Santa Fe de Nuevo México

Santa Fe de Nuevo México (English: Santa Fe [Holy Faith] of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico in English) was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico. The first capital was San Juan de los Caballeros from 1598 until 1610, and from 1610 onward the capital was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The naming, capital, the Palace of the Governors, and rule of law were retained as the New Mexico Territory, and the subsequent U.S. State of New Mexico, became a part of the United States. The New Mexican citizenry, primarily consisting of Hispano, Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche peoples, became citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Nuevo México is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, it was named by Spanish explorers who believed the area contained wealthy Amerindian cultures similar to those of the Aztec Empire (centered in the Valley of Mexico), and called the land the "Santa Fe de Nuevo México".[1][2][3]

Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (1598–1821),
Territory of the First Mexican Empire (1821–23),
Territory of the First Mexican Republic (1823–1848)

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Flag of the Mexican Republic
Location of Santa Fé de Nuevo México
Capital Santa Fe
35°40′N 105°57.9′W / 35.667°N 105.9650°WCoordinates: 35°40′N 105°57.9′W / 35.667°N 105.9650°W
Spanish governors
 •  1598–1610 (first) Juan de Oñate
 •  1818–1822 (last) Facundo Melgares
Mexican governors
 •  July – Nov. 1822 (first) Francisco Xavier Chávez
 •  August – Sept. 1846 (last) Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid
 •  Spanish missions in New Mexico 1598
 •  Mexican Independence 1821
 •  Texian Independenceb March 2, 1836
 •  Mexican–American War from April 25, 1846
 •  Surrender to U.S. occupation September 1846
 •  Mexican Cession February 2, 1848
 •  New Mexico statehood January 6, 1912
Today part of  United States
While the Mexican territory theoretically existed until the Mexican Cession under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848, the New Mexico Territory had been annexed under U.S. military occupation in September 1846, after the surrender by Mexican interim governor Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid to General Stephen W. Kearny.


Sangre de Christo Mountains-Winter sunset
Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east of Santa Fe: a winter sunset after a snowfall

Nuevo México was centered on the upper valley of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte): from the crossing point of Oñate on the river south of Ciudad Juárez, it extended north, encompassing an area that included most of the present-day U.S. state of New Mexico. It had variably defined borders, and included sections of present-day U.S. states: western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, and the Oklahoma panhandle. Actual Spanish settlements were centered at Santa Fe, and extended north to Taos pueblo and south to Albuquerque. Except for the first decade of the province's existence, its capital was in the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains at the ancient city of La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís (modern day Santa Fe).


Spanish colonial province

16th century

The Nuevo México Province was created by Philip II of Spain and was officially settled during the 1598 expedition by Juan de Oñate, governor; he established the colonial settlement San Juan de los Caballeros near Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. The expedition had been authorized by Philip II to survey the region. Though the Spanish believed that cities of gold such as the ones of the Aztecs, whom they had previously conquered, lay to the north in the unexplored territory, the major goal was to spread Catholicism. Other expeditions had taken place before Oñate's 1598 expedition. He was unable to find any riches, however. As governor, he mingled with the Pueblo people and was responsible for the establishment of Spanish rule in the area.

Oñate served as the first governor of the Nuevo México Province from 1598 to 1610. He hoped to make it a separate viceroyalty from New Spain in an original agreement made in 1595, but the terms failed when the Viceroy changed hands in 1596. After a two-year delay and lengthy vetting by the new viceroy, Oñate was finally allowed to cross the Rio Grande River into modern day Texas and New Mexico.

17th century

Most of the Spanish missions in Nuevo México were established during the early 17th century with varying degrees of success and failure, oftentimes building directly atop ancient pueblo ruins, and in the centers of pueblos. Some pueblos were friendly to the foreigners, but after cultural differences and the banishment of local religions tensions against the Spanish rose significantly. After compounding misdeeds and overbearing taxes by the Spanish invaders, the indigenous communities rebelled in what is now referred to as the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. This rebellion saw the Spanish expelled from Nuevo México for a period of 12 years and the pueblo people were able to regain lost lands. They returned to battle against the Spanish who sought restoration in 1692 of the conquered holdings. The reoccupation of Santa Fe was accomplished by Diego de Vargas. The province came under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Guadalajara, with oversight by the Viceroy of New Spain at Mexico City.

