Santa Cruz Island

Santa Cruz Island (Spanish: Isla Santa Cruz, Chumash: Limuw[1]) is located off the southwestern coast of California, United States. It is the largest island in California,[2] and largest of the eight islands in the Channel Islands archipelago.[3] Forming part of the northern group of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz is 22 miles (35 km) long and 2 to 6 miles (3 to 10 km) wide with an area of 61,764.6 acres (249.952 km2).

The island's coastline has steep cliffs, large sea caves, coves, and sandy beaches. The highest point is Devils Peak, at over 2,450 feet (747 m). A central valley splits the island along the Santa Cruz Island Fault, with volcanic rock on the north and older sedimentary rock on the south. This volcanic rock was heavily fractured during an uplift phase that formed the island, and over a hundred large sea caves have been carved into the resulting faults. The largest of these is Painted Cave, among the world's largest.[4]

For administrative purposes the island is part of Santa Barbara County, California. The 2000 census showed an official population of two people.[5] Santa Cruz was the largest privately owned island off the continental United States. Ownership is split between the National Park Service (24%) and the Nature Conservancy (76%).[3]

Santa Cruz Island is home to some endemic species of animals and plants, including the Santa Cruz Island fox (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae), a subspecies of the island fox.

Santa Cruz Island
Native name:
Limuw
Michumash
Santa Cruz Island by Sentinel-2
ESA satellite image of Santa Cruz Island
Geography
Coordinates34°00′N 119°43′W / 34.000°N 119.717°W
Area250 km2 (97 sq mi)
Length35 km (21.7 mi)
Width10 km (6 mi)
Highest elevation740 m (2,430 ft)
Highest pointDevils Peak
Administration
United States
StateCalifornia
CountySanta Barbara
Demographics
PopulationRangers and tourists are the only residents
Californian Channel Islands map en
Map of the Channel Islands
Santa Cruz Island
The north coast of Santa Cruz Island in August

History

Early history

Archaeological investigations indicate that Santa Cruz Island has been occupied for at least 10,000 years. It was known as Limuw (place of the sea) or Michumash in the Chumash language.[3][6] The Chumash people who lived on the island developed a highly complex society dependent on marine harvest, craft specialization and trade with the mainland population.[7] Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo first observed the island in 1542, later estimated to be inhabited by 2,000 to 3,000 Chumash on the three northern Channel Islands, with 11 villages on Santa Cruz.[8]

In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno led the last Spanish expedition to California. His map named Santa Cruz Island the Isla de Gente Barbuda (island of the bearded people). Between 1602 and 1769 there was no recorded European contact with the island. Finally, in 1769, the land-and-sea expedition of Don Gaspar de Portolà reached Santa Cruz Island. Traveling with him were Father Juan González Vizcaíno and Father Francisco Palóu. Father Palóu wrote of Father Vizcaíno's visit to the Santa Cruz village of Xaxas that the missionaries on ship went ashore and "they were well received by the heathen and presented with fish, in return for which the Indians were given some strings of beads." The island was considered for establishment of a Catholic mission to serve the large Chumash population. When Mission San Buenaventura was founded across the channel in 1782, it commenced the slow religious conversion of the Santa Cruz Chumash. Beset by diseases such as measles, the Chumash declined in numbers until, in 1822, the last of the Chumash left the island for mainland California missions.[3][8]:100

The name of Santa Cruz for the island came about when Gaspar de Portola expedition visited the Chumash village Xaxas on the island. The Chumash on the next day returned a staff, topped by an iron cross, which had been inadvertently left behind by the Spanish. Hence, the name La Isla de la Santa Cruz (island of the holy cross) appeared on their exploration map of 1770. George Vancouver used the same name on his 1793 map.[8]

With Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government asserted its control over Alta California. In an effort to increase the Mexican presence, the government began sending convicted criminals to California in 1830. Around 80 prisoners were sent to Santa Barbara where, upon arrival, 31 incorrigibles were sent to Santa Cruz Island. They lived for a short time in an area now known as Prisoners' Harbor before escaping to the mainland.[3][8]:100

Mexican land grant

Governor Juan Alvarado made a Mexican land grant of the Island of Santa Cruz to his aide Captain Andrés Castillero in 1839. When California became a state in 1850, the United States government, through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, required that land previously granted by Spanish and Mexican governments be proved before the Board of Land Commissioners. A claim was filed with the Land Commission in 1852,[9] confirmed by the US Supreme Court[10] in 1860, and the grant was patented to Andrés Castillero in 1867.[11][3][8]:101–102 Castillero transferred title to his agent William Barron in 1857.

