Sapayoa

The sapayoa or broad-billed sapayoa (Sapayoa aenigma) is a suboscine passerine found in lowland rainforests in Panama and north-western South America. As the epithet aenigma ("the enigma") implies, its relationships have long been elusive. It is easy to overlook, but appears to be common in a wide range and is not considered threatened by the IUCN.[1][2]

Sapayoa
Sapayoa aenigma, Nusagandi, Panama
Nusagandi, Panama
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sapayoidae
Irestedt et al. 2006
Genus: Sapayoa
Hartert, 1903
Species:
S. aenigma
Binomial name
Sapayoa aenigma
Hartert, 1903

Taxonomy and systematics

The sapayoa was formally described by the German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in 1903 under the present binomial name Sapayoa aenigma.[3] It has always been considered a monotypic genus, Sapayoa, and historically regarded as a New World suboscine; in particular, it was assigned to the manakin family (Pipridae). However, the species was listed as incertae sedis (position uncertain) in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, because

"preliminary DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons ... indicate that this species is either a relative of the Old World Eurylaimidae or a sister group of all other Tyrannida, as suggested by earlier biochemical studies .... In any event, it is not a close relative of manakins or any other recent tyrannoid."[4]

More recent research suggests that it is not a New World suboscine at all, but an Old World suboscine. In 2004, it was shown that the sapayoa is an outlier to the New World suboscines.[5] In an earlier analysis based on nDNA myoglobin intron 2 and GAPDH intron 11 sequence data, the authors found the sapayoa

"as a deep branch in the group of broadbills and pittas of the Old World tropics."[6]

Accordingly, the sapayoa would be the last surviving New World species of a lineage that evolved in Australia-New Guinea when Gondwana was in the process of splitting apart. The sapayoa's ancestors are hypothesized to have reached South America via the Western Antarctica Peninsula.

Nowadays, the sapoyoa is sometimes placed in the family Eurylaimidae with the broadbills.[7] Others tentatively place the sapayoa in the asity family Philepittidae[8] otherwise found only in Madagascar and sometimes included in the broadbill family.

However, the divergence between the broadbills and the sapayoa found in the 2003 study is only slightly less deep than that between the sapayoa and the pittas.[6] It is even possible though unlikely that the present species is actually closer to the pittas than to the broadbills. Consequently, it is now placed in its own monotypic family, Sapayoidae.[9][10]

Description

The sapayoa is a small, olive-colored bird, somewhat paler below and with a yellowish throat. Its habitus resembles a bigger, longer-tailed, broader-billed female manakin. It is rare to uncommon in the forest understory, favoring ravines and small streams.[11] It is usually seen in pairs or mixed-species flocks. It spends long periods perching, then sallies up to pick fruit or catch insects, on foliage or in mid air, with its flat, wide bill in a way reminiscent of flatbills.[11]

The sapayoa builds a nest suspended from a branch usually above a stream. It is a pear shaped structure with the larger end at the top and fibres hanging beneath. The entrance is at the side.[12][13]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Sapayoa aenigma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ BLI (2004)
  3. ^ Hartert, Ernst (1903). "On a remarkable new oligomyodian genus and species from Ecuador". Novitates Zoologicae. 10: 117–118.
  4. ^ Sibley & Munroe (1990)
  5. ^ Chesser (2004)
  6. ^ a b Fjeldså et al. (2003)
  7. ^ E.g. Banks et al. (2008), Remsen et al. (2009)
  8. ^ Kemp & Sherley (2003), though it is not clear whether it was Kemp and Sherley or Perrins who decided to include the broad-billed sapayoa in the Philepittidae.
  9. ^ E.g. Irestedt et al. (2006)
  10. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "NZ wrens, broadbills & pittas". World Bird List Version 7.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  11. ^ a b Ridgely & Tudor (1994) p.689, plate 46.
  12. ^ Christian, D.G. (2001). "Nests and nesting behaviour of some little known Panamanian birds" (PDF). Ornitologia Neotropical. 12: 327–336.
  13. ^ Dzielski, S.A.; Van Doren, B.M.; Hruska, J.P.; Hite, J.M. (2016). "Reproductive biology of the Sapayoa (Sapayoa aenigma), the "Old World suboscine" of the New World". Auk. 133 (3): 347–363. doi:10.1642/AUK-16-5.1.