18th century

In 1777, with the creation of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, the Nuevo México Province was removed from the oversight of the Viceroy and placed solely in the jurisdiction of the Commandant General of the Provincias Internas.

Mexican territory

Mexico 1824 (equirectangular projection)
Province of New Mexico when it belonged to Mexico in 1824

The province remained in Spanish control until Mexico's declaration of independence in 1821. Under the 1824 Constitution of Mexico, it became the federally administered Territory of New Mexico.

The part of the former province east of the Rio Grande was claimed by the Republic of Texas which won its independence in 1836. This claim was disputed by Mexico. In 1841, the Texans sent the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, ostensibly for trade but with hopes of occupying the claimed area, but the expedition was captured by Mexican troops.[4]

American territory

The United States inherited the unenforced claim to the east bank with the Texas Annexation in 1845. The U.S. Army under Stephen Kearny occupied the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War, a provisional government was established, and Mexico recognized its loss to the United States in 1848 with the Mexican Cession in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Texas continued to claim the eastern part, but never succeeded in establishing control except in El Paso. However, in the Compromise of 1850 Texas accepted $10 million in exchange for its claim to areas within and north of the present boundaries of New Mexico and the Texas panhandle.[5]

President Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln both proposed that New Mexico immediately become a state to sidestep political conflict over slavery in the territories. New Mexico did not become a state until January 1912.

See also


  1. ^ Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 79.
  2. ^ Sanchez, Joseph P. (1987). The Rio Abajo Frontier, 1540–1692: A History of Early Colonial New Mexico. Albuquerque: Museum of Albuquerque History Monograph Series. p. 51.
  3. ^ Stewart, George (2008) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-59017-273-5. There was Francisco de Ibarra, a great seeker after gold mines. In 1563 he went far to the north ... when he returned south, Ibarra boasted that he had discovered a New Mexico. Doubtless, like others, he stretched the tale, and certainly the land of which he told was well south of the one now so called. Yet men remembered the name Nuevo México, though not at first as that of the region which Coronado had once conquered.
  4. ^ Carroll, H. Bailey. "Texan Santa Fe Expedition". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
  5. ^ Griffin, Roger A. "Compromise of 1850". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
Agua Mansa, California

Agua Mansa ("gentle water") is a former settlement in an unincorporated area of San Bernardino County, near Colton, California, United States. Now a ghost town, only the cemetery remains, it once was the largest settlement in San Bernardino County.

The town was established in 1845 in Mexican Alta California. It was on the Santa Ana River, across from the Mexican era settlement of La Placita. Agua Mansa and La Placita were the first non-native settlements in the San Bernardino Valley. Together known as "San Salvador", they were also the largest settlements between Santa Fe de Nuevo México and the Pueblo de Los Ángeles in the 1840s.

Antonio Narbona

Antonio Narbona (1773 – 20 March 1830) was a Spanish soldier from Mobile, now in Alabama, who fought native American people in the northern part of Mexico (now the southwestern United States) around the turn of the nineteenth century. He supported the independence of Mexico from Spain in 1821.

He was Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) from September 1825 until 1827.

Bartolomé Baca

Bartolomé Baca (c. 1767 – 30 April 1834) was Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) from August 1823 until September 1825.

His very large landholdings were later the subject of disputes that eventually went to the Supreme Court of the United States.


Biscochitos or bizcochitos are a crisp lard- or butter-based cookie, flavored with cinnamon and anise. The name is a Spanish diminutive form of bizcocho. The dough is rolled and traditionally cut into the shape of stars and crescent moons.

The cookie was developed by residents of New Mexico over the centuries from the first Spanish colonists of what was then known as Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The recipe for making the cookie has been greatly influenced not only by local and indigenous customs but also by recipes brought to New Mexico by immigrants from other Hispanic countries.

Biscochitos are served during special celebrations, such as wedding receptions, baptisms, and religious holidays (especially during the Christmas season). It is commonly served along with hot chocolate. The cookie is seldom known outside the boundaries of the original Spanish province, although Spanish speakers may recognize the association with bizcocho, from the name, and may have some idea of what they must be, even if they have not encountered them before.

