Sanhedrin (tractate)

Sanhedrin (סנהדרין) is one of ten tractates of Seder Nezikin (a section of the Talmud that deals with damages, i.e. civil and criminal proceedings). It originally formed one tractate with Makkot, which also deals with criminal law. The Gemara of the tractate is noteworthy as precursors to the development of common law principles, for example the presumption of innocence and the rule that a criminal conviction requires the concurrence of twelve.

Summary of Sanhedrin

Within Seder Nezikin, the Sanhedrin focuses on questions of jurisdiction, criminal law and punishments. The tractate includes eleven chapters, addressing the following topics:

  1. The different levels of courts and which cases each level presides over
  2. Laws of the high priest and Jewish king and their involvement in court proceedings
  3. Civil suits: acceptable witnesses and judges and the general proceedings
  4. The difference between criminal and civil cases, general proceedings in criminal cases
  5. Court procedures, including examination of witnesses and the voting of the judges
  6. Procedures for execution after condemnation, especially stoning
  7. The 4 types of capital punishments, details of crimes which merit stoning (in fact stoning was only actually done if the convict survived being dropped off a 5-meter cliff first)
  8. The rebellious son, and other crimes for which the offender is killed before committing the actual prohibition, and the commandments which Jews are to die before violating.
  9. Details of crimes meriting capital punishment by burning (actually the pouring of hot lead down the throat, the Sadducee heretics instead used burning at the stake) or beheading; auxiliary punishments
  10. Details of crimes meriting capital punishment by strangulation (i.e. hanging)
  11. The World to Come and who does not receive it. This chapter is known individually by Helek, one of its opening words.

This is the order found in the Gemara, but the Mishna has the last 2 chapters reversed in order.

External links

Sanhedrin (Talmud)

Biblical and Quranic narratives

The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible. While the stories told in each book are generally comparable, important differences sometimes emerge. The versions written in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament predate the Quran's versions. As such, Christians regard the Quran's versions as being derived directly or indirectly from the earlier materials. Muslims understand the Quran's versions to be witness accounts from an omnipotent God. As such, Muslims generally hold that the earlier versions are distorted through flawed processes of transmission and interpretation, and understand the Quran's versions to be more accurate to the actual events.

Often, stories related in the Quran tend to concentrate on the moral or spiritual significance of events rather than the details. Biblical stories come from diverse sources and authors, so their attention to detail varies individually.

Good Samaritan law

Good Samaritan laws offer legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are, or whom they believe to be, injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated. The protection is intended to reduce bystanders' hesitation to assist, for fear of being sued or prosecuted for unintentional injury or wrongful death. An example of such a law in common-law areas of Canada: a good Samaritan doctrine is a legal principle that prevents a rescuer who has voluntarily helped a victim in distress from being successfully sued for wrongdoing. Its purpose is to keep people from being reluctant to help a stranger in need for fear of legal repercussions should they make some mistake in treatment. By contrast, a duty to rescue law requires people to offer assistance and holds those who fail to do so liable.

Good Samaritan laws may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, as do their interactions with various other legal principles, such as consent, parental rights and the right to refuse treatment. Most such laws do not apply to medical professionals' or career emergency responders' on-the-job conduct, but some extend protection to professional rescuers when they are acting in a volunteer capacity.

The principles contained in good Samaritan laws more typically operate in countries in which the foundation of the legal system is English Common Law, such as Australia. In many countries that use civil law as the foundation for their legal systems, the same legal effect is more typically achieved using a principle of duty to rescue.

Good Samaritan laws take their name from a parable found in the Bible, attributed to Jesus, commonly referred to as the Parable of the Good Samaritan which is contained in Luke 10:29-37. It recounts the aid given by a traveller from the area known as Samaria to another traveller of a conflicting religious and ethnic background who had been beaten and robbed by bandits.

Or HaNer

Or HaNer (Hebrew: אוֹר הַנֵּר, lit. Light of the Candle) is a kibbutz in southern Israel. Located near Sderot, it fall under the jurisdiction of Sha'ar HaNegev Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 754.

Orpah

Orpah (Hebrew: עָרְפָּה‎ ʿorpā, meaning "neck" or "fawn") is a woman mentioned in the Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible. She was from Moab and was the daughter-in-law of Naomi and wife of Chilion. After the death of her husband, Orpah and her sister-in-law Ruth wished to go to Judea with Naomi. However, Naomi tried to persuade both Ruth and Orpah to return to their people and to their gods. Ruth chose to remain with Naomi, however, but Orpah chose to return to her people and her gods. (Ruth i. 4 et seq.).

In rabbinic literature, Orpah is identified with Herse, the mother of the four Philistine giants, one of whom was Goliath. These four sons were said to have been given her for the four tears which she shed at parting with her mother-in-law (Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 42b). Her other name Harafa is cognate of the word for threshing; that she allowed herself to be "threshed" by many men as one would thresh wheat (Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 42b).

According to a legend in a midrash, Orpah was a sister of Ruth, and both were daughters of the Moabite King Eglon (Ruth R. ii. 9). Her name was changed to "Orpah" because she turned her back (from Hebrew: עורף‎, literally nape) on her mother-in-law (ib.; comp. Talmud Sotah l.c.).

The Sanhedrin tractate in the Talmud states that she was killed by King David's general Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, with her own spindle.

The Six Orders of the Mishnah (שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה)

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