The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Spanish and Galician: Catedral de Santiago de Compostela) is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela and is an integral component of the Santiago de Compostela World Heritage Site in Galicia, Spain. The cathedral is the reputed burial place of Saint James the Great, the apostles of Jesus Christ. It is also one of the only three known churches in the world built over the tomb of an apostle of Jesus, the other two being St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City and St. Thomas Cathedral Basilica, Chennai in India.
The cathedral has historically been a place of pilgrimage on the Way of St. James since the Early Middle Ages and marks the traditional end of the pilgrimage route. The building is a Romanesque structure, with later Gothic and Baroque additions.
|Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela|
The Western façade of the cathedral as seen from the Praza do Obradoiro.
|District||Santiago de Compostela|
|Leadership||Archbishop Julián Barrio Barrio|
|Location||Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain|
|Architectural style||Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque|
|Direction of façade||West|
|Length||100 metres (330 ft)|
|Width||70 metres (230 ft)|
|Height (max)||75 metres (246 ft)|
|Official name: Santiago de Compostela (Old Town)|
|Criteria||i, ii, vi|
|Official name: Catedral Igrexa Catedral Metropolitana|
|22 August 1896|
|(R.I.) - 51 - 0000072 - 00000|
According to legend, the apostle Saint James the Great brought Christianity to the Iberian Peninsula. In 44 AD, he was beheaded in Jerusalem. His remains were later brought back to Galicia, Spain. Following Roman persecutions of Spanish Christians, his tomb was abandoned in the 3rd century. According to legend, this tomb was rediscovered in 814 AD by the hermit Pelagius, after he witnessed strange lights in the night sky. Bishop Theodomirus of Iria recognized this as a miracle and informed king Alfonso II of Asturias and Galicia (791–842). The king ordered the construction of a chapel on the site. Legend has it that the king was the first pilgrim to this shrine. This was followed by the first church in 829 AD and then in 899 AD by a pre-Romanesque church, ordered by king Alfonso III of León, which caused the gradual development of this major place of pilgrimage.
In 997 the early church was reduced to ashes by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (938–1002), army commander of the caliph of Córdoba. The Al-Andalus commander was accompanied on his raid by his vassal Christian lords, who received a share of the loot, while St James' tomb and relics were left undisturbed. The gates and the bells, carried by local Christian captives to Córdoba, were added to the Aljama Mosque. When Córdoba was taken by king Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236, these same gates and bells were then transported by Muslim captives to Toledo, to be inserted in the Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo.
Construction of the present cathedral began in 1075 under the reign of Alfonso VI of Castile (1040–1109) and the patronage of bishop Diego Peláez. It was built according to the same plan as the monastic brick church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse, probably the greatest Romanesque edifice in France. It was built mostly in granite. Construction was halted several times and, according to the Liber Sancti Iacobi, the last stone was laid in 1122. But by then, the construction of the cathedral was certainly not finished. The cathedral was consecrated in 1211 in the presence of king Alfonso IX of Leon.
According to the Codex Calixtinus the architects were "Bernard the elder, a wonderful master", his assistant Robertus Galperinus, and, later possibly, "Esteban, master of the cathedral works". In the last stage "Bernard, the younger" was finishing the building, while Galperinus was in charge of the coordination. He also constructed a monumental fountain in front of the north portal in 1122.
The city became an episcopal see in 1075 and the church its cathedral. Due to its growing importance as a place of pilgrimage, it was raised to an archiepiscopal see by pope Urban II in 1100. A university was added in 1495.
The cathedral was expanded and embellished with additions in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Each of the façades along with their adjoining squares constitute a magnificent urban square. The Baroque façade of the Praza do Obradoiro square was completed by Fernando de Casas Novoa in 1740. Also in baroque style is the Acibecharía façade by Ferro Caaveiro and Fernández Sarela, later modified by Ventura Rodríguez. The Pratarías façade, built by the Master Esteban in 1103, and most importantly the Pórtico da Gloria, an early work of Romanesque sculpture, were completed by Master Mateo in 1188.
The Pórtico da Gloria ("Portico of the gang gude" in Galician) of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is a Romanesque portico by Master Mateo and his workshop commissioned by King Ferdinand II of León. To commemorate its completion in 1188, the date was carved on a stone and set in the cathedral, and the lintels were placed on the portico. Finalising the complete three-piece set took until 1211, when the temple was consecrated in the presence of King Alfonso IX of León.
