Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三国通覧図説, An Illustrated Description of Three Countries) by Hayashi Shihei (1738–93) was published in Japan in 1785. In his lifetime, the writer and his works were considered controversial. This book represents one of the earliest attempts to define Japan in terms of its outer boundaries. It represented a modern effort to distinguish Japan from the neighboring nations.
A copy of Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812). In Paris, the text represented the first appearance of Korean han'gŭl in Europe. After Titsingh's death, the printed original and Titsingh's translation were purchased by Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832) at the Collège de France. After Rémusat's death, Julius Klaproth (1783-1835) at the Institut Royal in Paris published his version of Titsingh's work. In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.
Bak Don-ji (Korean: 박돈지; Hanja: 朴惇之; MR: Pak Ton-ji) was a Korean scholar-bureaucrat, diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the tongsinsa (diplomatic mission) to the Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bafuku) in Japan.Bak Hui-jung
Bak Hui-jung (1364–?) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in 14th and 15th centuries.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon Dynasty interests in a diplomatic mission to the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan.Bonin Islands
The Bonin Islands, also known as the Ogasawara Islands (小笠原群島, Ogasawara Guntō), or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi; 620 mi) directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The name "Bonin Islands" comes from the Japanese word bunin (an archaic reading of 無人 mujin), meaning "no people" or "uninhabited". The only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima (父島), the seat of the municipal government, and Hahajima (母島).
Ogasawara Municipality (mura) and Ogasawara Subprefecture take their names from the Ogasawara Group. Ogasawara Archipelago (小笠原諸島, Ogasawara shotō) is also used as a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with three other remote islands (Nishinoshima, Minami-Tori-shima and Okinotorishima). Geographically speaking, all of these islands are part of the Nanpō Islands.
A total population of 2,440 (2015), 2,000 on Chichijima and 440 on Hahajima, lives in the Ogasawara Group, which has a total area of 84 square kilometres (32 sq mi).
Because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique evolutionary processes. This has led to the islands' nickname of "The Galápagos of the Orient", and their nomination as a natural World Heritage Site on June 24, 2011. The giant squid (genus Architeuthis) was photographed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on 30 September 2004, and was filmed alive in December 2006.A 25-meter-diameter radio telescope is located in Chichijima, one of the stations of the very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) project, and is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.Byeon Hyo-mun
Byeon Hyo-mun (1396–?) was a Korean civil minister (munsin) from the Chogye Byeon clan during the early period of Korean Joseon Dynasty. He briefly served as a diplomat and an ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the Tongsinsa (diplomatic mission) to the Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bafuku) in Japan.Ezo
Ezo (蝦夷, also spelled Yezo or Yeso) is a Japanese name which historically referred to the lands to the north of the Japanese island of Honshu. It included the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido which changed its name from Ezo to Hokkaido in 1869 and sometimes included Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
The same two kanji used to write the word "Ezo" can also be read as Emishi "shrimp barbarians", the name given to the people who the Japanese encountered in these lands. Their descendants are suspected to be the Ainu people.Hayashi Shihei
Hayashi Shihei (林 子平, August 6, 1738 - July 28, 1793) was a Japanese military scholar and a retainer of the Sendai Domain.
His name is sometimes transliterated (according to the Sino-Japanese reading) as Rin Shihei’'.Hong Chi-jung
Hong Chi-jung (1667–1732) was a scholar-official and Prime Minister of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in the 18th century from 1729 to 1732.He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 9th Edo period diplomatic mission to the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.Hong Gye-hui
Hong Gye-hui (1703–1771) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in the 18th century.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 10th Edo period diplomatic mission to the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.Hōtoku
Hōtoku (宝徳) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Bun'an and before Kyotoku. This period spanned the years from July 1449 through July 1452. The reigning emperor was Go-Hanazono-tennō (後花園天皇).Im Gwang
Im Gwang (1579–1644) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty Korea.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 4th Edo period diplomatic mission to the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.Jo Hyeong
Jo Hyeong (1606–1679) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in the 17th century.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 6th Edo period diplomatic mission to the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.Jo Tae-eok
Jo Tae-eok (1675–1728), also known as Cho T'aeŏk, was a scholar-official and Jwauijeong of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in the 18th century.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 8th Edo period diplomatic mission to the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan.Joseon diplomacy
Joseon diplomacy was the foreign policy of Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1392 through 1910; and its theoretical and functional foundations were rooted in Neo-Confucian scholar-bureaucrats, institutions and philosophy.This long-term, strategic policy of sadae diplomacy (serving the great) characterized the Joseon-Chinese relations in this period. This contrasts with Joseon's gyorin diplomacy (neighborly relations) in its relations with Japan and others. For example, envoys from the Ryūkyū Kingdom were received by Taejo of Joseon in 1392, 1394 and 1397. Siam sent an envoy to Taejo's court in 1393.Taejo of Joseon established the "Kingdom of Great Joseon" in 1392-1393, and he founded the Joseon Dynasty which would retain power on the Korean peninsula for five hundred years. As an initial step, a diplomatic mission was dispatched to China and to Japan in 1402. Subsequent missions developed and nurtured the contacts and exchanges between these neighboring countries.
A diplomatic mission conventionally consisted of three envoys—the main envoy, the vice-envoy, and a document official. Also included were one or more official writers or recorders who created a detailed account of the mission.In the 20th century, the Joseon Dynasty's bilateral relations were affected by the increasing numbers of international contacts which required adaptation and a new kind of diplomacy.Although conventionally mislabeled as the "Hermit kingdom", Joseon's sophisticated foreign policy initiatives belie the aptness of this term.Julius Klaproth
Heinrich Julius Klaproth (11 October 1783 – 28 August 1835) was a German linguist, historian, ethnographer, author, orientalist and explorer. As a scholar, he is credited along with Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat, with being instrumental in turning East Asian Studies into scientific disciplines with critical methods.Korean claim to Tsushima Island
The Tsushima Island dispute concerns a territorial issue about Tsushima Island (対馬), a large island in the Korea Strait between the Korean peninsula and the island of Kyushu. The island is known as the Daemado in Korean. South Korea does not officially claim the island though some South Koreans have said that Korea has a historical claim on the island and have taken steps to attempt to assert South Koreas claim.List of Japanese classical texts
This is a list of Japanese classic texts. These classical works of Japanese literature are grouped by genres in a chronological order.Ryukyuan missions to Edo
Over the course of Japan's Edo period, the Ryūkyū Kingdom sent eighteen missions to Edo (琉球江戸上り, ryūkyū edo nobori, "lit. 'the going up of Ryūkyū to Edo'), the capital of Tokugawa Japan. The unique pattern of these diplomatic exchanges evolved from models established by the Chinese, but without denoting any predetermined relationship to China or to the Chinese world order. The Kingdom became a vassal to the Japanese feudal domain (han) of Satsuma following Satsuma's 1609 invasion of Ryūkyū, and as such were expected to pay tribute to the shogunate; the missions also served as a great source of prestige for Satsuma, the only han to claim any foreign polity, let alone a kingdom, as its vassal.Yang Su (diplomat)
Yang Su (梁需, c.1410) was a Korean diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in a diplomatic mission to the Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bafuku) in Japan.Yun Sunji
Yun Sunji (1591–1666) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty Korea in the 17th century.
He was also diplomat and ambassador, representing Joseon interests in the 5th Edo period diplomatic mission to Japan.