Ranching

Scorpion Ranch CA
Scorpion Ranch, 2009

William Baron was a San Francisco businessman and co-owner of the company Barron, Forbes & Co. Dr. James Barron Shaw was hired to manage things, and charged by Barron to start a sheep operation. He built corrals and houses for himself and his employees and expanded the road system. He imported cattle, horses, and sheep to the island and erected one of the earliest wharves along the California coast at Prisoners' Harbor. Shaw was the first rancher to ship sheep to San Francisco by steamer, some selling at $30 per animal. By 1869, the year he left Santa Cruz, Shaw's island sheep ranch was well known, and some 24,000 sheep grazed the hills and valleys of Santa Cruz Island.[3][8]:102 At that time, the gross proceeds from the ranch on Santa Cruz Island were supposedly $50,000.[3][8]:102–103 Barron sold the island for $150,000 in 1869, and Shaw left for San Francisco and Los Alamos where he continued ranching.

The island was purchased by ten investors from San Francisco, headed by Gustave Mahé. One of the investors, Justinian Caire, was a French immigrant and founder of a successful San Francisco hardware business that sold equipment to miners. By 1886 Caire had acquired all of the shares of the Santa Cruz Island Company which he and his colleagues had founded in 1869. He then implemented his vision of building a self-sustaining sheep and cattle ranch, vineyard, nut and fruit grove operation on the island. Main Ranch was augmented with nine other ranches, Prisoners' Harbor, Christy, Scorpion, Smugglers, Forney's Cove/Rancho Nuevo, Poso, Buena Vista Portezuela, and Sur Ranch. In 1885, he operated the largest private telephone system in the US at that time. A post office operated from 1895 until 1903, while there were 110 workers on the island in 1889. The operation received water from four springs, El Pato, Gallina, The Dindos and The Peacock, which fed into a 26,000 gallon reservoir, tanks and dams. The vineyard was planted in 1884 and by 1895, the winery was maturing 86,000 gallons from the 200 acre vineyard.

Justinian Caire's will stipulated his two sons, Arthur and Frederic, were to be executors of his will and continue management of operations with little change, though Justinian signed over to his wife Albina, all shares in the Justinian Caire Company and Santa Cruz Company the year before he died in 1897. His sons continued a successful livestock, winemaking[12] and ranching industry on the island after his death, at least until Albina distributed Santa Cruz Island Company shares amongst her children between late 1910 and early 1911.[3][8]:104–138 Albina, Fred, Arthur, Delphine and Helene received 86 percent of the stock, while the two married daughters Amelie and Aglaë received 14 percent. Beginning in 1910 an extended and complicated litigation was brought by Caire's two married daughters against their mother and four siblings. The married daughters' families, led by in-law Ambrose Gherini, retained 6,000 acres (2,428 ha) on the east end of the island. But the majority of Caire's descendants were compelled in to sell the remaining 90 percent of the island, in 1937, to pay their legal costs.[12][3][8]:138–157

The buyer was Los Angeles oilman Edwin Stanton. Stanton's purchase of the major part of Santa Cruz Island brought a major shift in agricultural production on the island. After trying for a short time to continue the sheep operation, bringing in 10,000 head, he decided to switch to beef production. At the time, the beef industry in California was growing rapidly, with Santa Barbara County among the top ten beef producers in the state.[3] Edwin Stanton's ranch on Santa Cruz Island saw changes that reflected the evolution of cattle ranching in a working landscape. While retaining most of the 19th century structures dating from the Caire period, Stanton constructed a few buildings to meet the needs of his cattle ranch, the most notable of which is Rancho del Norte on the isthmus. Pasture fencing and corrals were altered to suit the cattle operation and an extensive water system was added to provide water to the cattle.[3][8]:157–159

The Gherini family, descendants of Justinian Caire's two daughters who successfully sued to break up Caire's legacy, continued their sheep ranching operations on the east end of Santa Cruz Island until 1984, using Scorpion Ranch as their base. This was the area east of the Montañon range, which included Scorpion Harbor and Smugglers Cove. They managed the island with resident managers and laborers and often worked as a family during shearing and during the summer. Production dropped during the 1970s and 1980s and the expense of ranching on a remote island rose.