The portico has three round arches that correspond to the three naves of the church, supported by thick piers with pilasters. The central arch, twice as wide as the other two, has a tympanum and is divided by a central column—a mullion—containing a depiction of Saint James. Vertically, the lower part is formed by the bases of the columns, decorated with fantastic animals, the middle portion consists of columns adorned with statues of the Apostles, and the upper part supports the base of the arches crowning the three doors. The sculpture is intended to serve as an iconographic representation of various symbols derived from the Book of Revelation and books of the Old Testament.
The arrangement of the tympanum is based on the description of Christ that John the Evangelist makes in Revelation (Chapter 1 v 1 to 18). In the centre, the Pantocrator is shown, with the image of Christ in Majesty, displaying in his hands and feet the wounds of crucifixion. Surrounding Christ is the tetramorph with the figures of the four Evangelists with their attributes: left, top St. John and the eagle and below St. Luke with the ox; on the right above, St. Matthew on the hood of the tax collector and below St. Mark and the lion.
On both sides of the evangelists, behind Mark and Luke, are four angels on each side with the instruments of the Passion of Christ. Some are, without touching them directly, the cross and crown of thorns (left) and lance and four nails (right), another the column in which he was whipped and the jar through which Pontius Pilate proclaimed his innocence. Above the heads of these angels, two large groups of souls of the blessed, forty in all. In the archivolt of the central tympanum are seated the elders of the Apocalypse, each holding a musical instrument, as if preparing a concert in honor of God.
In the mullion, the figure of Saint James is seated with a pilgrim's staff, as a patron of the basilica. St. James appears with a scroll which contains written Misit me Dominus (the Lord sent me). The column just above his head with a capital which represents the temptations of Christ. On three of its sides, facing the inside of the temple, two kneeling angels pray. At the foot of the saint is another capital with the figures of the Holy Trinity. Under the Apostle is a representation of the tree of Jesse, the name given to the family tree of Jesus Christ from Jesse, father of King David; this is the first time that this subject is represented in religious iconography in the Iberian Peninsula. The column rests on a base where there is a figure with beard to his chest (perhaps an image of Noah) and two lions. At the foot of the central column at the top inside, looking towards the main altar of the cathedral, is the kneeling figure of the Master Mateo himself, holding a sign on which is written Architectus. This image is popularly known as Santo dos Croques from the ancient tradition of students hitting their heads against the figure for wisdom, a tradition that was adopted later by pilgrims, although steps are being taken to limit access, to stem deterioration from which the work has suffered.
In the columns of the central door and two side doors, the apostles are represented, as well as prophets and other figures with their iconographic attributes. All are topped with its own capital which represents different animals and human heads with leaf motifs. The names of all the figures are on the books or scrolls held in their hands.
The four pillars of the portico are based on strong foundations which represent various groups of animals and human heads with beards. For some historians, these figures are images of demons and symbolize the weight of glory (the portico in this case) crushing sin. Other sources give an apocalyptic interpretation, with wars, famine and death (represented by the beasts) with situations that can only be saved by human intelligence (the heads of older men).
The arch of the right door represents the Last Judgment. The double archivolt is divided into two equal parts by two heads. Some authors identify these heads with the figures of archangel Michael and Christ. For others, they are Christ-Judge and an angel or may indicate God the Father and God the Son. To the right of these heads, Hell is represented with figures of monsters (demons) that drag and torture the souls of the damned. On the left is Heaven with the elect, with figures of angels with children symbolizing the saved souls.
The arch of the left door depicts scenes from the Old Testament, with the righteous awaiting the arrival of the Savior. In the center of the first archivolt is God the Creator who blesses the pilgrim and holds the Book of Eternal Truth; to his right are Adam (naked), Abraham (with the index raised), and Jacob. With them are two figures that could be Noah (new father of humanity saved through the Flood) and Esau or Isaac and Judah. To the left of God are Eve, Moses, Aaron, King David and Solomon. In the second archivolt, the top, ten small figures represent the twelve tribes of Israel.
