]

Language

According to William Byrd II, the Sappony spoke the same language as the Siouan Occaneechi and the Steganaki (also known as Stuckenock). It was probably the same as that spoken by the Meipontsky, a minor tribe "...mentioned only in the report of the Albany conference of 1722. ... "[8] By the time linguistic data was recorded, these related eastern Siouan tribes had settled together at Fort Christanna in Brunswick County, Virginia, where the colonists sometimes referred to them as the Christanna Indians. Horatio Hale recorded the Tutelo language in considerable detail. In the 21st century, his work is being used by the Occaneechi as the basis for the revival of the Tutelo-Occaneechi language, also called Yésah.

The Sappony dialect is known from only two sources. One is a word list of 46 terms and phrases recorded by John Fontaine at Fort Christanna in 1716. This contains a number of items showing it to be virtually the same language as recorded by Hale.[9] The other source is William Byrd II's History of the Dividing Line betwixt Virginia and North Carolina (1728), in which he recorded the names of some local creeks. Byrd's scant list has been found to have included several names from unrelated Indian tribes.[10]

Culture

Very little of Saponi culture has been recorded. Catawba Texts, written by Frank G. Speck in 1934, about the closely related Catawba people to the south, gives some indications of cultural practices and beliefs held in common with both the Catawba and neighboring tribes of other language groupings, such as the Cherokee.[11] The book mentions a story of a giant, blood-sucking snake that was killed by a giant eagle. This mirrors other Siouan stories of Thunderbirds facing off against evil snake monsters.[12] Catawba Texts also includes practical instructions such as methods of making pottery, baskets and traps, various ways of fishing, instructions on how to make hominy and cornbread, and how to tan hides and make soap.[11]

After the American Revolution

Like other Native Americans in interaction with other peoples, the Sappony intermarried. In some of the early Spanish and Portuguese colonies, mulatto meant mixed-race African and Native American, but under the English tradition, it came to mean persons of European and African ancestry.[13] Because of slavery society, some whites in slave state areas tended to classify anyone of visible African ancestry as African, even mixed-race people who identified and lived culturally as Native American. But in other parts of the South, race was considered a more fluid concept, with mixed-race people being classified as "white", "Indian", "negro", "mulatto", or sometimes even "Mexican", as the situation suited them.

In Maryland, the Catholic Church kept records that recognized its Indian parishioners identifying as Native American; these have helped some descendants prove continuity of communities.

Because South Carolina taxed American Indian slaves at a lesser rate than African slaves as early as 1719, that colony had legislated that "all such slaves as are not entirely Indian shall be accounted as negro."[14] After the legal decision in Hudgins v. Wright in 1808, Virginia tended to classify persons of mixed Native American and African ancestry as 'Negroes', a decision that favored slaveholders after Indian slavery was ended.

Colonial and early United States governments generally failed to recognize how people identified culturally. The problem grew more severe at the turn of the 19th century, resulting in records that are biased toward classifying all free people of color as African American, when some identified culturally and by descent as members of specific Native American tribes. There have been many academic disagreements about the cultural identity of numerous people recorded simply as free blacks or free people of color.[15]

Jack Forbes has noted that the terms "mustees" and "mulattoes" at one time referred to persons of part American [Indian] ancestry. A mustee may have been primarily part-African and American [Indian], and a mulatto was usually part-European and American [Indian], but the latter term particularly was used more generally to refer to mixed-race people of African American and European ancestry. At the time, the federal censuses had no classification for American Indian, and did not ask people with which culture they identified.

