Sandaraca

Sandaraca or Sandarake (Ancient Greek: Σανδαράκη) was a coastal town of ancient Bithynia, at a distance of 90 stadia to the east of the river Oxines.[1][2]

Its site is located near Zonguldak in Asiatic Turkey.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ Arrian. Periplus Ponti Euxini. p. 14.
  2. ^ Anon. Peripl. P. E. p. 4.
  3. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 86, and directory notes accompanying.
  4. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Sandaraca". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 41°27′24″N 31°47′12″E / 41.4566075°N 31.786683°E

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Crenides (Bithynia)

Crenides or Krenides (Ancient Greek: Κρηνίδες), or Cranides or Kranides (Κρανίδες), was a town on the Pontic coast of Bithynia, according to Arrian 60 stadia east of Sandaraca; according to Marcian only 20 stadia. It was between Heraclea and the mouth of the Billaeus.

The site of Crenides is near the modern Kilimli, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Elachista sandaraca

Elachista sandaraca is a moth of the family Elachistidae. It is found in Australia.

Endotricha

Endotricha is a genus of snout moths. It was described by Philipp Christoph Zeller in 1847.

Endotricha sandaraca

Endotricha sandaraca is a species of snout moth in the genus Endotricha. It was described by Paul E. S. Whalley in 1963, and is known from Borneo.

List of moths of Australia (Elachistidae)

This is a list of the Australian moth species of the family Elachistidae. It also acts as an index to the species articles and forms part of the full List of moths of Australia.

Genus Elachista

Subgenus Atachia Wocke, 1876

erebophthalma group

Elachista erebophthalma Meyrick, 1897

Elachista evexa Kaila, 2011

Elachista rhomboidea Kaila, 2011

Elachista leucastra (Meyrick, 1906)

gerasmia group, catarata section

Elachista menura Kaila, 2011

Elachista flammula Kaila, 2011

Elachista crocospila Kaila, 2011

Elachista glomerella Kaila, 2011

Elachista sphaerella Kaila, 2011

Elachista aluta Kaila, 2011

Elachista sp. nr. sphaerella A (south-eastern Queensland)

Elachista sp. nr. sphaerella B (south-eastern Queensland)

Elachista sp. nr. sphaerella C (northern Queensland)

Elachista sp. nr. sphaerella D (northern Queensland)

Elachista sapphirella Kaila, 2011

Elachista patersoniae Kaila, 2011

Elachista catarata Meyrick, 1897

Elachista mutarata Kaila, 2011

Elachista laterina Kaila, 2011

Elachista ictera Kaila, 2011

Elachista asperae Kaila, 2011

Elachista ophthalma Kaila, 2011

Elachista coalita Kaila, 2011

Elachista corneola Kaila, 2011

gerasmia group, gerasmia section

Elachista magidina Kaila, 2011

Elachista floccella Kaila, 2011

Elachista velutina Kaila, 2011

Elachista carcharota Kaila, 2011

Elachista crenatella Kaila, 2011

Elachista bidens Kaila, 2011

Elachista alampeta Kaila, 2011

Elachista cursa Kaila, 2011

Elachista eriodes Kaila, 2011

Elachista illota Kaila, 2011

Elachista ceratiola Kaila, 2011

Elachista bilobella Kaila, 2011

Elachista filiphila Kaila, 2011

Elachista merista Kaila, 2011

Elachista lopadina Kaila, 2011

Elachista patania Kaila, 2011

Elachista indigens Kaila, 2011

Elachista sp. nr. indigens (Barren Grounds, New South Wales)

Elachista averta Kaila, 2011

Elachista anolba Kaila, 2011

Elachista flavicilia Kaila, 2011

Elachista tetraquetri Kaila, 2011

Elachista effusi Kaila, 2011

Elachista deusta Kaila, 2011

Elachista rubiginosae Kaila, 2011

Elachista ophelma Kaila, 2011

Elachista catagma Kaila, 2011

Elachista ruscella Kaila, 2011

Elachista sarota Kaila, 2011

Elachista syntomella Kaila, 2011

Elachista scopulina Kaila, 2011

Elachista nodosae Kaila, 2011

Elachista discina Kaila, 2011

Elachista melanthes (Meyrick, 1887)