The Obradoiro square in front of the façade alludes to the workshop (obradoiro, in Galician) of stonemasons who worked on the square during the construction of the cathedral. In order to protect the Pórtico da Gloria from deterioration caused by weather, this façade and towers have had several reforms since the 16th century. In the 18th century it was decided to build the current Baroque façade, designed by Fernando de Casas Novoa. It has large glazed windows that illuminate the ancient Romanesque façade, located between the towers of the Bells and of the Ratchet. In the middle of the central body is St. James and one level below his two disciples Athanasius and Theodore, all dressed as pilgrims. In between, the urn (representing the found tomb) and the star (representing the lights Hermit Pelagius saw) between angels and clouds. The tower on the right depicts Mary Salome, mother of St. James, and the tower on the left depicts his father Zebedee. The balustrade on the left side depicts St. Susanna and St. John and the one on the right depicts St. Barbara and James the Less.
A stair allows entrance to the façade. The stair was made in the 17th century by Ginés Martínez and it is of Renaissance style inspired by Giacomo Vignola of Palazzo Farnese. It is diamond-shaped with two ramps that surround the entrance to the old 12th century Romanesque crypt of the Master Mateo, popularly called the "Old Cathedral".
Between the existing plane of the façade of the Obradoiro and the old Romanesque portal (Pórtico da Gloria) there is a covered narthex.
This façade has become a symbol of the cathedral and the city of Santiago de Compostela. As such, it is the engraving on the back of the Spanish euro coins of 1, 2 and 5 cents.
The façade of the Silverware (Pratarías in Galician) is the southern façade of the transept of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela; it is the only Romanesque façade that is preserved in the cathedral. It was built between 1103 and 1117 and elements from other parts of the cathedral have been added in subsequent years. The square is bound by the cathedral and cloister on two sides. Next to the cathedral is the Casa do Cabido.
It has two entrance doors in degradation with archivolts and historical tympanums. The archivolts are attached over eleven columns, three are of white marble (middle and corners) and the rest of granite. In the center are the figures of twelve prophets and the Apostles on the sideline. On the tympanums is a large frieze separated from the upper body by a strip supported by grotesque corbels; on this floor are two windows decorated with Romanesque archivolts.
In the central frieze is Christ, with various characters and scenes. On the right six figures belong to the choir of Master Mateo that were placed in the late 19th century. The original provision of the iconographic elements was invalidated since in the 18th century numerous images were introduced recovered from the dismantled Acibecharía facade. A central medallion shows the Eternal Father (or Transfiguration) with open hands and on the top surface there are four angels with trumpets heralding the Final Judgment.
In the tympanum of the left door is Christ tempted by a group of demons. To the right is a half-dressed woman with a skull in her hands, which could be Eve or the adulterous woman. This figure is not praying on her knees but is sitting on two lions. The jambs are Saint Andrew and Moses. In the left abutment, the Biblical King David seated on his throne with his legs crossed, translucent through the thin fabric of his clothes, and playing what appears to be a rebec, personifies the triumph over evil and is an outstanding Romanesque work, sculpted by Master Esteban. The creation of Adam and Christ's blessing is also shown. Many of these figures come from the Romanesque façade of the north or do Paraíso (current façade of the Acibecharía) and were placed on this façade in the 18th century.
Registration follows the Roman calendar, according to the computation of the Spanish era, corresponding to July 11, 1078. An image, unidentified, of a fox eating a rabbit and, against this, a badly dressed woman with an animal in her lap. Supported on the wall of the tower Berenguela appear other images representing the creation of Eve, Christ on a throne, and the Binding of Isaac.
The façade "da Acibecharía" (Galician name derived from the jet gemstone) is in the Praza da Inmaculada or Acibecharía, draining the last section of urban roads: French, Primitive, Northern and English through the old gate Franxígena or Paradise door. The Romanesque portal was built in 1122 by Bernardo, treasurer of the temple. This portal was demolished after suffering a fire in 1758; some sculptural pieces that were saved were placed on the façade das Pratarías. The new façade was designed in Baroque style by Lucas Ferro Caaveiro and finished by Domingo Lois Monteagudo and Clemente Fernández Sarela in the neoclassical style in 1769, although it retained some traces of the baroque.
The façade of the cathedral that overlooks the Quintana Square has two gates: the Porta Real (royal gate) and the Porta Santa (holy gate). The construction of the Porta Real, baroque, was begun under the direction of José de Vega y Verdugo and by José de la Peña de Toro in 1666, and was completed by Domingo de Andrade in 1700, who built some of the columns that span two floors of windows, a balustrade with large pinnacles, and an aedicula with an equestrian statue of Saint James (now disappeared), well adorned with decorative fruit clusters and large-scale military trophies. The kings of Spain entered the cathedral through this door, hence its name, and the royal coat of arms on its lintel.