Paul Heinegg and Virginia DeMarce have found that a high percentage of people identified as "free blacks" or "free people of color" in federal censuses from 1790–1810 (when there was no designation for Indian) in the Upper South were descended from families classified as free African Americans in colonial Virginia. Most were free because they were descended from unions between white women (who were free) and African or African-American men. Their children and descendants maintained this free status. At the time, most working-class people shared living and working quarters. These families were documented through extensive research in colonial records of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay Colony, including court records, land deeds, wills and manumissions. Some free African Americans were descended from enslaved Africans freed by owners as early as the mid-17th century. By the early decades of the 19th century, such free families had many descendants; they often moved to frontier areas where racial strictures were reduced.[16] In some areas, the lighter-skinned descendants formed close communities in which they called themselves or were known as Indian, Portuguese or one of a variety of terms, such as Melungeon. In some cases, descendants married more into one or another of their ancestral communities, becoming increasingly white, black or Indian.[16]

Issues about identity became more confusing under Jim Crow in the late 19th century as white Democrats imposed racial segregation to enforce white supremacy. In the 20th century, as both North Carolina and Virginia adopted one-drop rules as part of their racial segregation laws, requiring all individuals to be classified as either white or black (essentially, all other or all people of color). They classified as black any person with any black ancestry, regardless of how small. Walter Ashby Plecker, the Registrar of Virginia's Bureau of Vital Statistics, issued orders to field offices to change birth records of individuals whose families he had decided were trying to pass as Indian to avoid being classified as black. Due to his application of the Racial Integrity Act, records of many Native American-identified people were changed without their consent, and often without their knowledge. In later years, their descendants have had difficulty in proving their communities' continuity of identity.

State-recognized tribes

Three groups, each recognized by the state of North Carolina, claim descent from the historical Sappony. The people known as the "Indians of Person County" were recognized by North Carolina in 1911 as an American Indian tribe. In 2003 they formally changed their name to Sappony.

The Haliwa-Saponi, a group based chiefly in Halifax and Warren counties, is another Native American band formally recognized by North Carolina in 1965. They organized that year under the name Haliwanash Indian Club. They changed their name in 1979 to include a reference to the historic Sappony.

Their official name is Haliwa - a contraction created by putting together the names of the counties of Halifax and Warren and creating the term Haliwa. Many of the Indians in this group refer to themselves as Cherokee. They do not accept the term Haliwa and refer to themselves as Cherokee although the term Haliwa is gaining more acceptance as time goes on. This tribe appears from the research I have done, to be the remnants of the North Carolina Tuscaroras. In any case, it appears that the Haliwa are remnants of the neutral Tuscarora.

— Robert K Thomas in 1978, professor of Cherokee history [17]

This group attracted media attention for claiming its tribal council had reviewed and approved a loan for $700,000 and a $600,000 HUD grant for matching funds. The North Carolina Auditors became involved at that time.[18][19]

The Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation was recognized by the state of North Carolina in 2002, after being organized in 1984 as the Eno-Occaneechi Indian Association. In 1995 it added Saponi to its name.[20]

Both the Indians of Person County/Sappony and the Haliwa-Saponi Tribe of North Carolina were at one time classified by some anthropologists as among groups known as tri-racial isolates. Members were observed to have (or claimed) European, African and Native American ancestry, to varying degree. Some such groups settled and created communities in frontier and border areas of the southern states, where there was initially a lower level of development of plantations.

These two communities each stressed cultural identification with historic American Indians. Their applications for recognition as American Indian tribes were approved by the state of North Carolina in 1911 and 1965, respectively.

Unrecognized organizations

Ohio does not have a state recognition process; the Ohio Sappony people claim descent from the historic tribe. Individuals of the Collins family have long claimed Sappony descent. "There is fairly good evidence that Collins is a Sappony family name," writes Cherokee Professor Robert K. Thomas.[21][22] The Saponi-Catawba Nation (formerly Midwest Saponi Nation) organized in Ohio following a split of some members from the Saponi Nation of Ohio.

Other groups claiming Sappony ancestry include the Mahenips Band of the Saponi Nation in the Ozark Hills, with headquarters in West Plains, Missouri; the Saponi Descendants Association based in Texas; and the Manahoac Sappony Mattamuskeet Nation based in Georgia.