Francisco Xavier Chávez

Francisco Xavier Chávez (sometimes spelt as Francisco Xavier Cháves) was a Hispano landowner and merchant who was the second jefe político (equivalent to governor) of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1822.

Gaspar Domingo de Mendoza

Gaspar Domingo de Mendoza y Delgado was a Spanish soldier in the War of the Spanish Succession. He later served as the Spanish colonial governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México province (present day New Mexico) from 1739 to 1743, located in the northern Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial Mexico and Central America).


Hispanos (from Spanish: adj. prefix Hispano- relating to Spain, from Latin: Hispānus) are people of colonial Spanish descent traditionally from what is today the Southwestern United States, who retained a predominantly Spanish culture, and have remained living there since before that region was territorially incorporated into the United States, dating back as far as the early 16th century when it was a part of New Spain. The distinction was made to compensate for flawed U.S. Census practices in the 1930s which used to characterize Hispanic people as recent immigrants rather than centuries-long established settlers, or as non-whites.The largest of these groups are the Hispanos of New Mexico, originating in Spanish and Mexican Santa Fe de Nuevo México, they have left a large impact on New Mexico’s culture, cuisine, and music. Many of the New Mexican Hispanos are mestizos, of mixed Hispanic ancestry, with Pueblo, Apache, Navajo, Comanche, and Native Mexican heritage.

Joaquín Codallos

Joaquín Codallos y Rabal was a Spanish soldier who served as the Spanish colonial governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México province (present day New Mexico) from 1743 and 1749, located in the northern Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México).

José Antonio Chaves

José Antonio Cháves (or Chávez) was géfe político or Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) from September 1829 until 1832.

List of Mexican governors of New Mexico

Mexican Governors of New Mexico were the political chief executives of the province and later territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) between 1822, when Mexico gained independence from Spain, and 1846, when the United States occupied the territory following the Mexican–American War.

List of Spanish governors of New Mexico

Spanish Governors of New Mexico were the political chief executives of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) between 1598, when it was discovered during an expedition by Juan de Oñate, and 1822, following Mexico's declaration of independence. The territory was subsequently occupied by the United States beginning in 1846, and became a state in 1912.

Manuel de Portillo y Urrisola

Manuel de Portillo y Urrisola, also known as Manuel de Portillo y Urrizola, was a judge who served as the acting Spanish colonial governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México province (present day New Mexico) from 1760 to 1762, located in the northern Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México).

Mariano Martínez de Lejanza

Mariano Martínez de Lejanza was acting Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) from 1844 to 1845.

New Mexico music

New Mexico music (Spanish: Música Nuevo Méxicana) is a genre of music that originated in the US State of New Mexico, it derives from the Puebloan music in the 13th century, and with the folk music of Hispanos during the 16th to 19th centuries in Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The music went through several changes during pre-statehood, mostly during the developments of Mexican folk and cowboy Western music. After statehood, New Mexico music continued to grow in popularity with native New Mexicans, mostly with the Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Neomexicanos, and the descendants of the American frontier. Shortly after statehood, during the early 1900s, elements of Country music and American folk music began to become incorporated into the genre. The 1950s and 1960s brought the influences of Blues, Jazz, Rockabilly, and Rock and roll into New Mexico music; and, during the 1970s, the genre entered popular music in the state, with artists like Al Hurricane and Freddie Brown receiving airtime locally on KANW, and international recognition on the syndicated Val De La O Show. Also, prominently featured on the Val de la O Show were other Southwestern artists performing Regional Mexican and Tejano music, this brought a more general audience to New Mexico music.

The sound of New Mexico music is distinguished by its steady rhythm, usually provided by drums or guitar, while accompanied by instruments common in Pueblo music, Western, Norteño, Apache music, Country, Mariachi, and Navajo music. Country and western music lend their drum and/or guitar style sections, while the steadiness of the rhythm owes its origins to the music of the Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo. And the differing rates of that tempo comes from the three common Ranchera rhythm speeds, the polka at 2/4 (ranchera polkeada), the waltz at 3/4 (ranchera valseada), and/or the bolero at 4/4 (bolero ranchero).

The language of the vocals in New Mexico music is usually Spanish and New Mexican Spanish; American and New Mexican English; Spanglish; Tiwa; Hopi; Zuni; Navajo; and/or Southern Athabaskan languages.