The so-called Holy Door (Porta Santa) or Door of Forgiveness (Porta do Perdón) is the closest to the steps. It is usually closed with a fence and opened only in Jubilee Years (years when St James's Day, 25 July, falls on a Sunday). It was one of the seven lesser gates and was dedicated to St. Pelagius (whose monastery is just opposite). On this door niches contain the image of James, with his disciples Athanasius and Theodore at his side. On the bottom and sides of the door were placed twenty-four figures of prophets and apostles (including St. James) coming from the old stone choir of Master Mateo. Inside this door through a small courtyard is the true Holy Door, which enters into the ambulatory of the apse of the church.
The early towers in the main façade of the cathedral were Romanesque (current façade of the Obradoiro). They are called the Torre das Campás, which is situated on the side of the Epistle (right) and Torre da Carraca, to the side of the Gospel (left). The two have a height of between 75 and 80 metres.
The first part of the tower was built in the 12th century, but in the 15th century several modifications were made and King Louis XI of France donated in 1483 the two largest of the thirteen bells.
Due to a tilt that was detected in its structure between the 16th and 17th centuries, the towers had to be reinforced with buttresses, between 1667 and 1670. The towers housing the bells were made by José de la Peña de Toro (1614–1676) in a baroque style, and completed by Domingo de Andrade. The architecture of the towers has a great effect in perspective with its vertical lines and the sequencing of its floors.
It is located to the left of the façade del Obradoiro, and was built – like its partner – on the opposite side of an earlier tower of the Romanesque period. It was designed by Fernando de Casas Novoa in 1738, imitating the bell towers by Peña de Toro and Domingo de Andrade in the 17th century: baroque decorations adorned all kinds of ornamentation that provided a unifying architecture across the façade.
The Clock Tower, also called Torre da Trindade or, Berenguela, is at the intersection of the Pratarías square and the Quintana square. Traditionally, construction was thought to begin in 1316, at the request of Archbishop Rodrigo de Padrón as a defence tower. After his death his successor, Archbishop Bérenger de Landore, continued work on it, though these dates are questioned by some authors. When he became main master of the cathedral, Domingo de Andrade continued with its construction and between 1676 and 1680 raised it two floors higher; the use of various structures achieved a harmonious and ornamental design, with a pyramid-shaped crown and a lantern as a final element, with four light bulbs permanently lit. It rises to seventy-five metres.
In 1833 a clock was placed on each side of the tower by Andrés Antelo, commissioned by the Archbishop Rafael de Vélez. As part of its mechanism it has two bells, one, at the hour, called Berenguela, and a smaller one marking the quarter hours. These two were cast in 1729 by Güemes Sampedro. Berenguela has a diameter of 255 cm and a height of 215 cm, weighing approximately 9,600 kilos, and the smaller weighs 1,839 kilos with diameter 147 cm and height 150 cm. Both original bells cracked, forcing their replacement. The current replicas were cast in Asten (Netherlands) by the Eijsbouts house in 1989 and were placed in the cathedral in February 1990.
The cathedral is 97 m long and 22 m high. It preserves its original, barrel-vaulted, cruciform, Romanesque interior. It consists of a nave, two lateral aisles, a wide transept, and a choir with radiating chapels. Compared with many other important churches, the interior of this cathedral gives a first impression of austerity until one enters further and sees the magnificent organ and the exuberance of the choir. It is the largest Romanesque church in Spain and one of the largest in Europe.
The 12th-century Portico da Gloria, behind the western façade, is in the narthex of the west portal. It is a remain from the Romanesque period, a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo at the request of king Ferdinand II of León. The vigorous naturalism of the figures in this triple portal is an expression of an art form, varied in its details, workmanship and polychromy (of which faint traces of colour remain). The shafts, tympana and archivolts of the three doorways which open onto the nave and the two aisles are a mass of strong and vibrant sculpture representing the Last Judgment.