In addition, the Carmel Indians of Carmel, Ohio; and a group in Magoffin County, Kentucky claim to be Native American descendants of the Sappony. They also identify as Melungeon, a historic mixed-race group.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nc-american-indians/7283
  2. ^ Buechel, Eugene & Manhart S.J., Paul "Lakota Dictionary: Lakota-English / English-Lakota, New Comprehensive Edition" 2002.
  3. ^ http://www.saponi-ohio.org/8001.html
  4. ^ http://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/28545/1/Rankin%20Presentation.pdf
  5. ^ a b Mitchell, Henry H. (1997), "Rediscovering Pittsylvania's "Missing" Native Americans", The Pittsylvania Packet (Pittsylvania Historical Society), Chatham, Virginia: 4–8
  6. ^ Swanton, p. 72
  7. ^ Swanton p. 73
  8. ^ Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1894. pp. 37–.
  9. ^ G. Oliverio, Tutelo Grammar and Dictionary, 1996.
  10. ^ Salvucci, Claudio R.; et al. (2002), Minor Vocabularies of Tutelo and Sappony, Evolution Publishing, pp. 1–7, ISBN 1-889758-24-8
  11. ^ a b Speck, Frank G. Catawba Texts 1934.
  12. ^ Walker, James R. & Jahner, Elaine A. "Lakota Myth (Second Edition)" 2006.
  13. ^ Jack D. Forbes, "The Use of Racial and Ethnic Terms in America: Management by Manipulation", Wicazo SA Review, Fall 1995, vol. XI, No. 2
  14. ^ Forbes p. 55.
  15. ^ Jack D. Forbes, "The Use of Racial and Ethnic Terms in America: Management by Manipulation", Wicazo SA Review, Fall 1995, vol. XI, No. 2, pp. 55, 58-59. Pages 58 and 59: Quote: "In 1857, a William Chavers was charged "as a free person of color" with carrying a shotgun. Chavers was able to win his case eventually ... because he is charged as "a free person of color" whereas ... the act ... makes it penal for any "free negro" to carry arms ... Free persons of color maybe ... persons colored by Indian blood. The indictment cannot be sustained."
  16. ^ a b Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 1999–2005
  17. ^ Cherokee communities of the south 1978", Professor Robert K Thomas
  18. ^ Costly mistake", The Daily Herald
  19. ^ audit report", North Carolina Auditor
  20. ^ Occaneechi Saponi timeline", Occaneechi Saponi
  21. ^ Ohio band of Sappony", Ohio band of Sappony
  22. ^ Cherokee communities of the South, 1978", Professor Robert K. Thomas

External links

11th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment

The 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry (108th Volunteers) was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

1st Connecticut Cavalry Regiment

The 1st Connecticut Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

1st New Hampshire Volunteer Cavalry

The 1st New Hampshire Volunteer Cavalry was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

1st U.S. Light Artillery, Battery K

Battery "K" 1st Regiment of Artillery was a light artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

2nd Ohio Cavalry

The 2nd Ohio Cavalry was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

3rd New York Volunteer Cavalry

The 3rd New York Volunteer Cavalry Regiment ("Van Alen Cavalry") was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

4th U.S. Light Artillery, Battery C

Battery "C" 4th Regiment of Artillery was a light artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

5th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment

The 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry (65th Volunteers / "Cameron Dragoons") was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

Battle of Sappony Church

The Battle of Sappony Church, also known as the Battle of Stony Creek Depot, was an engagement of the American Civil War, between the Confederate States of America and the Union, which took place on June 28, 1864, during the Wilson-Kautz Raid of the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign.

Demographics of North Carolina

Demographics of North Carolina covers the varieties of ethnic groups who reside in North Carolina and relevant trends.

Keyauwee Indians

The Keyauwee Indians were a small North Carolina tribe, native to the area of present day Randolph County, North Carolina. The Keyauwee village was surrounded by palisades and cornfields about thirty miles northeast of the Yadkin River, near present day High Point, North Carolina. The Keyauwee village was vulnerable to attack, so the Keyauwee constantly joined with other tribes for better protection. They joined with the Tutelo, Sappony, Occaneechi, and the Shakori tribes, moving to the Albemarle Sound with the last two for a settlement that would later be foiled. The Keyauwee would move further southward along with the Cheraw and Peedee tribes, close along the border of the two Carolinas, where they conducted deerskin trade with Charleston traders and allied with the Indian neighbors in the Yamassee War. Eventually, their tribe name vanished from historical records, and with time, they were absorbed by the Catawba tribe.

