Santo Domingo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsanto ðoˈmiŋɡo] meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, rising to 2,908,607 when its surrounding metropolitan area was included. The city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional ("D.N.", "National District"), itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province.
Founded by Bartholomew Columbus in 1496, on the east bank of the Ozama River and then moved by Nicolás de Ovando in 1502 to the west bank of the river, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas, and was the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress in the New World. The city's Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað tɾuˈxiʝo]), from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republic's dictator, Rafael Trujillo, named the capital after himself. Following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation.
Santo Domingo is the cultural, financial, political, commercial and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, with the country's most important industries being located within the city. Santo Domingo also serves as the chief seaport of the country. The city's harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, and the port handles both heavy passenger and freight traffic. Temperatures are high year round, with cooler breezes in the winter time.
|Santo Domingo de Guzmán|
Coat of arms
"Ciudad Primada de América" (in Spanish)
("First City of the Americas")
Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic.
Santo Domingo (North America)
|Founded||5 August 1498 (521 years ago)|
|Named for||Saint Dominic|
|• Mayor||David Collado|
|• Total||104.44 km2 (40.32 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,696.69 km2 (1,041.20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||14 m (46 ft)|
|Demonym(s)||Spanish: Capitaleño (fem. Capitaleña)|
10100–10699 (Distrito Nacional)
|Area codes||809, 829, 849|
|Website||Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional|
Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the native Taíno people populated the island which they called Quisqueya (mother of all lands) and Ayiti (land of high mountains), and which Columbus later named Hispaniola, including the territory of today's Republic of Haiti. At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey. These were ruled respectively by caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, and Cayacoa.
Dating from 1493, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, after an earlier settlement in the north named after the Queen of Spain Isabella I. In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean" and the chief town in Hispaniola from then on. Expeditions which led to Ponce de León's colonization of Puerto Rico, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's colonization of Cuba, Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean were all launched from Santo Domingo.
In June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a large portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy and admiral. In 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos. Rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.:143–144,147
In 1586, Francis Drake of England captured the city and held it for ransom. Drake's invasion signaled the decline of Spanish dominion over Hispaniola, which was accentuated in the early 17th century by policies that resulted in the depopulation of most of the island outside of the capital. An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but the expedition failed with the loss of 3,000 men. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, instead. In 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of France's dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti.
From 1795 to 1822 the city changed hands several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was briefly captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802, and was once again reclaimed by Spain in 1809. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, overthrew the Spanish crown. The nation was unified with Haiti just two months later. The city and the colony lost much of their Spanish-born peninsular population as a result of these events which caused a great deal of instability and unrest.
On 27 February 1844 Santo Domingo was again the capital of a free nation, when it gained its independence from Haiti, led by Dominican nationalist Juan Pablo Duarte. The city was a prize fought over by various political factions over the succeeding decades of instability. In addition, the country had to fight multiple battles with Haiti; the Battle of 19 March, Battle of 30 March, Battle of Las Carreras, and Battle of Beler, are a few of the most prominent encounters, mentioned in the national anthem and with city streets named after them. In 1861 Spain returned to the country, having struck a bargain with Dominican dictator Pedro Santana whereby the latter was granted several honorific titles and privileges, in exchange for annexing the young nation back to Spanish rule. The Dominican Restoration War began in 1863 however, and in 1865 the country was free again after Spain withdrew. The war claimed more than 50,000 lives.
Over the next two-thirds of a century Santo Domingo and the Dominican Republic went through many revolutions, power changes, and occupation by the United States, 1916–24. The city was struck by hurricane San Zenón in 1930, which caused major damage. After its rebuilding, Santo Domingo was known officially as Ciudad Trujillo in honor of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, who governed from 1930. Following his assassination in 1961 the city was renamed back to Santo Domingo. It was the scene of street fighting during the 1965 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.
The year 1992 marked the 500th anniversary, El Quinto Centenario, of Christopher Columbus' Discovery of the Americas. The Columbus Lighthouse – Faro a Colón – was erected in Santo Domingo in honor of this occasion, with an approximate cost of 400 million Dominican pesos.
The Ozama river flows 148 kilometres (92 miles) before emptying into the Caribbean Sea. Santo Domingo's position on its banks was of great importance to the city's economic development and the growth of trade during colonial times. The Ozama River is where the country's busiest port is located.
