The sapayoa or broad-billed sapayoa (Sapayoa aenigma) is a suboscine passerine found in lowland rainforests in Panama and north-western South America. As the epithet aenigma ("the enigma") implies, its relationships have long been elusive. It is easy to overlook, but appears to be common in a wide range and is not considered threatened by the IUCN.
Irestedt et al. 2006
The sapayoa was formally described by the German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in 1903 under the present binomial name Sapayoa aenigma. It has always been considered a monotypic genus, Sapayoa, and historically regarded as a New World suboscine; in particular, it was assigned to the manakin family (Pipridae). However, the species was listed as incertae sedis (position uncertain) in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, because
"preliminary DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons ... indicate that this species is either a relative of the Old World Eurylaimidae or a sister group of all other Tyrannida, as suggested by earlier biochemical studies .... In any event, it is not a close relative of manakins or any other recent tyrannoid."
More recent research suggests that it is not a New World suboscine at all, but an Old World suboscine. In 2004, it was shown that the sapayoa is an outlier to the New World suboscines. In an earlier analysis based on nDNA myoglobin intron 2 and GAPDH intron 11 sequence data, the authors found the sapayoa
Accordingly, the sapayoa would be the last surviving New World species of a lineage that evolved in Australia-New Guinea when Gondwana was in the process of splitting apart. The sapayoa's ancestors are hypothesized to have reached South America via the Western Antarctica Peninsula.
Nowadays, the sapoyoa is sometimes placed in the family Eurylaimidae with the broadbills. Others tentatively place the sapayoa in the asity family Philepittidae otherwise found only in Madagascar and sometimes included in the broadbill family.
However, the divergence between the broadbills and the sapayoa found in the 2003 study is only slightly less deep than that between the sapayoa and the pittas. It is even possible though unlikely that the present species is actually closer to the pittas than to the broadbills. Consequently, it is now placed in its own monotypic family, Sapayoidae.
The sapayoa is a small, olive-colored bird, somewhat paler below and with a yellowish throat. Its habitus resembles a bigger, longer-tailed, broader-billed female manakin. It is rare to uncommon in the forest understory, favoring ravines and small streams. It is usually seen in pairs or mixed-species flocks. It spends long periods perching, then sallies up to pick fruit or catch insects, on foliage or in mid air, with its flat, wide bill in a way reminiscent of flatbills.
The broadbills are a family of passerine birds, Eurylaimidae that occur from the eastern Himalayas to Indonesia and the Philippines.
The family previously included the sapayoa from the Neotropics and the asities from Madagascar, but these are now separated into distinct families.Calyptomenidae
Calyptomenidae is a family of passerine birds found in Africa, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. There are six species in two genera.
The species in this family were formerly included in the broadbill family Eurylaimidae. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2006 found that the species in these two genera were not closely related to the other broadbills. These two genera are now placed in a separate family.The family contains six species in two genera:
African broadbill (Smithornis capensis)
Grey-headed broadbill (Smithornis sharpei)
Rufous-sided broadbill (Smithornis rufolateralis)
Green broadbill (Calyptomena viridis)
Hose's broadbill (Calyptomena hosii)
Whitehead's broadbill (Calyptomena whiteheadi)List of birds of Colombia
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia. The avifauna of Colombia has 1851 confirmed species, of which 81 are endemic, three have been introduced by humans, and 62 are rare or vagrants. One of the endemic species is believed to be extinct. An additional 37 species are hypothetical (see below).
Except as an entry is noted otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. An additional 17 species are listed here whose only Colombian records are from that province. Three of them are also considered hypothetical.The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.
(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia
(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia
(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC
(SA) San Andrés - a species whose only Colombian records are from the province of San Andrés and ProvidenciaList of birds of North America (Accipitriformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Accipitriformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Apodiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Apodiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Caprimulgiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Caprimulgiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Columbiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Columbiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Coraciiformes)
Coraciiformes are a taxonomic order of birds found in North America, including todies, motmots and kingfishers.List of birds of North America (Cuculiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Cuculiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Falconiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Falconiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Galliformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Galliformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Gruiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Gruiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Psittaciformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Psittaciformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Strigiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Strigiformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Suliformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Suliformes, and are native to North America.List of birds of North America (Tinamiformes)
The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Tinamiformes, and are native to North America.Pitta
Pittas are a family, Pittidae, of passerine birds found in Asia, Australasia and Africa. There are thought to be 40 to 42 species of pittas, all similar in general appearance and habits. The pittas are Old World suboscines, and their closest relatives among other birds are the broadbills in the genera Smithornis and Calyptomena. Initially placed in a single genus, as of 2009 they have been split into three genera: Pitta, Erythropitta and Hydrornis. Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, at 15 to 25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) in length, and stocky, with strong, longish legs and long feet. They have very short tails and stout, slightly decurved bills. Many have brightly coloured plumage.
Most pitta species are tropical; a few species can be found in temperate climates. They are mostly found in forests, but some live in scrub and mangroves. They are highly terrestrial and mostly solitary, and usually forage on wet forest floors in areas with good ground cover. They eat earthworms, snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey, as well as small vertebrates. Pittas are monogamous and females lay up to six eggs in a large domed nest in a tree or shrub, or sometimes on the ground. Both parents care for the young. Four species of pittas are fully migratory, and several more are partially so, though their migrations are poorly understood.
Four species of pitta are listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; a further nine species are listed as vulnerable and several more are near-threatened. The main threat to pittas is habitat loss in the form of rapid deforestation, but they are also targeted by the cage-bird trade. They are popular with birdwatchers because of their bright plumage and the difficulty in seeing them.Tyranni
The Tyranni (suboscines) are a clade of passerine birds that includes more than 1,000 species, the large majority of which are South American. It is named after the type genus Tyrannus.
These have a different anatomy of the syrinx musculature than the oscines (songbirds of the larger suborder Passeri), hence its common name of suboscines. The available morphological, DNA sequence, and biogeographical data, as well as the (scant) fossil record, agree that these two major passerine suborders are evolutionarily distinct clades.