Protracted litigation between the Gherinis and the federal government started in 1980, when the northern Channel Islands were designated a national park and Congress authorized the purchase of the family's remaining land. But the purchase was held up as family members pushed the federal government to pay what they believed was the appropriate amount. In the early 1990s, the government managed to buy the interests of Francis Gherini's three siblings for about $4 million apiece. But the former Oxnard attorney continued to insist that the offer was too low, keeping his 25% interest in the 6,264-acre (25.35 km2) ranch and leaving the Park Service with 75%, effectively blocking the establishment of the park. After 16 years of negotiation, in November 1996, government officials settled with Gherini for 14 million dollars which included 2 million dollars in back interest, clearing the way for the park to be opened to the public.[13] The last of the 10,000 sheep on the island were removed by 1999.[8]:138–157

With Edwin Stanton's death in 1964, his widow and son, Carey, re-incorporated the Santa Cruz Island Company and continued the cattle operations on the island. Carey Stanton died unexpectedly in 1987 at the ranch and was buried in the family plot in the island chapel yard at the Main Ranch. The real property passed to The Nature Conservancy through a prior agreement that Carey Stanton had established with the non-profit organization.[14] The Nature Conservancy rapidly liquidated the cattle operation and ended the ranching era on the island.[3] [12] They also were able to eliminate the last of the feral pigs by 2006.[8]:160–165

Other uses

Santa Cruz was a base for otter hunters, fishermen, and smugglers. The Channel Islands often provided smugglers and bootleggers with convenient yet isolated hideaways where they could store their goods. One such area is known today as Smugglers Cove.[3]

George Nidever recalled hunting otter at Santa Cruz in the winter of 1835–36. Working from a base camp at Santa Rosa Island, he and two others obtained 60 skins that season. Fishermen encamped on the island, trading fish for other goods from passing boats.[3]

Several movies were shot on the island, including Peter Pan and The Rescue.[8]:148

The Richfield Oil Corporation acquired an exploration lease in 1954 but did not find oil.[8]:160

UC Santa Barbara established a summer geology class in 1963, and the Santa Cruz Island Field Station in 1966.[8]:161

The Santa Cruz Island Hunt Club operated from 1966 until 1985, beginning as a sheep and pig hunting during a rifle season and an archery season.[8]:162

The United States military began to use Santa Cruz Island during World War II, and has constructed and maintained strategic installations on the island. Like all of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz Island was used as an early warning outpost for observing enemy planes and ships during World War II. During the Cold War a communications station was installed as a part of the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This station remains in operation, although not at the levels of use seen in the 1950s and 1960s.[3]

National Park and Nature Conservancy preserve

Potato Harbor Santa Cruz Island
Potato Harbor

In 1936 the Caire family reportedly offered their 90% of the island for $750,000 to the state of California for use as a state or federal park. Nothing came of this proposal, and the property was sold to Edwin Stanton. Stanton's son and heir was not interested in a government purchase of his island. He took steps to avoid such events by forging an agreement with The Nature Conservancy, and the property was transferred to the organization upon his death in 1987. Although Santa Cruz Island is included within the boundaries of Channel Islands National Park, The Nature Conservancy portion of the island does not belong to the park. A gift of 8,500 acres (34 km2) from the Nature Conservancy to the park was completed in 2000.[3]

Channel Islands National Park owns and operates approximately 24% of Santa Cruz Island. The remaining land, known as the Santa Cruz Island Reserve, is used for scientific research and education, and is managed by a combination of organizations which includes The Nature Conservancy, the University of California Natural Reserve System, and the Santa Cruz Island Foundation. The Reserve and its staff provides accommodations for visiting students and researchers.

