Sanford B. Dole

Sanford Ballard Dole (April 23, 1844 – June 9, 1926) was a lawyer and jurist in the Hawaiian Islands as a kingdom, protectorate, republic, and territory. A descendant of the American missionary community to Hawaii, Dole advocated the westernization of Hawaiian government and culture. After the overthrow of the monarchy, he served as the President of the Republic of Hawaii until his government secured Hawaii's annexation by the United States.

Sanford B. Dole
Sanford B. Dole holding newspaper
1st Territorial Governor of Hawaii
In office
14 June 1900 – 23 November 1903
Appointed byWilliam McKinley
Preceded byPosition Established
(Himself as President)
Succeeded byGeorge Carter
President of Hawaii
In office
4 July 1894 – 12 August 1898
Preceded byPosition Established (Liliuokalani as Queen)
Succeeded byPosition Abolished
(Himself as Governor)
Personal details
Born
Sanford Ballard Dole

23 April 1844
Honolulu, Kingdom of Hawaii
Died9 June 1926 (aged 82)
Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii
NationalityKingdom of Hawaii; Republic of Hawaii; United States
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Anna Prentice Cate Dole
Alma materWilliams College

Early years

Dole was born April 23, 1844 in Honolulu to Protestant Christian missionaries from Maine in the United States. His father was Daniel Dole (1808–1878), principal at Punahou School, and his mother was Emily Hoyt Ballard (1808–1844). His mother died from complications within a few days of his birth. Dole was named after his uncle, Sandford K. Ballard, who was a classmate of his father's at Bowdoin College (and brother of his mother) who died in 1841.[1] He was nursed by a native Hawaiian, and his father married Charlotte Close Knapp in 1846. In 1855 the family moved to Kōloa on the island of Kauaʻi, where they operated another school.[2]

Dole attended Punahou school for one year and then Williams College in 1866–1867. He worked in a law office in Boston for another year, and although he never attended law school, he received an honorary LL.D. degree from Williams in 1897.[3] In 1873 he married Anna Prentice Cate.[4] In December 1880 he was commissioned as a Notary Public in Honolulu. Dole won the 1884 and 1886 elections to the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom as a representative from Kauaʻi.[5]

Bayonet Constitution

In June 1887 local businessmen, sugar planters, and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles forced the dismissal of the cabinet of controversial Walter M. Gibson and forced the adoption of the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The new documents limited voting rights exclusively to only the literate males of the following populations: Hawaiian, European, and American descent, while imposing income and wealth requirements to be eligible to vote for the House of Nobles, thus effectively consolidating power among only the elite residents of the island. In addition, the new Constitution minimized the power of the Monarch in favor of more influential governance by the cabinet. Dole and other lawyers of American descent drafted this document, which became known as the "Bayonet Constitution".[6]

King Kalākaua appointed Dole a justice of the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hawaii on December 28, 1887, and to a commission to revise judiciary laws on January 24, 1888. After Kalākaua's death, his sister Queen Liliʻuokalani appointed him to her Privy Council on August 31, 1891.[5]

End of the monarchy

Hawaii Provisional Government Cabinet (PP-28-7-012)
Provisional Government cabinet, (left to right) James A. King, Dole, W. O. Smith and P. C. Jones

The monarchy ended on January 17, 1893 after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii organized by many of the same actors involved in the 1887 revolt. Although Dole declined to officially be part of the Committee of Safety, he helped draft their declaration.[7]:589

Dole was named president of the Provisional Government of Hawaii that was formed after the coup and was recognized within 48 hours by all nations with diplomatic ties to the Kingdom of Hawaii, including the United Kingdom.[8] His cabinet (called the "executive council") included James A. King as minister of the interior,[9] William Owen Smith as attorney general,[10] and banker Peter Cushman Jones as minister of finance. Dole acted as Minister of Foreign Affairs himself until February 15, 1894.[5] Later Samuel Mills Damon would serve as Minister of Finance.[11]

With Grover Cleveland's election as President of the United States, the Provisional Government's hopes of annexation were derailed for a time. Indeed, Cleveland tried to directly help reinstate the monarchy, after an investigation led by James Henderson Blount. The Blount Report of July 17, 1893, commissioned by President Cleveland, concluded that the Committee of Safety conspired with U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens to land the United States Marine Corps, to forcibly remove Queen Liliʻuokalani from power, and declare a Provisional Government of Hawaii consisting of members from the Committee of Safety.