The central tympanum gives an image of Christ in Majesty as Judge and Redeemer, showing His wounds in His feet and hands, accompanied by the tetramorph. He is surrounded on both sides by a retinue of angels carrying the symbols of the Passion. In the archivolt are represented the 24 Elders of the Apocalypse, who are playing musical instruments.
The column statues represent the apostles with their attribute, along with prophets and Old Testament figures with their name on a book or parchment. These were all polychromed. The faint smile of the prophet Daniel as he looks at the angel of Reims is especially noteworthy.
The middle pier represents Saint James, his face conveying an ecstatic serenity. The text scroll in his hand shows the words Misit me Dominus (the Lord sent me). Below him is the Tree of Jesse (the lineage leading to Christ), while above is a representation of the Trinity. It is customary for the pilgrims to touch the left foot of this statue, signifying that they have reached their destination. So many pilgrims have laid their hands on the pillar to rest, that a groove has been worn in the stone.
The lateral portals are dedicated to the Jews on the left and to the unbelievers on the right.
The right tympanum is divided into three parts and is dedicated to the theme of salvation. In the centre are Christ and St Michael, flanked by Hell (represented by demons) and Heaven (represented by children). Purgatory is shown on the side. The left tympanum shows scenes from the Old Testament.
Demons are represented at the bottom of the pórtico, signifying that Glory crushes sin.
Behind the portico stands the statue of Maestro Mateo, the master architect and sculptor put in charge of the cathedral building programme in the 12th century by Fernando II. It is said that whoever butts their head three times against the statue will be given a portion of Mateo's genius and perhaps enhanced memory. There was formerly a long line of visitors waiting to touch their head against the statue, but it is now blocked off because an indentation started to develop from the repeated contact.
The sculptures in this portico were a reference point for Galician sculpture until the 15th century.
The barrel-vaulted nave and the groin-vaulted aisles consist of eleven bays, while the wide transept consists of six bays. Every clustered pier is flanked by semi-columns, three of which carry the cross vaults of the side aisles and the truss of the arched vaults, while the fourth reaches to the spring of the vault. Lit galleries run, at a remarkable height, above the side aisles around the church.
The choir is covered by three bays and surrounded with an ambulatory and five radiating chapels. The vault of the apse is pierced by round windows, forming a clerestory. The choir displays a surprising exuberance in this Romanesque setting. An enormous baldachin, with a sumptuous decorated statue of Saint James from the 13th century, rises above the main altar. The pilgrims can kiss the saint's mantle via a narrow passage behind the altar.
In the choir aisle the beautiful lattice work and the vault of the Mondragon chapel (1521) stand out. The radiating chapels constitute a museum of paintings, retables, reliquaries and sculptures, accumulated throughout the centuries. In the Chapel of the Reliquary (Galician: Capela do Relicario) is a gold crucifix, dated 874, containing an alleged piece of the True Cross.
The crypt, below the main altar, shows the substructure of the 9th-century church. This was the final destination of the pilgrims. The crypt houses the relics of Saint James and two of his disciples: Saint Theodorus and Saint Athanasius. The silver reliquary (by José Losada, 1886) was put in the crypt at the end of the 19th century, after authentication of the relics by Pope Leo XIII in 1884.
Throughout the course of time, the burial place of the saint had been almost forgotten. Because of regular Dutch and English incursions, the relics had been transferred in 1589 from their place under the main altar to a safer place. They were rediscovered in January 1879.
A dome above the crossing contains the pulley mechanism to swing the "Botafumeiro", which is a famous thurible found in this church. It was created by the goldsmith José Losada in 1851. The Santiago de Compostela Botafumeiro is the largest censer in the world, weighing 80 kg and measuring 1.60 m in height. It is normally on exhibition in the library of the cathedral, but during certain important religious holidays it is attached to the pulley mechanism, filled with 40 kg of charcoal and incense. In the Jubilee Years (whenever St James's Day falls on a Sunday) the Botafumeiro is also used in all the Pilgrims' Masses. Eight red-robed tiraboleiros pull the ropes and bring it into a swinging motion almost to the roof of the transept, reaching speeds of 80 km/h and dispensing thick clouds of incense.
The decade of the 1070s in art involved some significant events.1078
Year 1078 (MLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.1211
Year 1211 (MCCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Botafumeiro
The Botafumeiro (Galician for "smoke expeller") is a famous thurible found in the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral. In the past, similar devices were used in large churches in Galicia; one is still used in the Tui Cathedral. Incense is burned in this swinging metal container, or "censer".Facade
A facade (also façade; ) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face".