Wildlife, plants, and climate

Lichen encrusted rocks adorn the cliffs of Santa Cruz Island
Lichen-encrusted rocks upon the cliffs of Santa Cruz Island

Introduced and invasive species on Santa Cruz Island include:

Native species include:

The native plant communities of Santa Cruz Island include chaparral, oak woodland, Bishop pine (Pinus muriacata) forest, grassland and coastal sage scrub. Where sheep grazing was prevalent, the native plant cover has been damaged, and erosion and gullying has been a problem in some areas. The native plant communities are slowly recovering since the removal of feral sheep and pigs.

Bald eagle reintroduction

Santacruz 300
Santa Cruz Island

Bald eagles were once numerous on California's Channel Islands. Because of eggshell thinning caused by DDT and other factors, successful bald eagle nesting in the northern Channel Islands ended by 1949. By the 1960s, bald eagles could no longer be found on any of the Channel Islands.

As of 2013, there were five breeding pairs on Santa Cruz Island, two on Santa Rosa, and one on Anacapa, and a total of over 40 bald eagles on the northern Channel Islands. Between 2002 and 2006, the Channel Islands National Park (in conjunction with partner, Institute for Wildlife Studies) introduced[20] sixty-one young bald eagles to the northern Channel Islands, using a "hacking" process of keeping 8 weeks old eagles in one of two hack towers on Santa Cruz Island, until at age three months, they were ready to fly. On the Channel Islands, where large trees are scarce, bald eagles have built nests on cliff faces, rock shelves and shallow cliffs, as well as in island pines and Torrey pines. One pair even attempted nesting in a grassland on Santa Cruz Island.[20] In 2006, for the first time in over 50 years, a bald eagle hatched on Santa Cruz Island.[21][22]

Because nesting bald eagles can deter golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from breeding, the recovery of bald eagles on the northern Channel Islands has also helped enable recovery of the endangered island fox. Golden eagle predation had been responsible for the steep decline of island foxes on the northern Channel Islands in the 1990s.[23][24]

Climate

The climate of Santa Cruz Island is marine temperate, with frosts rare and snow almost unknown except very rarely on the highest mountain slopes. Annual rainfall varies from about 16 inches (410 mm) on the shoreline, to 25 inches (640 mm) on the highest mountain slopes. Precipitation is highly variable from year to year, with wet years alternating with drought years. Most of the rain falls from November to March. Summers are dry, but often overcast and cool with coastal fog.

Transportation

Santa Cruz Island has several airstrips:

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Chumash Place Names".
  2. ^ "Santa Cruz Island - Island Packers Cruises". islandpackers.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Santa Cruz Island - Channel Islands National Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  4. ^ *Bunnell, D. (1988). Sea Caves of Santa Cruz Island. Santa Barbara, CA: McNally and Loftin. ISBN 0-87461-076-1.
  5. ^ United States Census Bureau, 2005
  6. ^ McCall, Lynne; Perry, Rosalind (2002). California's Chumash Indians : a project of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Education Center (Revised ed.). San Luis Obispo, Calif: EZ Nature Books. ISBN 0936784156.
  7. ^ Braje, T.J., J.G. Costello, J.M. Erlandson, M.A. Glassow, J.R. Johnson, D.P. Morris, J.E. Perry, & T.C. Rick. 2010. Channel Islands National Park Archaeological Overview and Assessment (M. Glassow, editor). National Park Service, digital volume (http://www.cfr.washington.edu/research.cesu/reports/J8W07060007_final_report.pdf)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Chiles, Frederic (2015). California's Channel Islands. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 12,99. ISBN 9780806146874.
  9. ^ "Finding Aid to the Documents Pertaining to the Adjudication of Private Land Claims in California, circa 1852-1892". content.cdlib.org. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  10. ^ Court, United States Supreme (5 June 2017). "64 US 464 The United States v. Andres Castillero". US (64). Retrieved 5 June 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "Report of the Surveyor General 1844 - 1886" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Chiles, Frederic Caire (February 14, 2013). Justinian Caire and Santa Cruz Island: The Rise and Fall of a California Dynasty. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806189475. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  13. ^ Folmar, Kate; Wilson, Tracy (February 6, 1999). "Family Gets $12.7 Million for Lost Land; Courts: Jury awards the Gherinis compensation for the 6,300 acres taken from them to create Channel Islands National Park". Los Angeles Times.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ Ramos, George (December 14, 1987). "Dr. Carey Stanton; Philanthropist and Rancher". Los Angeles Times.
  15. ^ Center for Plant Conservation: Boechera hoffmannii Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment: Arctostaphylos insularis
  17. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment: Arctostaphylos viridissima
  18. ^ W. Flaxington, 2005
  19. ^ C.M. Hogan, 2008
  20. ^ a b "Bald Eagle - Channel Islands National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  21. ^ "Bald Eagle Project: Santa Cruz Island". Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  22. ^ "NCI Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)". Institute for Wildlife Studies. 2011-10-03. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  23. ^ "Channel Islands Bald Eagle". Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  24. ^ Coonan, T.J., C.A. Schwemm and D.K. Garcelon. 2010. Decline and recovery of the island fox: a case study for population recovery. Cambridge University Press, UK
  25. ^ "Channel Islands Natl Park - Monthly Average/Record Temperatures". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  26. ^ "KSZN - Santa Cruz Island Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  27. ^ "AirNav: CA97 - Christy Airstrip". www.airnav.com. Retrieved 5 June 2017.