On November 16, 1893, Albert Willis presented the Queen with Cleveland's request that she grant amnesty to the revolutionists in return for being restored to the throne. This request she flatly refused, stating that the revolutionists should be punished and should have their lands confiscated. According to Willis, she recommended that they be put to death. Though she later denied ever having recommended any such thing, her attitude lost her the goodwill of the Cleveland administration, which thereupon recognized the Republic of Hawaii on July 4, 1894.[12]

The Morgan Report of February 26, 1894 concluded that the overthrow was locally based, that it had its origins in monarchical corruption, and that American troops had not tried to bring about the monarchy's collapse: rather, that the troops had acted merely to protect American property and citizens.[13] Not long afterward, the Provisional Government held a constitutional convention. On July 4, 1894, this convention proclaimed the formal establishment of the Republic of Hawaii.

President of the republic

President Dole and his Cabinet
President Dole and the Cabinet of the Republic

Lorrin A. Thurston declined the presidency of the republic, and Dole was chosen to lead the government instead. Dole would serve as the first and only president from 1894 to 1898. Dole in turn appointed Thurston to lead the lobbying effort in Washington, D.C. to secure Hawaiʻi's annexation by the United States.

Dole's government secured diplomatic recognition from every nation that had recognized the Kingdom of Hawaii, and weathered several attempts to restore the monarchy, including a January 1895 counter-rebellion led by Robert William Wilcox. After being defeated, Wilcox and the other conspirators were captured and sentenced to death, but had their sentences reduced or commuted by Dole. Queen Liliʻuokalani abdicated and, under duress, swore allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii, declaring, "I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that the late Hawaiian monarchy is finally and forever ended and no longer of any legal or actual validity, force or effect whatsoever."[14] She later provided a more detailed accounting of the events from her perspective in her book, Hawaii's story by Hawaii's queen, Liliuokalani.[15]

Governor and federal judge

Sanford B. Dole and Harold M. Sewall (PPWD-8-3-009)
U.S. Minister to Hawaii Harold M. Sewall (right) accepts the transfer of Hawaiian state sovereignty from President Dole, August 12, 1898

On July 4, 1898, the U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution to annex]] the Republic of Hawaii. Known as the Newlands Resolution (named after Congressman Francis Newlands), it came into effect on August 12, 1898.[16] A formal ceremony marking the transfer of Hawaiian state sovereignty to the United States was held that day on the steps of ʻIolani Palace where the Hawaiian flag was lowered and the American flag raised in its place.

Under the terms of the Resolution, Dole retained the powers he previously exercised as President of Hawaii while Congress developed a new Hawaiian territorial frame of government. Later, when one was established though the Hawaiian Organic Act, President William McKinley appointed Dole as the first governor of the Territory of Hawaii. Dole assumed the office on June 14, 1900 but resigned November 23, 1903 to accept an appointment by President Theodore Roosevelt as judge for the U.S. District Court of Hawaii after the death of Morris M. Estee. He served in that post until December 16, 1915 and was replaced by Horace Worth Vaughan.[17]

Dole also served on commissions for Honolulu parks, and the public archives.[5] He died after a series of strokes on June 9, 1926. His ashes were interred in the cemetery of Kawaiahaʻo Church.[18]

Family and legacy

Sanford B. Dole and family-restored
Dole with family members.

Dole's cousin, Edmund Pearson Dole, came to Hawaii to practice law in 1895, and became Attorney General of Hawaii from 1900 to 1903.[19] Another cousin, James Dole, came to Hawaii in 1899 and founded the Hawaiian Pineapple Company on Oahu, which later became the Dole Food Company.[20] James' father Charles Fletcher Dole also came to Hawaii in 1909.[21]

Dole Middle School, located in Kalihi Valley on the island of Oʻahu, was named after him in April 1956, about a century after his father founded the school in Kōloa.[22] In the film Princess Kaiulani, his role was played by Will Patton.