References

  • Banks, Richard C.; Chesser, R. Terry; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Lovette, Irby J.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen, J. V. Jr.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F. & Winker, Kevin (2008). Forty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 125(3): 758–768. doi:10.1525.auk/2008.9708 PDF fulltext
  • Chesser, R. Terry (2004). Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32(1): 11-24. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.11.015 PDF fulltext
  • Fjeldså, Jon; Zuccon, Dario; Irestedt, Martin; Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2003). Sapayoa aenigma: a New World representative of 'Old World suboscines'. Proc. R. Soc. B 270(Supplement 2): 238-241. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0075 PDF fulltext Electronic supplement
  • Irestedt, M.; Ohlson, J.I.; Zuccon, Dario; Källersjö, M. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2006). Nuclear DNA from old collections of avian study skins reveals the evolutionary history of the Old World suboscines (Aves: Passeriformes). Zool. Scripta 35(6): 567-580. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00249.x PDF fulltext
  • Kemp, Alan & Sherley, Greg H. (2003). Asities. In: Perrins, Christopher (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds p. 421. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Cadena, C. D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; Pacheco, J. F. Robbins, M. B.; Schulenberg, T. S., Stiles, F. G.; Stotz, D. F.; & Zimmer, K. J. Version (2009). A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. HTML full text
  • Ridgely, Robert S. & Tudor, Guy (1994). The Birds of South America (Volume 2: The suboscine passerines). University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77063-4
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Monroe, Burt L. Jr. (1990). Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04969-2

Further reading

  • Selvatti, A.P.; Galvão, A.; Pereira, A.G.; Gonzaga, L.P.; de Moraes Russo, C.A. (2017). "An African origin of the Eurylaimides (Passeriformes) and the successful diversification of the ground-foraging Pittas (Pittidae)". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 34 (2): 483–499. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw250.

External links

Broadbill

The broadbills are a clade of small passerine birds, Eurylaimidae (named after the type genus Eurylaimus). The Smithornis and Pseudocalyptomena species occur in sub-Saharan Africa; the rest extend from the eastern Himalayas to Indonesia and the Philippines.

The family possibly also includes the sapayoa from the Neotropics and the asities from Madagascar, although many taxonomists now separate each of the three into distinct families.

List of birds of Colombia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia. The avifauna of Colombia has 1851 confirmed species, of which 81 are endemic, three have been introduced by humans, and 62 are rare or vagrants. One of the endemic species is believed to be extinct. An additional 37 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is noted otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. An additional 17 species are listed here whose only Colombian records are from that province. Three of them are also considered hypothetical.The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(SA) San Andrés - a species whose only Colombian records are from the province of San Andrés and Providencia

List of birds of Ecuador

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ecuador including those of the Galápagos Islands. The avifauna of Ecuador has 1635 confirmed species, of which seven are endemic to the mainland and 30 are endemic to the Galápagos. Four have been introduced by humans, 64 are rare or vagrants, and two have been extirpated. An additional 49 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ecuador

(EG) Endemic - Galápagos - a species endemic to the Galápagos Islands

(EM) Endemic - mainland - a species endemic to mainland Ecuador

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ecuador as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of North America (Accipitriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Accipitriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Apodiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Apodiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Caprimulgiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Caprimulgiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Columbiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Columbiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Coraciiformes)

Coraciiformes are a taxonomic order of birds found in North America, including todies, motmots and kingfishers.

List of birds of North America (Cuculiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Cuculiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Falconiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Falconiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Galliformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Galliformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Gruiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Gruiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Psittaciformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Psittaciformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Strigiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Strigiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Suliformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Suliformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of North America (Tinamiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Tinamiformes, and are native to North America.

Pitta

Pittas are a family, Pittidae, of passerine birds found in Asia, Australasia and Africa. There are thought to be 40 to 42 species of pittas, all similar in general appearance and habits. The pittas are Old World suboscines, and their closest relatives among other birds are the broadbills in the genera Smithornis and Calyptomena. Initially placed in a single genus, as of 2009 they have been split into three genera: Pitta, Erythropitta and Hydrornis. Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, at 15 to 25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) in length, and stocky, with strong, longish legs and long feet. They have very short tails and stout, slightly decurved bills. Many have brightly coloured plumage.

Most pitta species are tropical; a few species can be found in temperate climates. They are mostly found in forests, but some live in scrub and mangroves. They are highly terrestrial and mostly solitary, and usually forage on wet forest floors in areas with good ground cover. They eat earthworms, snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey, as well as small vertebrates. Pittas are monogamous and females lay up to six eggs in a large domed nest in a tree or shrub, or sometimes on the ground. Both parents care for the young. Four species of pittas are fully migratory, and several more are partially so, though their migrations are poorly understood.

Four species of pitta are listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; a further nine species are listed as vulnerable and several more are near-threatened. The main threat to pittas is habitat loss in the form of rapid deforestation, but they are also targeted by the cage-bird trade. They are popular with birdwatchers because of their bright plumage and the difficulty in seeing them.

Tyranni

The Tyranni (suboscines) are a clade of passerine birds that includes more than 1,000 species, the large majority of which are South American. It is named after the type genus Tyrannus.

These have a different anatomy of the syrinx musculature than the oscines (songbirds of the larger suborder Passeri), hence its common name of suboscines. The available morphological, DNA sequence, and biogeographical data, as well as the (scant) fossil record, agree that these two major passerine suborders are evolutionarily distinct clades.

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