Bibliography

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.

External links

Coordinates: 34°00′13″N 119°43′35″W / 34.00361°N 119.72639°W

Arctostaphylos insularis

Arctostaphylos insularis is a species of manzanita known by the common name island manzanita. It is endemic to Santa Cruz Island, one of the Channel Islands of California.

Bishop pine

The bishop pine, Pinus muricata, is a pine with a very restricted range: mostly in California, including several offshore Channel Islands, and a few locations in Baja California, Mexico. It is always on or near the coast.In San Luis Obispo County it is found alone or in stands scattered on the coastal mountains and hills from Morro Bay to Shell Beach. A few stands of the tree are seen on the hills above the Sycamore Canyon Resort in Avila Beach. Within the City of San Luis Obispo, the Terrace Hill Open Space has several scattered specimens. Bishop pine seems to prefer already disturbed, unvegetated areas where it probably faces less competition from oaks and shrubs.

The common name "bishop pine" resulted from the tree having been first identified near the Mission of San Luis Obispo in San Luis Obispo, California. This tree has a large number of common names and other prior scientific names, due primarily to numerous variant forms. Other English names that have occasionally been used are prickle cone pine, Obispo pine, Santa Cruz pine and dwarf marine pine.

Channel Islands National Park

Channel Islands National Park is an American national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U.S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, their isolation has left them relatively undeveloped. The park covers 249,561 acres (100,994 ha) of which 79,019 acres (31,978 ha) are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, the largest island in the park.Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. Anacapa and Santa Barbara islands were designated as a national monument on April 26, 1938. All eight of the Channel Islands were designated as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in 1976. Five islands, including Anacapa, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, and Santa Rosa, were redesignated as a national park on March 5, 1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park.

Charles Darwin Foundation

The Charles Darwin Foundation was founded in 1959, under the auspices of UNESCO and the World Conservation Union. The Charles Darwin Research Station serves as headquarters for The Foundation, and is used to conduct scientific research and promote environmental education.

The Charles Darwin Foundation is based in Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, Ecuador.

Chelonoidis donfaustoi

Chelonoidis donfaustoi, known as the eastern Santa Cruz tortoise, is a species of Galápagos tortoise living on Santa Cruz Island, within the Galápagos. Until 2015, C. donfaustoi was classified as part of another species, Chelonoidis porteri.

Cruzeño language

Cruzeño, also known as Isleño (Ysleño) or Island Chumash, was one of the Chumashan languages spoken along the coastal areas of Southern California. It shows evidence of mixing between a core Chumashan language such as Barbareño or Ventureño and an indigenous language of the Channel Islands. The latter was presumably spoken on the islands since the end of the last ice age separated them from the mainland; Chumash would have been introduced in the first millennium after the introduction of plank canoes on the mainland. Evidence of the substratum language is retained in a noticeably non-Chumash phonology, and basic non-Chumash words such as those for 'water' and 'house'.