In Hawaiian, the pale and hair-like Spanish moss is called ʻumiʻumi-o-Dole, meaning "Dole's beard". His wife Anna had the bird species Ciridops anna named after her.[23]

References

  1. ^ Nehemiah Cleaveland; Alpheus Spring Packard (1882). History of Bowdoin college: With biographical sketches of its graduates, from 1806 to 1879, inclusive. J. R. Osgood & Company. p. 487.
  2. ^ Hawaiian Mission Children's Society (1901). Portraits of American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii. Honolulu: Hawaiian gazette company. p. 73.
  3. ^ Williams College (1905). General catalogue of the officers and graduates of Williams college, 1905. The College. p. 178.
  4. ^ "Dole Family Papers: Finding Aid". oac.cdlib.org. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  5. ^ a b c d "Dole, Sanford Ballard office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  6. ^ David W. Forbes (2003). Hawaiian national bibliography, 1780-1900. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-0-8248-2636-9.
  7. ^ Ralph Simpson Kuykendall (1967). Hawaiian Kingdom 1874-1893, the Kalakaua Dynasty. 3. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-87022-433-1.
  8. ^ http://morganreport.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=DIPLOMATIC_RECOGNITION_OF_THE_PROVISIONAL_GOVERNMENT
  9. ^ "King, James A. office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  10. ^ "Attorney General office record" (PDF). state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  11. ^ "Minister of finance office record" (PDF). state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  12. ^ Warren Zimmermann (2004). First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 290.
  13. ^ Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996). Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-417-6.
  14. ^ Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Republic (1894-98) And Its Struggle to Win Annexation. Associated University Presses. pp. 71–72. ISBN 0-945636-52-0.
  15. ^ Liliʻuokalani (Queen of Hawaii) (1898). Hawaii's story by Hawaii's queen, Liliuokalani. Lee and Shepard, reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, LLC (July 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0-548-22265-2.
  16. ^ 30 Stat. 750
  17. ^ Elizabeth H. Ryan, ed. (1918). Reports of causes determined in the United States District court for the district of Hawaii. Hawaiian Gazette company. p. iii.
  18. ^ William Disbro (November 6, 2001). "Mission Houses Cemetery, Honolulu, Hawaii". Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  19. ^ "Dole, Edmund Pearson office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
  20. ^ "James Drummond Dole "The Pineapple King"". Jamaica Plain Historical Society. Roxbury Latin School. April 2008. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  21. ^ "Patriot Dole". The Friend. LXVI (3). Honolulu. March 1906. p. 3.
  22. ^ "Sanford Ballard Dole". Dole Middle School web site. April 23, 1956. Archived from the original on March 7, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2010. (Dedication speech)
  23. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2014-10-01). The Eponym Dictionary of Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472905741.

Further reading

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Liliuokalani
as Queen of Hawaii
President of Hawaii
1893 – 1900
Republic of Hawaii annexed by United States
First
Territorial Governor of Hawaii
1900 – 1903
Succeeded by
George R. Carter
Legal offices
Preceded by
Morris M. Estee
United States District Court Judge
1903–1915
Succeeded by
Horace W. Vaughan
Alatau T. Atkinson

Alatau Tamchiboulac Atkinson (November 16, 1848– April 24,1906) was the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Territory of Hawaii, and Inspector General of Schools under the administrations of Kalākaua, Liliʻuokalani and Sanford B. Dole. A journalist and newspaper owner, he is believed to have been one of two authors of satirical works lampooning Walter Murray Gibson's cabinet regime under Kalākaua. Atkinson Drive, Ala Moana, Honolulu, was named to honor him.

Allen Hutchinson

Allen Hutchinson (8 January 1855 – 28 July 1929 London) was an English sculptor.

Hutchinson was born in Staffordshire, England. He trained in London under Édouard Lantéri. He travelled to Canada and California in 1886. In 1888, he moved to Hawaii, where he modeled busts of King Kalākaua, Robert Louis Stevenson, and president of the Republic of Hawaii Sanford B. Dole. While in Hawaii, Hutchinson married, and the couple had a daughter. In 1894, he was one of the founders of the Kilohana Art League. In 1899, Hutchinson and his family left Hawaii for Australia and New Zealand. He returned to the United States in 1902, and moved back to London in 1928. He died in London on 28 July 1929.The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (Yale University), the Bishop Museum (Honolulu), the Honolulu Museum of Art, the San Diego Historical Society, Stevenson Society of America and the Art Gallery of New South Wales (Sydney) are among the public collections holding sculptures by Allen Hutchinson.