The average temperature in Santo Domingo varies little, because the tropical trade winds help mitigate the heat and humidity throughout the year. Thanks to these trade winds, Santo Domingo has a tropical climate but seldom experiences the heat that one may expect to find. December through March are the coolest months with hot days with less humidity and fresh nights (temperatures of 17 to 19 °C (63 to 66 °F)). July through September are the warmest. Santo Domingo averages 1,445 millimetres (56.9 in) of rain annually. Its driest months are from November through April, however, due to the trade winds and mountains to the southwest, rain is seen even during these months. Because its driest month is just below 60 millimetres (2.4 in), Santo Domingo falls under the tropical monsoon climate category under the Köppen climate classification. Like many other cities in the Caribbean, Santo Domingo is very susceptible to hurricanes. Hurricane Georges caused severe destruction in September 1998. The lowest recorded temperature has been 11.0 °C (51.8 °F) on 5 February 1951 and 7 January 1957 and the highest is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on 29 May 2002.
|Record high °C (°F)||34.4
|Average high °C (°F)||29.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||24.4
|Average low °C (°F)||19.6
|Record low °C (°F)||11.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||63.0
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.2||5.9||6.1||6.5||10.8||10.1||11.3||11.8||11.3||12.7||9.2||8.6||111.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||82.5||80.8||79.3||78.8||82.5||83.7||83.8||84.6||85.1||85.7||84.2||83.3||82.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||229.6||230.5||258.4||253.3||244.2||234.7||229.6||237.7||222.7||207.9||218.8||205.7||2,773.1|
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: Diario Libre (May record high, and record lows for January and February), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
Many of Santo Domingo's most notable landmarks are located within the Zona Colonial district of the city, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990. The Colonial Zone, bordered by the Río Ozama, also has an impressive collection of early 16th century buildings, including palatial houses and majestic churches that reflect the architectural style of the late Middle Ages.
The city's most important historical buildings include the Catedral Santa María La Menor, the first cathedral of the Americas, which states its distinction; the Alcázar de Colón, the first castle in the Americas, once the residence of Viceroy of the Indies Don Diego Colón, a son of Christopher Columbus; the Monasterio de San Francisco, the ruins of the first monastery in the Americas; the Museo de las Casas Reales, in a monumental complex that includes the former Palace of the Governors and the building of the former Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo; the Fortaleza Ozama, the oldest fortress in the Americas; the Pantéon Nacional, a former Jesuit edifice now hosting the remains of various renowned Dominicans; and the Dominican Convent, the first convent in the Americas.
On the north end of Calle Las Damas, the restored and expanded Plaza de España is bordered by Las Atarazanas (former naval yard, now a museum) and a number of small shops and restaurants. This area was the first European commercial center in the Americas, and is still a hub of activity today. The Alcázar de Colón, having once been the colonial palace of the Columbus family - beginning with his son Diego – is now a museum displaying period furniture and decorations. The building was originally built in 1510, and restored to its current appearance in 1952.
A 700 million US dollar investment was made in the Port of the Ozama river adjacent to the Ciudad Colonial aiming to turn Santo Domingo into a port of call for luxury cruise ships and including a privately owned marina. The project is being completed by Sans Soucí Ports S.A.
The city proper of Santo Domingo is subdivided into incorporated areas (neighbourhoods) called sectores which could be considered as small urban towns. All sectores are serviced directly by the municipal mayor's office.
The demographics of Santo Domingo are similar to other metropolitan areas of the country, except that the population of immigrants (mainly Haitians) is larger in the city because of the relative ease of finding work and the economic dynamism compared to other provinces. Santo Domingo, like most of the country, is made up of native-born Dominican mulattos, though there are large numbers of Afro-Dominicans and Euro-Dominicans, as well as a large immigrant community. In fact, over 20% of the city's population is immigrants, mainly Haitians. However, there are also recent immigrants from Europe, Asia, as well as other Latin American nations present in the city. The city of Santo Domingo has a significant community of Asians (mainly Chinese), Arabs (mostly Lebanese), and Europeans (mostly Spanish and Italian people) are also present in the city. There are also significant numbers of Venezuelans and Puerto Ricans, in the city, as well as US born Dominicans returning to their parents' home country. The northeast quadrant of the city is the poorest while the southwest is wealthier. Santo Domingo is also considered one of the epicenters of the growing Dominican middle-class. The city is one of the most economically developed cities in Latin America. Santo Domingo's population in 2010 was 3.8 million in the metropolitan area.