Devils Peak (Santa Barbara County, California)

Devils Peak (or Mount Diablo) at 2,429 feet (740 m) is the tallest peak on the Channel Islands of California. It is located on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park on land owned by The Nature Conservancy. Visiting the area requires a permit.Devil's Peak is the highest mountain on an ocean island in the contiguous 48 states, edging out Mount Constitution on Orcas Island by a few feet.

Great Santa Cruz Island

Great Santa Cruz Island is a small inhabited island in Zamboanga City in the southern region of the Philippines that is famous for its pink coralline sand. The island, located 4 kilometres (2.49 mi) south of downtown at the Santa Cruz Bank in the Basilan Strait, boasts the only pink sand beach in the Philippines. The color of the sand comes from the pulverized red organ pipe coral from eons of surf erosion mixed with the white sand.The island started to become popular since the 1970s and early 1980s when it was frequented by German, Japanese and Italian tourists. Recently, there's an upsurge of tourists that has been recorded due to its rising popularity as one of a handful of Pink Sand Beaches in the World and is the only one in Asia. In 2017, it was recognized by National Geographic as one of the 21 Best Beaches in the World.

Island fox

The island fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a small fox that is native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. There are six subspecies, each unique to the island it lives on, reflecting its evolutionary history. Island foxes are generally docile, show little fear of humans, and are easily tamed. Island foxes played an important role in the spiritual lives of native Channel Islanders. Island foxes have been likely semi-domesticated as pets, used as pelts, or for other functions like pest control.

Island scrub jay

The island scrub jay (Aphelocoma insularis) also island jay or Santa Cruz jay is a bird in the scrub jay genus, Aphelocoma, which is endemic to Santa Cruz Island off the coast of Southern California. Of the over 500 breeding bird species in the continental U.S. and Canada, it is the only insular endemic landbird species. The island scrub jay (ISSJ) is closely related to the California scrub jay – the coastal population found on the adjacent mainland – but differs in being larger, more brightly colored, and having a markedly stouter bill. The large bill size is related to its diet, incorporating the thick-shelled acorns of the island oak (Quercus tomentella). They will bury, or cache, the acorns in the fall and may eat them months later. They also eat insects, spiders, snakes, lizards, mice and other birds' eggs and nestlings.

List of islands of Zamboanga City

Zamboanga City contains 28 islands off the mainland coast. The largest is Sacol (about 12 km long and 8 km wide). Three of them, (Vitali, Malanipa, and Sacol) are inhabited mostly by fishing residents and have their own barangays. The others are not regularly inhabited, but frequented by fishermen and scuba divers. A group of 11 islands located on the Moro Gulf coast are known collectively as the Eleven Islands, Cabugan Island (approx. 11 hectares) is the largest of them. The most popular islands among both tourists and local residents are the Great and Little Santa Cruz Islands, known for pink coral sands, and rich in coral, shell varieties.

, and sea life.

The islands are:

Bacungan Island

Baong Island

Bobo Island

Buguias Island

Cabog Island

Camugan Island

Gatusan Island

Great Santa Cruz Island

Kablingan Island

Lambang Island

Lamunigan Island

Lapinigan Island

Little Malanipa Island

Little Santa Cruz Island

Malanipa Island

Panganaban Island

Pangapuyan Island

Pitas Island

Sacol Island

Salangan Island

Sinunug Island

Taguiti Island

Tictabon Island

Tigburacao Island

Tumalutap Island

Vilan Vilan Island

Visa Island

Vitali Island

Little Santa Cruz Island

Little Santa Cruz Island is an island situated 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) south of downtown Zamboanga City, on the Basilan Strait.

Malacothrix (plant)

Malacothrix is a genus of plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family. They are known generally as desert dandelions or desertdandelions. Most are native to western North America although a few have been introduced to South America. Several are found only on offshore islands in the Pacific.Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Malacothrix is not monophyletic. Some of its species are related to Atrichoseris, whereas a second group is more closely related to Anisocoma and Calycoseris.