Black Week (Hawaii)

The Black Week was a crisis in Honolulu, Hawaii that nearly caused a war between the Provisional Government there and United States.

Cabinet of the Hawaiian Kingdom

The Cabinet of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Hawaiian: ʻAha Kuhina o ke Aupuni) was a body of the top executive officials appointed to advise the sovereign of the Hawaiian Kingdom from 1845 to 1893. The subsequent regimes of the Provisional Government and the Republic of Hawaii retained the structure of the cabinet (calling it an executive council) and minister positions under the presidency of Sanford B. Dole from 1893 until 1898.

Ciridops

Ciridops is an extinct genus of Hawaiian honeycreeper species that occurred in prehistoric and historic times on the Hawaiian islands of Hawaii, Molokai, Kauai and Oahu. This genus was created in 1892 by Alfred Newton in an article published by the journal Nature on the basis of the ʻula-ʻai-hawane, which was named Fringilla anna by Sanford B. Dole in 1879.

The bill of these birds was strong. The culmen was arched, and the maxilla overlapped the mandible at the base. The nostrils were covered by a membrane. The wings were large and the tail was moderate with pointed rectrices. The nearest relatives might have been from the genus Loxops.The ʻula-ʻai-hawane, which was last seen in 1892, is the only species that survived into historic times, three others Ciridops cf. anna from Molokai, Ciridops sp. from Oahu, and the stout-legged finch (Ciridops tenax) from Kauai are only known from subfossil remains found in late quaternary deposits.

Committee of Safety (Hawaii)

The Committee of Safety, formally the Citizen's Committee of Public Safety, was a 13-member group of the Annexation Club. The group was composed of mostly Hawaiian subjects and American citizens who were members of the Missionary Party, as well as foreign residents in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi that planned and carried out the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi on January 17, 1893. The goal of this group was to achieve annexation of Hawaiʻi by the United States. The new independent Republic of Hawaiʻi government was thwarted in this goal by the administration of President Grover Cleveland, and it was not until 1898 that the United States Congress approved a joint resolution of annexation creating the U.S. Territory of Hawaiʻi.

First Ladies of Hawaii

The spouse of the Governor of Hawaii is an unpaid ceremonial position. Territorial spouses carved out their roles in varied ways, from traditional wives who raised the children and supported their husbands, to philanthropists and society hostesses. Perhaps the most personal insight into any of the spouses came from Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole. Three years after the death of Anna Prentice Cate Dole, he published a small book, "... for those who loved and still love Anna—my dear wife." detailing their courtship and marriage, her love of poetry, and the admiration the first Governor of the Territory of Hawaii had for his wife.Nancy Quinn bridged the change of history, as the wife of the last Governor of the Territory of Hawaii and first Governor of the State of Hawaii. She believed her position was to put family first, being her husband's support in a place and time when Hawaii had not yet worked out financial accommodations for care of the governor's family. Beatrice Burns was a nurse and polio survivor; so far, the only governor's spouse of Hawaii who served her term while in a wheelchair. The agendas of the first spouses have evolved as the country's social history has. Jean Ariyoshi helped reforest Hawaii with "A Million Trees of Aloha." Lynne Waihee put children's literacy first on her agenda. Vicky Cayetano was a business owner before she married Governor Ben Cayetano. Through her business acumen, a trust fund was created to erect a new residence for Hawaii's governor.

George R. Carter

George Robert Carter (December 28, 1866 – February 11, 1933) was the second Territorial Governor of Hawaii, serving from 1903 to 1907.

Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen

Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen is a book written by Queen Liliʻuokalani, the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. It was first published in 1898, five years after the overthrow of the Kingdom. In it, Liliʻuokalani gives her account of her upbringing, her accession to the throne, the overthrow of her government by pro-American forces, her appeals to the United States to restore the Hawaiian monarchy, and her arrest and trial following an unsuccessful 1895 rebellion against the Republic of Hawaiʻi.