Santo Domingo is the center of the national government of the Dominican Republic. The President's office and ministries, National Congress, Supreme Court of Justice, and other main government institutions are located in the metropolitan area.
The city is administered by the Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional (City Hall), which is responsible for municipal functions. The current mayor of Santo Domingo is David Collado.
The "Policía Nacional" (National Police) and "Policia Turística" (Tourist Police) (POLITUR) are tasked with enforcing city safety.
The city is the center of economic activity in the Dominican Republic. It is where most of the country's wealth is concentrated and the seat of the national legislature, judicial, and executive government. Many national and international firms have their headquarters or regional offices in Santo Domingo. The city attracts many international firms and franchises such as Ikea, Goldcorp and Barrick due to its location and economic stability.
The infrastructure is suitable for most business operations. A key element that has helped the city grow and compete globally is the telecommunications infrastructure. Santo Domingo and the Dominican Republic as whole enjoy a modern and extensive telecommunications system liberalized in the late 1990s which has benefited from extensive foreign investment. This has attracted numerous call centers in recent years. Santo Domingo not only has an excellent telecommunications infrastructure but also a sizeable bilingual population that speaks English.
The city's economic growth can be witnessed in the extensive vertical growth experienced across many of its neighborhoods. The construction boom is reflected in the many high density residential towers, shopping malls, elevated highways, the metro expansion and overall increase in commercial activity.
Santo Domingo has a thriving middle class contrasting with the significant pockets of poverty that remain as challenges for the future. Marginalized slum conditions exist mostly in the northeast quadrant of the city with smaller pockets extending across the city. Areas of extensive development include the Poligono Central, which is bordered by the Avenida John F. Kennedy northward 27 February Avenue south, Avenida Winston Churchill to the west and Avenida Máximo Gómez to the east, and is characterized by its mixed development and its very active nightlife.
Santo Domingo has areas of high development, among them Serralles, Naco, Arroyo Hondo, Piantini, Urb Fernandez, Ens. Julieta, Paraiso, Los Prados, Bella Vista, Sarasota and other sectors, where most of the middle class can be found.
Bella Vista and La Esperilla are currently the fastest growing sectors with large mega -projects. Gazcue belongs to the more traditional southeastern area of the city and is known for its buildings dating from the 1930s to the 1960s.
The performing arts are very important in Santo Domingo. The city has its own symphonic orchestra, chamber orchestra, opera company, ballet company, folkloric company, and national theater, including a number of smaller groups. The Plaza of culture is the center of activity, but there are concerts, ballet, folklore, and other performances throughout the city. Casa de Teatro is the gathering place of avant garde artists, actors, and musicians. It stages art and literature exhibitions and offers painting, drama, and dancing courses and monthly contests for poetry, short stories, and other forms of literature.
Santo Domingo is the location of numerous museums, many of which are located in the Zona Colonial district. In the Zona Colonial is the Museum of Alcázar, in Diego Colon's restored palace, the Museum of the Casas Reales, with artefacts of the colonial period and a collection of ancient weapons donated by Trujillo, the Naval Museum of the Atarazanas, in the former naval yards, Museo de la Catedral, Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana, documenting the struggle for freedom during the regimes of Trujillo and Balaguer, Museo Duarte, dedicated to the hero of Dominican independence, and the World of Ambar Museum.
Plaza de la Cultura also houses the city's most important cultural venues, including the Teatro Nacional (National Theater) and various museums; the Palacio Nacional, which houses the Presidency of the Dominican Republic; the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), a neoclassical building that is the permanent home of the country's National Symphony Orchestra; and the Boulevard 27 de Febrero, a pedestrian promenade located on the busy Avenida 27 de Febrero, which displays works of art from prominent Dominican artists and sculptors. Another attraction is the Centro Olímpico Juan Pablo Duarte, a sports complex in the center of Santo Domingo. This complex was used during the 2003 Pan American Games.