In architecture, the facade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is also of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws greatly restrict or even forbid their alteration.Geoffroy III de Pons
Geoffroy III de Pons, Lord of Pons, was a 12th-century French noble.Juana de Castro
Juana de Castro (died 21 August 1374) was queen of Castile, as wife of King Peter of Castile and sister of Inês de Castro.
She was the daughter of Pedro Fernández de Castro and Isabel Ponce de Leon. She married King Peter in 1354.
Her tomb is in the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral.List of cultural icons of Spain
This List of cultural icons of Spain is a list of links to potential cultural icons of Spain.Mestre Mateo Awards
The Mestre Mateo Awards, known in Galician as Premios Mestre Mateo, are the main film awards in Galicia, celebrated annually. The awards were established in 2002 by the Galician Academy of Audiovisual as a continuation and expansion of the Chano Piñeiro Awards (Premios Chano Piñeiro), originally established in 2002.
The trophy is inspired by the Master Mateo's Santo dos Croques, a sculpture of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral.Modesto Brocos
Modesto Brocos y Gómez (9 February 1852 – 28 November 1936) was a Brazilian painter, designer and engraver of Galician origin.Portico of Glory
The Portal of Glory (Pórtico da Gloria) of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is a Romanesque portico and the cathedral's main gate created by Master Mateo and his workshop, on the orders of King Ferdinand II of León. The king donated to Mateo one hundred maravedís annually between 1168 and 1188. To commemorate its completion in 1188, the date was carved on a stone set in the cathedral and on the lintel that supports the richly ornamental tympanum. Under the contract made in 1168, if Mateo was to renege on the deal to create the portico at any time, he would have to pay 1,000 gold pieces (aureos). The complete three-piece set took until 1211 to completely finish; when the cathedral was consecrated in the presence of King Alfonso IX of León.Originally projected as a four-part division, it was modified into a three-part format, which changed the proportions of the entire portal. With over 200 Romanesque style sculptures, the portico is the artistic high-point of the cathedral and often considered the greatest work of Spanish Romanesque sculpture. The Pórtico de la Gloria consists of an inner double-arched porch and finished with an outer western façade. The lateral archivolts were left undecorated, which might have been due to time restraints to finish the gate for the Jubilee of 1182 and formal procession of pilgrims.The pure Romanesque fabric was altered slightly and later encased with a Baroque facade. Before the facade was erected, the portico would be seen from afar and would take pilgrims up a large flight of stairs to approach it. Without door valves, the three large arches were decorated with angels and foliage and framed the ciborium and altar at the end of the nave. Prophets and apostles form the columns and jambs welcoming pilgrims inside the church.
Though the portal was originally poly-chromed, the numerous traces of the remaining paint seen today are due to later interventions. Records show that the portico was repainted often with contracts surviving from the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. Two types of paintings are distinguishable now on the structure. On some of the figures, the paint is powdery; the colors are light, soft and clear without any additional ornaments. This dates back to the fifteenth or sixteenth century. The more enamel-like painting is harsher and darker with ornamental patterns dated back to the 17th century in a similar style to offering boxes in 1656.Concealed now by the Churrigueresque west front, the porch or narthex is no longer viewable from the exterior. The church is responsible for the preservation of the portal to this day. The doors were never closed day or night in the Middle Ages.Praza do Obradoiro
The Praza do Obradoiro (Galician for "Square of the Workshop") is main square of the Santiago de Compostela old town, although not placed at the real centre. It lies to the West of the main façade of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral, and thus the Pórtico da Gloria must be crossed to get into the building from the square. It is surrounded by four important buildings, said to represent the four powers of the city: the aforementioned Santiago de Compostela cathedral to the East (the Church), Hostal dos Reis Católicos (the doctors and bourgeoisie) to the North, Pazo de Raxoi (the government; after the Spanish transition to democracy was seat for the President of the Xunta of Galicia, nowadays the city council) to the West and the Colexio de San Xerome (the university) to the South. Once being crossed by cars, now is mainly pedestrian as the rest of the old town, with only traffic for taxis and (un)loading delivery lorries.