Her appeals immediately after the Hawaiian Revolution were acted upon by her friend, President Grover Cleveland, who demanded her reinstatement from the President of Hawaiʻi, Sanford B. Dole, following a confidential investigation and report by James Henderson Blount submitted July 17, 1893. Dole refused Cleveland's demands. Cleveland then referred the matter to the United States Congress. The Congress investigated further and produced the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894 which concluded that the U.S. had no role in the Hawaiian Revolution. Following the Morgan Report, the Turpie Resolution of May 31, 1894 ended any hope for further assistance in regaining her throne, and her further appeals for help were rebuffed by the Cleveland administration.

In 1898, the same year the book was originally published, Hawaiʻi was formally annexed by the United States of America.

This book is seen by many in the Hawaiian sovereignty movement as a key source documenting the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. Many of her assertions regarding the overthrow are contradicted by other primary sources, including the Morgan Report and the Native Hawaiians Study Commission Report of 1983.

In either case, many people believe that the work is successful in conveying the frustration and sadness by the Queen and her supporters both for her loss of the throne, as well as the end of the independent nation of Hawaiʻi upon annexation to the United States.

Hawaiian Historical Society

The Hawaiian Historical Society, established in 1892, is a private non-profit organized by a group of prominent citizens dedicated to preserving historical materials, presenting public lectures, and publishing scholarly research on Hawaiian history. The first president was Charles Reed Bishop, who founded the Kamehameha Schools in honor of his wife Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Governor Sanford B. Dole also served as President of the Society. Early members included historians Nathaniel Bright Emerson and Ralph Simpson Kuykendall.In one of the Society's first meetings, on February 24, 1892, Her Majesty Queen Lili‘uokalani was voted Patron of the Society.The Society publishes books and the Hawaiian Journal of History. This annual publication is the longest published peer-reviewed journal focusing on the history of both pre- and post-contact Hawai'i. The Society's Library, located at the Hawaiian Mission Houses Historic Site and Archives, contains a collection of photos, newspapers, magazines, journals, books, pamphlets, and manuscripts made available to scholars and the public. For example, in 1974, the journal published a retrospective on the 1874 election of King Kalākaua and the ensuing Honolulu Courthouse riot including letters with eyewitness accounts.As a leading organization studying the history of Hawai'i, the Society presents free public lectures on a regular basis. Its speakers and authors are often featured in the media, and on Facebook and Tumblr.

Horace Worth Vaughan

Horace Worth Vaughan (December 2, 1867 – November 10, 1922) was an American lawyer, jurist, and politician. He represented Texas in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. In 1915, he received an appointment as assistant Attorney General in the Territory of Hawaii, where he lived the rest of his life.

James Dole

James Drummond Dole (September 27, 1877 – May 20, 1958), also known as the "Pineapple King'", was an American industrialist who developed the pineapple industry in Hawaii. He established the Hawaiian Pineapple Company (HAPCO) which was later reorganized to become the Dole Food Company and now operates in over 90 countries. Dole was a cousin (once removed) of Sanford B. Dole, President of the Republic of Hawaii.

John L. Stevens

John Leavitt Stevens (August 1, 1820 – February 8, 1895) was the United States Minister to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 when he was accused of conspiring to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in association with the Committee of Safety, led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole – the first Americans attempting to overthrow a foreign government under the auspices of a United States government officer. John L. Stevens, journalist, author, minister, newspaper publisher and diplomat, was also a Maine State Senator who was a founder of the Republican Party in Maine.

Opposition to the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom

Opposition to the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom took several forms. Following the overthrow of the monarchy on January 17, 1893, Hawaii's provisional government—under the leadership of Sanford B. Dole—attempted to annex the land to the United States under Republican Benjamin Harrison's administration. But the treaty of annexation came up for approval under the administration of Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, anti-expansionist, and friend of the deposed Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii. Cleveland retracted the treaty on March 4, 1893, and launched an investigation headed by James Henderson Blount; its report is known as the Blount Report.

Princess Kaiulani (film)

Princess Kaiulani (sometimes titled Barbarian Princess) is a 2009 British-American biographical drama film based on the life of Princess Kaʻiulani (1875–1899) of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Provisional Government of Hawaii

The Provisional Government of Hawaii, abbreviated "P.G.", was proclaimed after the coup d'état on January 17, 1893, by the 13-member Committee of Safety under the leadership of its chairman Henry E. Cooper and former judge Sanford B. Dole as the designated President of Hawaii. It replaced the Kingdom of Hawaii after the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani as a provisional government until the Republic of Hawaii was established on July 4, 1894.