In the Plaza de la Cultura are the Museum of the Dominican Man, with artifacts from the pre-Columbian Taíno civilization, the National Museum of History and Geography, the Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Modern Art. Other museums include the Museo Bellapart, a prominent private collection of 19th- and 20th-Century Dominican painting and sculpture and the Museo Prehispanico, a major private collection of pre-Columbian Taíno art.
The city has various parks, many of which are relatively large. Santo Domingo (D.N) is surrounded by the Santo Domingo Greenbelt. Mirador Norte Park lies in the north of the city, close to Villa Mella and Mirador Sur Park is located in the southwest section of the city. Mirador del Este is located on the East bank of the Ozama river and it is the seat of the Columbus Lighthouse. Independencia Park and Colón Park are located in Zona Colonial.
Other notable parks include:
There are eighteen universities in Santo Domingo, the highest number of any city in the Dominican Republic. Established in 1538, the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) is the oldest university in the Americas and is also the only public university in the city. Santo Domingo holds the nation's highest percentage of residents with a higher education degree.
Other universities include:
Santo Domingo is the terminus for four of the five national highways. The city is connected to the southwest of the country by the national highway DR-2 (Avenida George Washington and Autopista 30 de Mayo), and with the cities of the country's northwest by DR-1 (Expreso Kennedy, Corredor Duarte), which serves as a direct link to the city of Santiago de los Caballeros. DR-3 (Expreso 27 de Febrero/Autopista de Las Américas) connects Santo Domingo directly to the east of the country, including the cities of San Pedro de Macorís, La Romana, and major tourist sites such as Punta Cana and Bávaro, and to the Samaná Province (in the northeast) via the Samana Highway. In the city, motoconchos (motorcycle taxis), guaguas/voladoras (low quality public buses), and carros públicos/conchos (shared taxis) are common modes of transport.
Expreso John F. Kennedy: This expressway crosses the National District from east to west in the north-central part. The Avenue consists of a total of ten lanes, five on each side. The two center lanes of the road are express lanes to facilitate transit. It also has several bypasses and elevated crossings.
Avenida 27 de Febrero: It is the main avenue to cross the National District from east to west in the central part of Santo Domingo. It starts at the Juan Bosch bridge and crosses the entire city until the roundabout at the Plaza de la Bandera, which extends into the town of Santo Domingo West and ends on the Duarte Highway. The thoroughfare is composed of a total of ten lanes. Five on each side. The four lanes in the center of the avenue are express that facilitate transit in the city from east to west, with several elevated cross streets, overpasses and tunnels. It also has exclusive bus lanes.
Avenida Simón Bolívar: It extends from Independence Park to the junction with the Avenue Winston Churchill. In its entirety, this avenue is composed of two local lanes one-way east- west.
Avenida Independencia: It extends from the intersection with Avenida Gregorio Luperón to Independence Park. The avenue consists of a total of four lanes (two eastbound and two westbound ) from crossing with Av G. Luperon to the intersection of Avenida Italia . From the junction with Av Italy until Independence Park Avenue becomes one-way eastbound and contains only two lanes.
Avenida George Washington: It is colloquially referred as "El Malecón" This is Santo Domingo's Maritime Boulevard, running alongside the Caribbean sea's waterfront. It extends from Palo Hincado Street to the intersection with Abraham Lincoln Avenue; from that point to the Haina River Highway 30 May extends also includes President Billini Walk, which starts in Palo Hincado street and joins the Avenida del Puerto along the western bank of the Ozama River. Throughout its entire length it is composed of four lanes (two on each side). On this Boulevard you will find the most exclusive hotels in the city, several casinos, the mixed business and residential high rise complex Malecón Center, the Obelisk and Eugenio María de Hostos' Park. This is also the Boulevard where the Santo Domingo Carnival parade takes place.
Avenida Winston Churchill: It extends from Kennedy Avenue to Avenida 27 de Febrero, from there on, it continues as Avenida Jimenez Moya to reach the Centro de los Heroes and finally the boardwalk. This thoroughfare is distinguished by its date palms that are planted on the sidewalks . Throughout its length the road is composed of six lanes (three on each side) and a large wooded median popularly known as Boulevard de la Churchill ("Churchill's Boulevard") and within this lies the Boulevard of the Stars.