The floor is decorated by eight rays starting from the center, where a plaque commemorates the World Heritage Site pilgrims' way of Camiño de Santiago, whose final target is around here.Romanesque architecture in Spain
Romanesque architecture in Spain is the architectural style reflective of Romanesque architecture, with peculiar influences both from architectural styles outside the Iberian peninsula via Italy and France as well as traditional architectural patterns from within the peninsula. Romanesque architecture was developed in and propagated throughout Europe for more than two centuries, ranging approximately from the late tenth century until well into the thirteenth century.
During the eighth century, though Carolingian Renaissance extended its influence to Christian Western Europe, Christian Spain remained attached to the traditional Hispano-Roman and Gothic culture, without being influenced by European cultural movements, until the arrival of the Romanesque.
Romanesque architecture spread throughout the entire northern half of Spain, reaching as far as the Tagus river, at the height of the Reconquista and Repoblación, movements which greatly favoured the Romanesque development. The First Romanesque style spread from Lombardy to the Catalan region via the Marca Hispánica, where it was developed and from where it spread to the rest of the peninsula with the help of the Camino de Santiago and the Benedictine monasteries. Its mark was left especially on religious buildings (e.g. cathedrals, churches, monasteries, cloisters, chapels) which have survived into the twenty-first century, some better preserved than others. Civil monuments (bridges, palaces, castles, walls and towers) were also built in this style, although few have survived.Santiago Cathedral
Santiago Cathedral may refer to:
Bilbao Cathedral, Spain
Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, Spain
Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral, ChileSt. Thomas Cathedral Basilica, Chennai
San Thome Church, also known as St. Thomas Cathedral Basilica and International Shrine of Saint Thomas is a Roman Catholic (Latin Rite) minor basilica in Santhome, in the city of Chennai (Madras), India. It was built in the 16th century by Portuguese explorers, over the tomb of Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. In 1893, it was rebuilt as a church with the statue of a cathedral by the British. The British version still stands today. It was designed in Neo-Gothic style, favoured by British architects in the late 19th century. This church is one of the only three known churches in the world built over the tomb of an apostle of Jesus, the other two being St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City and Santiago de Compostela Cathedral in Galicia, Spain.Thurible
A thurible (via Old French from Medieval Latin turibulum) is a metal censer suspended from chains, in which incense is burned during worship services. It is used in Christian churches including the Roman Catholic, Maronite Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic and Oriental Orthodox, as well as in some Lutheran, Old Catholic, United Methodist, Reformed, Presbyterian Church USA, Anglican churches (with its use almost universal amongst Anglo Catholic Anglican churches). In Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Anglican churches, the altar server who carries the thurible is called the thurifer. The practice is rooted in the earlier traditions of Judaism in the time of the Second Jewish Temple.Beyond its ecclesiastical use, the thurible is also employed in various other spiritual or ceremonial traditions, including some Gnostic Churches, Freemasonry (especially in the consecration of new lodges), and in Co-Freemasonry. Thuribles are sometimes employed in the practice of ceremonial magic.The workings of a thurible are quite simple. Each thurible consists of a censer section, chains (typically three or four, although single-chain thuribles also exist), a metal ring around the chains (used to lock the lid of the censer section in place), and usually (although not always) a removable metal crucible in which the burning charcoals are placed. Many thuribles are supplied with a stand, allowing the thurible to be hung safely when still hot, but not in use. Burning charcoal is placed inside the metal censer, either directly into the bowl section, or into a removable crucible if supplied, and incense (of which there are many different varieties) is placed upon the charcoal, where it melts to produce a sweet smelling smoke. This may be done several times during the service as the incense burns quite quickly. Once the incense has been placed on the charcoal the thurible is then closed and used for censing.A famous thurible is the huge Botafumeiro in Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, SpainThe word "thurible" comes from the Old French thurible, which in turn is derived from the Latin term thuribulum. The Latin thuribulum is further formed from the root thus, meaning incense. Thus is an alteration of the Greek word θύος (thuos), which is derived from θύειν (thuein) "to sacrifice".Due to the ceremonial use of incense, its cultural importance in western Catholicism can be seen e.g. in the introduction of a incense smelling fragrance "Avignon" in 2002. Avignon was created for Comme des Garçons as a part of their incense series by Bertrand Duchaufour. Thus the introduction of incense in Christian worship here and there within various denominations is paralleled by wider cultural interest turning again back from the oriental mysticism also to western use of incense.