Republic of Hawaii

The Republic of Hawaiʻi was a short-lived one-party state in Hawaiʻi between July 4, 1894, when the Provisional Government of Hawaii had ended, and August 12, 1898, when it became annexed by the United States as an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In 1893, U.S. Minister to Hawaii John L. Stevens and white native-born subjects of the Kingdom of Hawaii overthrew Queen Liliʻuokalani after she rejected the 1887 Bayonet Constitution which was forced on Hawaii. The perpetrators intended for Hawaii to be annexed by the United States but President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat opposed to imperialism, refused. A new constitution was subsequently written while Hawaii was being prepared for annexation.

While leaders of the republic such as Sanford B. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston were native-born subjects of the Hawaiian Islands and spoke the Hawaiian language, they had strong financial, political, and family ties to the United States. They intended the Republic to become a territory of the United States. Dole was a former member of the Royal Legislature from Koloa, Kauai, and Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court, and he appointed Thurston—who had served as Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua—to lead a lobbying effort in Washington, D.C. to secure Hawaii's annexation by the United States. The issue of overseas imperialism was controversial in the United States due to its colonial origins, but rising jingoism during the Spanish–American War led to anti-imperialism’s decline. The day before the end of the war, Hawaii was annexed under Republican President William McKinley. The Territory of Hawaii was formally established as part of the U.S. on June 14, 1900.

The Blount Report "first provided evidence that officially identified the United States' complicity in the lawless overthrow of the lawful, peaceful government of Hawaii." American officials immediately recognized the new government and U.S. Marines were sent by the US Ambassador to aid in the overthrow. The Queen's supporters charged the Marines' presence frightened the Queen and thus enabled the revolution. Blount concluded that the United States had carried out unauthorized partisan activities, including the landing of U.S. Marines under a false or exaggerated pretext, to support the anti-royalist conspirators; that these actions were instrumental to the success of the revolution; and that the revolution was carried out against the wishes of a majority of the population of Hawaii.

Territory of Hawaii

The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 30, 1900 until August 21, 1959, when most of its territory, excluding Palmyra Island and the Stewart Islands, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii. The Hawaii Admission Act specified that the State of Hawaii would not include the distant Palmyra Island, the Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Atoll, which includes Johnston (or Kalama) Island and Sand Island, and the Act was silent regarding the Stewart Islands.On July 4, 1898, the United States Congress passed the Newlands Resolution authorizing the U.S. annexation of the Republic of Hawaii, and five weeks later, on August 12, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. In April 1900 Congress approved the Hawaiian Organic Act which organized the territory. Hawaii's territorial history includes a period from 1941 to 1944, during World War II, when the islands were placed under martial law. Civilian government was dissolved and a military governor was appointed.

USS Giraffe (IX-118)

USS Giraffe (IX-118),

an Armadillo-class tanker designated

an unclassified miscellaneous vessel, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the giraffe, a large ruminant mammal of Africa, having a very long neck that makes it the tallest of quadrupeds. Her keel was laid down as Sanford B. Dole by the California Shipbuilding Corporation, in Wilmington, California. She was launched on 11 November 1943 sponsored by Miss Mary F. Leddy and commissioned on 12 December 1943 with Lieutenant Commander Frederick F. Daly, USNR, commanding.

Following shakedown, Giraffe put in at Funafuti, Ellice Islands, on 10 February 1944 and subsequently refueled warships at Eniwetok, Saipan, Guam, Ulithi, and Palau before reaching Okinawa on 21 July 1945. She entered Sasebo, Japan, on 20 November at war's end and served the occupation fleet until departing Yokosuka on 21 February 1946 for Pearl Harbor and Norfolk, Virginia. Giraffe reached Norfolk 3 May and decommissioned there 17 June 1946. Returned to the War Department that date, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 3 July 1946. She was subsequently sold to Metro Petroleum Shipping Company, Inc.

Giraffe was awarded two battle stars for World War II service.

Hawaiian Kingdom
1843–1893
Provisional Government
of Hawaii
1893–1894
Republic of Hawaii
1894–1900
Territorial Governor of Hawaiʻi (1898–1941)
Military Governor of Hawaii (1941–44)
Territorial Governor of Hawaiʻi (1944–59)
Governor of Hawaiʻi (1959–present)

Languages

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