Avenida Abraham Lincoln: extends from Avenida Kennedy to the seawall. The route consists of six lanes (three on each side) and a median suitable for jogging laid with palm trees. It traverses the city's commercial and leisure city centre.
Avenida José Ortega y Gasset: It extends from the Paseo de los Reyes Católicos Avenue until 27 de Febrero. The avenue consists of four lanes, two on each side. Along this avenue lies the Centro Olímpico Juan Pablo Duarte athletic complex and the Hospital General de la Plaza de la Salud medical complex.
Avenida Tiradentes: It extends from the jetty in the south, through the state's university Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo. It extends to the north along Avenida 27 de Febrero, John F. Kennedy, and continuing north past the city's baseball stadium Estadio Quisqueya until it reaches the Parque Zoológico Nacional National Zoo.
Avenida Gregorio Luperón: It extends from Kennedy Avenue to Highway 30 May on the western edge of Santo Domingo. The thoroughfare consists of eight lanes, four on each side and a landscaped median. Local attractions located on this strip includes Gallístico Center Herrera Industrial Zone, and the Plaza de la Bandera.
Avenida Máximo Gómez y Báez: The city's main south-north avenue, it extends from the Malecón to the Presidente Peynado bridge. The boulevard consists of four lanes, two on each side. Major buildings and points of interest along this boulevard are: the National Cemetery, Plaza de la Cultura which houses the National Theatre and the Palace of Fine Arts. There are also two universities (UNAPEC and UTESA), as well as the headquarters of the People's Bank and five star hotel "Hotel Barceló Santo Domingo".
Avenida Juan Pablo Duarte: It extends from the intersection of Avenida Paseo and Martyrs of the Catholic Monarchs to Calle Padre Billini in the Colonial Zone . The avenue consists of three lanes on a road north-south direction becomes one lane to enter the Colonial Zone . This avenue is the main commerce route for low-income people throughout the metropolitan area with department stores, restaurants, and shops that offer goods and services at modest prices . In "Duarte" (as popularly known) you can find the New Market, the Enriquillo Park, Duarte Commercial Square and Santo Domingo's Chinatown.
Avenida Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres: Is located on the northern part of Santo Domingo starting at the roundabout Cristo Rey sector and corner with Ortega y Gasset, Máximo Gómez, Arbert Duarte and Thomas avenues, among others; culminating in the sector of Simón Bolívar . This avenue is characterized by many businesses that sell auto parts .
Santo Domingo has an underground and elevated rapid transit metro system. It is the most extensive metro in the Caribbean and Central American region by total length and number of stations. The Santo Domingo Metro is part of a major "National Master Plan" to improve transportation in the city as well as the rest of the nation. The first line was planned to relieve traffic congestion in the Máximo Gómez and Hermanas Mirabal Avenue. The second line, which opened in April 2013, is meant to relieve the congestion along the Duarte-Kennedy-Centenario Corridor in the city from west to east. As of August 2013, the metro consists of these two lines. Four more lines are planned to be constructed in the near future, for a total of six. Before the opening of the second line, 30,856,515 passengers rode the Santo Domingo Metro in 2012. According to government figures more than 300,000 people ride the 31 kilometer system on a daily basis.
In 2018 a 5 kilometer Santo Domingo cable car (teleferico) was opened to the public with the purpose to provide service to the poorest areas to the east and north of the metropolitan area and serve as a feeder for the metro. The cable car is used by more than 12,000 people daily.
Santo Domingo is served by two airports. Aeropuerto Internacional La Isabela a newly constructed airport located in the northern section of the city, within kilometres of the city center. It serves mostly domestic and charter flights. The major international airport that serves the city is Santo Domingo Las Americas, which serves North, Central and South America and also Europe.
The Port of Santo Domingo is located on the Ozama River. Its location at the center of the Caribbean is well suited for flexible itinerary planning and has excellent support, road and airport infrastructure within the Santo Domingo region, which facilitate access and transfers. The port is suitable for both turnaround and transit calls.
The port's renovation is part of a major redevelopment project, aimed at integrating the port area and the Zona Colonial and foster a cruise, yacht, and high-end tourism destination. Supported by legislation approved in 2005, the project, developed by the Sans Souci Group, also includes the development of a new sports marina and a 122-acre (0.49 km2) mixed-leisure real estate development adjacent to the port.