Outside of New Mexico, nationally and internationally, New Mexico music is classified under several different genres, including, World, Country, Latin, Reggae, and Folk. In Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Utah it is sometimes placed as a subgenre of Latin music, this is especially true in Arizona, Southern Colorado, and the Oklahoma panhandle. And, in Mexico and Texas, it is sometimes classified as Norteño or Ranchera.

Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta

Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta was the Spanish colonial governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México province (present day New Mexico) from 1767 to 1777, located in the northern Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México).

He saved the public buildings of Santa Fe, including the governor's house, when the city was flooded. His government paid great attention to the regulation and punishment of crimes in New Mexico, which were especially abundant in Albuquerque and Santa Fe. He also had to fight the Comanches, who frequently attacked the population of northern New Mexico. He tried to make a peace treaty with them, but it failed when the Comanches disobeyed the treaty, and he established a better defense system in New Mexico.

Peralta (surname)

Peralta (Spanish pronunciation: [peˈɾalta]) is a Spanish surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Arnold Peralta (1989–2015), Honduran former footballer Rangers F.C.

Austin Peralta (1990–2012), American jazz musician

Chad Peralta (born 1985), Filipino-Australian singer and actor

David Peralta (born 1987), outfielder for the Arizona Diamondbacks

Felipe Peralta (born 1962), Paraguayan footballer

Gonzalo Peralta (born 1980), Argentine footballer

Gregorio Peralta (1935–2001), Argentine boxer

Horacio Peralta (born 1982), Uruguayan footballer

Irma Peralta (born 1936), Mexican ceramist

Jhonny Peralta (born 1982), shortstop for the St. Louis Cardinals

Joel Peralta (born 1976), relief pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers

Jose Peralta (1971-2018), American politician

José Francisco de Peralta (1786–1844), Costa Rican priest and politician

Julio Peralta (born 1981), Chilean tennis player

Luís María Peralta (1759–1851), soldier and owner of Rancho San Antonio

María Teresa de Larraín y Guzmán Peralta (1785 – c. 1840), former First Lady of Chile and wife of President Agustín Eyzaguirre

Macario Peralta, Jr. (1913–1965), Filipino WWII guerrilla commander

Oribe Peralta (born 1984), Mexican footballer

Osvaldo Peralta (born 1971), Paraguayan footballer

Pedro de Peralta (about 1583–1659), Spanish governor of Santa Fé de Nuevo México (1609-1614)

Rafael Peralta (1979–2004), U.S. Marine nominated for the Medal of Honor

Sixto Peralta (born 1979), Argentine football player

Stacy Peralta (born 1957), American director and former professional skateboarder

Wily Peralta (born 1989), American baseball player

Santiago Abreú

Santiago Abreú (died 8 August 1837) was governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (New Mexico) from 1832 to 1833.

He was a victim of the Chimayó Rebellion of 1837.

He was dismembered before being allowed to die.Santiago Abreú was deputy to the Congress in Mexico City from 1825–26, and was appointed governor in 1832-33.Abreú was a supporter of Governor Albino Pérez, who had become extremely unpopular for enforcing the decisions of the centrist government of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, which included reduction of local political control and imposition of new taxes.

During the rebellion against Pérez which broke out on 7 August 1837, Abreú was captured near the rancho of Cerrillos and imprisoned in Santo Domingo.

The next day he was taken from jail by a mob that tore off his penis and decapitated him.

His brother Ramón Abreu, publisher of the newspaper El Crepúsculo de la Libertad, was also assassinated in this rebellion.

The assassins were Pueblo warriors from Santo Domingo, who were also responsible for the death of governor Perez.

However, in the aftermath of the rebellion they were treated carefully to avoid further trouble.

Spanish Fort (Colorado)

A Spanish military fort was constructed and occupied in 1819 near Sangre de Cristo Pass in the present U.S. State of Colorado to protect the Spanish colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México from a possible invasion from the United States. The fort was the only Spanish settlement in present-day Colorado. The site of this fort is known today as the Spanish Fort.

Spanish missions in New Mexico

The Spanish Missions in New Mexico were a series of religious outposts in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México — present day New Mexico. They were established by Franciscan friars under charter from the monarchs of the Spanish Empire and the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in a policy called Reductions to facilitate the conversion of Native Americans—Indians into Christianity.

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