List of rivers of Virginia

This is a list of rivers in the U.S. state of Virginia.

McKenney, Virginia

McKenney is an incorporated town in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, United States. The population was 483 at the 2010 census.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Dinwiddie County, Virginia

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Dinwiddie County, Virginia.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 18 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 2 National Historic Landmarks. Another property was once listed but has been removed.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

Sappony Church

Sappony Church, also known as Sapony Church and Sappony Episcopal Church, is a historic Episcopal church located at McKenney, Dinwiddie County, Virginia. It was built in 1725-1726, and is a one-story, three bay long, rectangular frame building with a low gable roof. A vestry room was added early in the 19th century; the building was remodeled in the mid-19th century and again in 1870.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.

State-recognized tribes in the United States

State-recognized tribes are Native American Indian tribes, Nations, and Heritage Groups that have been recognized by a process established under assorted state laws for varying purposes. With increasing activism by tribal nations since the mid-20th century to obtain federal recognition of their tribal sovereignty, many states have passed legislation to recognize some tribes and acknowledge the self-determination and continuity of historic ethnic groups. The majority of these groups are located in the Eastern US, including the three largest state-recognized tribes in the US, viz. the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, the Miami Nation of Indiana and the United Houma Nation of Louisiana, each of which has several thousand tribal members.

In many cases, they have recognized tribes that were landless; that is, did not have an Indian reservation or communal land holdings. In addition, such states have often established commissions or other administrative bodies to deal with Native American affairs within the state. It has resulted from the process of increasing self-determination and preservation of cultural identity within some Native American communities, including descendants who remained in states east of the Mississippi River when many tribes were removed during the 19th century.

State recognition confers limited benefits under federal law. It is not the same as federal recognition, which is the federal government's acknowledgment of a tribe as a dependent sovereign nation. Some states have provided laws related to state recognition that provide some protection of autonomy for tribes not recognized by the federal government. For example, in Connecticut, state law recognizing certain tribes also protects reservations and limited self-government rights for state-recognized tribes.

Such state recognition has at times been opposed by federally recognized tribes. For instance, the Cherokee Nation opposes state-recognized tribes claiming Cherokee identity, as well as many non-recognized groups that also claim to be Cherokee.Numerous other groups assert that they are Indian tribes. Many are listed in List of unrecognized tribes in the United States.

Treaty of 1677

The Treaty of 1677 (or the Treaty Between Virginia And The Indians 1677 or Treaty of Middle Plantation) was signed in Virginia on May 28, 1677 between Charles II of England and representatives from various Virginia Native American tribes including the Nottoway, the Appomattoc, the Wayonaoake, the Nansemond, the Nanzatico, the Monacan, the Saponi, and the Meherrin following the end of Bacon's Rebellion.

The treaty designated those that signed as "tributary tribe(s)," meaning they were guaranteed their homeland territories, hunting and fishing rights, the right to keep and bear arms, and other colonial protections so long as they maintained obedience and subjugation to the English Empire.

The twenty-one articles of the treaty were confirmed when England sent gifts to the chiefs along with various badges of authority.

The Queen of Pamunkey, known as Cockacoeske to the English, received a red velvet cap which was fastened with a silver frontlet and silver chains.

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (May 31, 1837 – October 15, 1891), known as Rooney Lee (often spelled "Roony" among friends and family) or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of General Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis. He was a planter, a Confederate cavalry General in the American Civil War, and later a Congressman from Virginia.

Wilson–Kautz Raid

The Wilson–Kautz Raid was a cavalry operation in south central Virginia in late June 1864, during the American Civil War. Occurring early in the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, the raid was conducted by Union cavalry under Brigadier Generals James H. Wilson and August Kautz, who were ordered to cut railroads between Lynchburg, Virginia, and the vital Confederate rail supply center at Petersburg. While the raid had the intended effect of disrupting Confederate rail communications for several weeks, the raiding force lost much of its artillery, all of its supply train, and almost a third of the original force, mostly to Confederate capture.

Federally recognized
State recognized

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.