Baseball is the most popular sport in the country. Santo Domingo is home to two of the six teams in the Dominican Professional Baseball League.
These two teams are based in the Estadio Quisqueya Juan Marichal located in Ensanche La Fe.
Santo Domingo's Basketball Tournament Superior is held in the National District each year, with several teams participating and representing several sectors and social clubs of the city.
Some of the teams participating in the tournament include:
There are 15 television stations (both UHF and VHF) in Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo has the greatest number of television signals in the country, followed by Santiago. Additional cable television channels are provided by companies like Aster, Cable TV Dominicana, SKY Dominicana, and Telecable. In Santo Domingo there are 100 different stations in AM frequency and 44 in FM frequency.
Santo Domingo is twinned with:
The 14th Pan American Games were held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, from August 1 until August 17, 2003. The successful bid for the games was made in the mid-1990s, when Dominican Republic had one of the highest growth rates in Latin America.All 42 PASO countries and over 5,223 athletes pre-registered for the participation in the XIV Pan American Games. An additional 2,425 trainers and delegates attended. The United States pre-registered the most athletes (713) and Saint Lucia entered the least (6). The host country entered 562 athletes.Campuzano Polanco family
Campuzano Polanco was an elite family from the colony of Santo Domingo (today Dominican Republic) with origins in Santiago de los Caballeros. Unlike any other family from the colonial era of the Hispaniola, their members and descendants went on to occupy the highest political, military and ecclesiastical positions, not only locally and outside the Island, but also in the metropolis of Spain. Their list of merits extends for over 300 years since the beginning and until the end of the colony.Captaincy General of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo, officially Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Capitanía General de Santo Domingo [kapitaˈni.a xeneˈɾal ðe ˈsanto ðoˈmĩnɣo]) or alternatively Kingdom of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Reino de Santo Domingo) was the first colony established in the New World under Spain. The island was named "La Española" (Hispaniola) by Christopher Columbus. In 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo. French buccaneers took over part of the west coast in 1625 and French settlers arrived soon thereafter. After decades of conflicts Spain finally ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, thus establishing the basis for the later national divisions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo had an important role in the establishment of Spanish colonies in the New World. It was the headquarters for Spanish conquistadors on their way to the conquest of the Americas.Ciudad Colonial (Santo Domingo)
Ciudad Colonial (Spanish for "Colonial City") is the historic central neighborhood of Santo Domingo and the oldest permanent European settlement of the Americas. It has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is also known as Zona Colonial (Colonial Zone) or more colloquially as "La Zona" (The Zone) . The Ciudad Colonial is located on the west bank of the Ozama River, which bisects the city. It covers 1.06 km2 (0.41 sq mi) bounded by a walled perimeter.
It is an important section of the city due to the high number of landmarks, including Alcázar de Colón, Fortaleza Ozama, Catedral de Santa María la Menor, and others.Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic (; Spanish: República Dominicana Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβliˌka ðoˌminiˈkana] (listen)) is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states. The Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area (after Cuba) at 48,671 square kilometers (18,792 sq mi), and third by population with approximately 10 million people, of which approximately three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city.Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century. The colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, and the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years later after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, and a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U.S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer (1966–1978 & 1986–1996), the rules of Antonio Guzmán (1972–1978) & Salvador Jorge Blanco (1982–1986). Since 1996, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía.The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing, tourism, and mining. The country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation (under 1% on average in 2015), job creation, as well as a high level of remittances.
The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions. A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, and the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo. The island has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great climatic and biological diversity. The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport.Era de Francia
In the history of the Dominican Republic, the period of Era de Francia ("Era of France") occurred in 1795 when France acquired the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, annexed it into Saint-Domingue and briefly came to acquire the whole island of Hispaniola by the way of the Treaty of Basel, allowing Spain to cede the eastern colony as a consequence of the French Revolutionary Wars.