SpeciesMalacothrix californica - California desertdandelion - CA Baja California, Baja California Sur

Malacothrix clevelandii - Cleveland's desertdandelion - CA AZ UT Baja California

Malacothrix coulteri - snake's head - CA NV AZ UT NM Baja California

Malacothrix fendleri - Fendler's desertdandelion - AZ NM TX Sonora

Malacothrix floccifera - woolly desertdandelion - CA NV

Malacothrix foliosa - leafy desertdandelion - San Clemente Island

Malacothrix glabrata - smooth desertdandelion - CA NV AZ NM ID OR Baja California, Baja California Sur

Malacothrix incana - dunedelion - CA

Malacothrix indecora - Santa Cruz Island desert-dandelion - Santa Cruz Island

Malacothrix insularis - island desertdandelion - Coronados Island in Baja California

Malacothrix junakii - Junak's desertdandelion - Anacapa Island

Malacothrix phaeocarpa - Davis' desertdandelion - CA

Malacothrix saxatilis - cliff desertdandelion - CA

Malacothrix similis - twin desertdandelion - CA Baja California

Malacothrix sonchoides - sowthistle desertdandelion - OR ID WY CO NM AZ UT NV CA

Malacothrix sonorae - Sonoran desertdandelion - Sonora AZ NM TX

Malacothrix squalida - Santa Cruz desertdandelion - Santa Cruz Island

Malacothrix stebbinsii - Stebbins' desertdandelion - OR CA NV AZ NM UT Sonora

Malacothrix torreyi - Torrey's desertdandelion - CA NV AZ NM UT CO WY ID MT OR

Malacothrix xanthi - Baja California, Baja California Sur

Quercus parvula

Quercus parvula, the Santa Cruz Island oak, is an evergreen red oak (Series Agrifoliae, Section Lobatae) found on north-facing Santa Cruz Island slopes and in the California Coast Ranges from Santa Barbara County north to Mendocino County. It was taxonomically combined with Quercus wislizeni until resurrected as a separate species by Kevin Nixon in 1980. The type locality of Q. parvula var. shrevei (originally described by C.H. Muller as Q. shrevei) is Palo Colorado Canyon in Monterey County.

Three varieties of Q. parvula are currently recognized:

Q. parvula var. parvula, Santa Cruz Island oak - Santa Cruz Island, California. Recent work suggests Q. parvula var. parvula to be Q. parvula var. shrevei x Q. wislizeni.

Q. parvula var. shrevei, Shreve oak or forest oak - central and northern coastal California. If further studies support the recently identified issues with var. parvula, this taxon may be revised to Q. shrevei.

Q. parvula var. tamalpaisensis, Tamalpais oak - Marin County, California. This is an invalid taxon. Recent DNA studies have shown Tamalpais oak to be a hybrid between Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula var. shrevei.Q. parvula differs morphologically from its close relative Q. wislizeni in the following ways:

Leaf blades are larger, > (2)4 cm long rather than < 4(6) cm

Leaf blades are thinner, generally < 0.26 mm near the apex rather than usually > 0.26 mm

Current year twigs are 5-sided rather than ± roundish in cross section

Leaf petioles and current year twigs are glabrous to sparsely hairy rather than moderately to very hairy

Nut tips are blunt rather than more sharply pointed

Abaxial golden glandular uniseriate leaf blade trichomes are missing or sparse rather than moderate to dense

Abaxial multiradiate leaf blade trichomes are missing or sparse on the midvein rather than occasional to common

Secondary leaf blade veins are raised abaxially rather than ± not raisedQ. parvula and Q. wislizeni never produce newly emerging leaves with a velvety coating of red bulbous trichomes on the abaxial (upper) surface. This separates them from Q. kelloggii and both varieties of Q. agrifolia which produce such leaves.

Ribes thacherianum

Ribes thacherianum, with the common name Santa Cruz gooseberry, or Santa Cruz Island gooseberry, is a rare North American species of currant found only on one island off the coast of California.

Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos)

Santa Cruz Island (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsanta ˈkɾus]) is one of the Galápagos Islands with an area of 986 km2 (381 sq mi) and a maximum altitude of 864 metres (2,835 ft). Situated in the center of the archipelago, Santa Cruz is the second largest island after Isabela. Its capital is Puerto Ayora, the most populated urban centre in the islands. On Santa Cruz there are some small villages, whose inhabitants work in agriculture and cattle raising. This island is a large dormant volcano. It is estimated that the last eruptions occurred around a million and a half years ago. There is a gigantic lava tunnel that is over 2000 meters long on the island that many tourists visit and walk through. As a testimony to its volcanic history there are two big holes formed by the collapse of a magma chamber: Los Gemelos, or "The Twins".

Named after the Holy Cross, its English name (Indefatigable) was given after a British vessel HMS Indefatigable. Santa Cruz hosts the largest human population in the archipelago at the town of Puerto Ayora, with a total of 12,000 residents on the island.Tortuga Bay is located on the Santa Cruz Island, a short walk from center of Puerto Ayora where you can view marine iguanas, birds, Galapagos crabs and a natural mangrove where you can spot white tip reef sharks and the gigantic Galápagos tortoises.

Santa Cruz mouse

The Santa Cruz mouse (Peromyscus sejugis) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is endemic to Mexico, where it is found only on two small islands in the southern Gulf of California. Feral cats on Santa Cruz Island are a threat.

Sibara filifolia

Sibara filifolia, known the common names Santa Cruz Island winged rockcress or Santa Cruz Island rockcress, is a rare species of flowering plant in the mustard family. It is endemic to the Channel Islands of California, where it is now known from a few occurrences on San Clemente Island and one population on Catalina Island.It was once present on Santa Cruz Island, and perhaps other Channel Islands, but these occurrences were extirpated by feral goats and pigs. The plant was feared extinct until small remaining occurrences were discovered in 1986. A 1995 estimate of the total remaining population was 500 individuals. The plant became a federally listed endangered species of the United States in 1997, along with Cercocarpus traskiae and Lithophragma maximum, two other rare Channel Islands plants.

Sinking of MV Conception

The sinking of MV Conception occurred on September 2, 2019, when the 75-foot (23 m) dive boat caught fire and eventually sank off the coast of Santa Cruz Island, California, United States. The boat was anchored overnight at Platts Harbor, a small undeveloped bay on the north shore of the island, with 33 passengers and 1 crew member asleep below decks when fire broke out shortly after 3 a.m. Five of the crew members, whose sleeping quarters were on the top deck, were forced by the fire to jump overboard but not before placing an initial mayday call to the Coast Guard and attempting to alert the passengers. The crew retrieved the Conception's skiff and motored to a nearby boat where a second radio dispatch was made. The loss of the boat spurred a rescue operation by the United States Coast Guard.It is the worst maritime disaster in California since the sinking of the Brother Jonathan in 1865, and the deadliest in the United States overall since the USS Iowa turret explosion in 1989.

Climate data for Santa Cruz Island
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 86
(30)
86
(30)
94
(34)
96
(36)
101
(38)
109
(43)
109
(43)
105
(41)
104
(40)
103
(39)
97
(36)
89
(32)
109
(43)
Average high °F (°C) 64
(18)
64
(18)
65
(18)
67
(19)
69
(21)
71
(22)
73
(23)
74
(23)
74
(23)
72
(22)
68
(20)
64
(18)
69
(21)
Daily mean °F (°C) 53
(12)
54
(12)
56
(13)
58
(14)
60
(16)
63
(17)
66
(19)
66
(19)
65
(18)
62
(17)
56
(13)
52
(11)
59
(15)
Average low °F (°C) 41
(5)
44
(7)
46
(8)
48
(9)
51
(11)
54
(12)
58
(14)
58
(14)
56
(13)
51
(11)
44
(7)
40
(4)
49
(9)
Record low °F (°C) 24
(−4)
25
(−4)
30
(−1)
33
(1)
38
(3)
41
(5)
45
(7)
43
(6)
42
(6)
31
(−1)
30
(−1)
20
(−7)
20
(−7)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.5
(89)
4.1
(100)
3.2
(81)
1.0
(25)
0.3
(7.6)
0.1
(2.5)
0
(0)
0.1
(2.5)
0.3
(7.6)
0.8
(20)
1.6
(41)
2.9
(74)
18
(460)
Source: The Weather Channel[25]
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