During this time, it was also referred to as the French Santo Domingo.Las Américas International Airport
"SDQ" redirects here. SDQ is also the former callsign of a TV station in Warwick, Queensland, Australia.Las Américas International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional Las Américas, or AILA) (IATA: SDQ, ICAO: MDSD) is an international airport located in Punta Caucedo, near Santo Domingo and Boca Chica in the Dominican Republic. The airport is run by Aeropuertos Dominicanos Siglo XXI (AERODOM), a private corporation based in the Dominican Republic under a 25-year concession to build, operate, and transfer (BOT) six of the country's airports. Las Américas usually receives a wide variety of long-, mid- and short-haul aircraft.
The airport is the second-busiest in the country, after Punta Cana International Airport, and one of the largest in the Caribbean, handling 3.5 million passengers in 2015 through its air terminal.Pichincha Province
Pichincha (Spanish pronunciation: [piˈtʃintʃa]) is a province of Ecuador located in the northern sierra region; its capital and largest city is Quito. It is bordered by Imbabura and Esmeraldas to the north, Cotopaxi and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the south, Napo and Sucumbíos to the east, and Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the west.
Prior to 2008, the canton Santo Domingo de los Colorados was part of the Pichincha Province. It has since become its own province, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas.
The province is home to many rose plantations, which make up the bulk of Ecuador's floriculture industry.Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo
The Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo was the first court of the Spanish crown in America. It was created by Ferdinand V of Castile in his decree of 1511, but due to disagreements between the governor of Hispaniola, Diego Colon and the Crown, it was not implemented until it was reestablished by Charles V in his decree of September 14, 1526. This audiencia would become part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon the creation of the latter two decades later. Nevertheless, the audiencia president was at the same time governor and captain general of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, which granted him broad administrative powers and autonomy over the Spanish possessions of the Caribbean and most of its mainland coasts. This combined with the judicial oversight that the audiencia judges had over the region meant that the Santo Domingo Audiencia was the principal political entity of this region during the colonial period.Santo Domingo-Caudilla
Santo Domingo-Caudilla is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2006 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 801 inhabitants.Santo Domingo Este
Santo Domingo Este is a municipality and the provincial capital of the Santo Domingo province in the Dominican Republic. It has one municipal district (distrito municipal), San Luis.Santo Domingo Norte
Santo Domingo Norte is a municipality of the Santo Domingo Province in the Dominican Republic. There is one municipal district (distrito municipal) within the municipality: La Victoria.Santo Domingo Oeste
Santo Domingo Oeste is a municipality of the Santo Domingo province in the Dominican Republic.
For comparison with other municipalities and municipal districts see the list of municipalities and municipal districts of the Dominican Republic.
Santo Domingo Oeste was created as municipality in 2001 by law 163-01 splitting the Santo Domingo province from the Distrito Nacional including parts of metropolitan Santo Domingo west of the DR-1 (Autopista Duarte).Santo Domingo Province
Santo Domingo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsanto ðoˈmiŋɡo]) is a province of the Dominican Republic. It was split from the Distrito Nacional on October 16, 2001.Santo Domingo de Pirón
Santo Domingo de Pirón is a municipality located in the province of Segovia, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 64 inhabitants.Santo Domingo de Silos
Santo Domingo de Silos is a municipality and town located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 292 inhabitants. The village is preserved as a conjunto histórico.Santo Domingo de las Posadas
Santo Domingo de las Posadas is a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census (INE), the municipality has a population of 95 inhabitants.Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Province
Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas is a province in the Republic of Ecuador, created in October 2007 from territory previously in the province of Pichincha.Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo
See also Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino
The Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) (Autonomous University of Santo Domingo) is the public university system in the Dominican Republic with its flagship campus in the Ciudad Universitaria of Santo Domingo and with regional campuses in many cities of the Republic. It was founded by Jose Gabriel Garcia and Emiliano Tejera in 1866 as the Professional Institute, replacing the former Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, one of the first universities of the Western Hemisphere (Americas), which was founded unofficially by a Papal bull in 1538, officially by royal decree in 1558, and closed in 1822. It was later renamed University of Santo Domingo in 1914.
In structure, the school followed the model of the University of Alcalá de Henares. The university organized its offerings into four schools: Medicine, Law, Theology, and the Arts. Today, the University has expanded to eight schools: Humanities, the Arts, Law and Political Science, Health Sciences, Economics and Social Sciences, Science, Engineering and Architecture, and Agricultural Sciences.
Distrito Nacional - Santo Domingo
Dependent territories are in italics
Pan American Games host cities