Elachista platysma Kaila, 2011

Elachista stictifica Kaila, 2011

Elachista lachnella Kaila, 2011

Elachista sp. A in melanthes complex

gerasmia group, gerasmia section, Elachista gerasmia complex

Elachista gerasmia Meyrick, 1889 (Syn: Elachista egena Turner, 1923)

Elachista physalodes Kaila, 2011

Elachista peridiola Kaila, 2011

Elachista phascola Kaila, 2011

gerasmia group, gerasmia section, Elachista paragauda complex

Elachista paragauda Kaila, 2011

Elachista toralis Kaila, 2011

Elachista paryphoea Kaila, 2011

Elachista spathacea Kaila, 2011

Elachista cylistica Kaila, 2011

Elachista fabarella Kaila, 2011

Elachista etorella Kaila, 2011

Elachista gladiograpta Kaila, 2011

Elachista gladiatrix Kaila, 2011

Elachista spongicola Kaila, 2011

gerasmia group, gerasmia section, Elachista cynopa complex

Elachista ligula Kaila, 2011

Elachista toryna Kaila, 2011

Elachista ascidiella Kaila, 2011

Elachista repanda Kaila, 2011

Elachista prolatella Kaila, 2011

Elachista protensa Kaila, 2011

Elachista campsella Kaila, 2011

Elachista spinodora Kaila, 2011

Elachista glossina Kaila, 2011

Elachista opima Kaila, 2011

Elachista pharetra Kaila, 2011

Elachista rudicula Kaila, 2011

Elachista corbicula Kaila, 2011

Elachista mystropa Kaila, 2011

Elachista trulla Kaila, 2011

Elachista euthema Kaila, 2011

Elachista cynopa Meyrick, 1897

Elachista epartica Kaila, 2011

Elachista zeta Kaila, 2011

Elachista chilotera Kaila, 2011

Elachista mundula Kaila, 2011

Elachista listrionea Kaila, 2011

Elachista crumilla Kaila, 2011

Elachista aposematica Kaila, 2011

Elachista chloropepla Meyrick, 1897

Subgenus Elachista

Elachista tetragonella group

Elachista ensifera Kaila, 2011

Elachista bifascialla group s.l.

Elachista platina Kaila, 2011

Elachista sp. nr. platina (Corrigin, Western Australia)

Elachista sp. bifascialla group (Mount Barrow, Tasmania)

Elachista micalis Kaila, 2011

Elachista habrella Kaila, 2011

Elachista scitula Kaila, 2011

Elachista orba group

Elachista cyanea Kaila, 2011

Elachista polliae Kaila, 2011

Elachista commoncommelinae Sugisima & Kaira, 2011

Elachista nielsencommelinae Sugisima & Kaira, 2011

Elachista praelineata group

Elachista aurita Kaila, 2011

Elachista solena group

Elachista ignicolor Kaila, 2011

Elachista freyerella group s.l.

Elachista synethes complex

Elachista fucosa Meyrick, 1922

Elachista seductilis Kaila, 2011

Elachista synethes Meyrick, 1897 (Syn: Elachista aphanta Turner, 1923, Elachista scrythrodes (Turner, 1947))

Elachista strenua Kaila, 2011

Elachista sandaraca Kaila, 2011

Elachista helvola Kaila, 2011

Elachista delira Kaila, 2011

Elachista sp. in synethes complex

Elachista freyerella complex

Elachista propera Kaila, 2011

Elachista dieropa Kaila, 2011

Elachista elaphria Kaila, 2011

Elachista cycotis Meyrick, 1897

Elachista vitellina Kaila, 2011

Elachista citrina Kaila, 2011

Elachista cerebrosella Kaila, 2011

Elachista melina Kaila, 2011

Elachista gemadella Kaila, 2011

Elachista ravella Kaila, 2011

Elachista cerina Kaila, 2011

Elachista diligens Kaila, 2011

Elachista aepsera Kaila, 2011

Elachista zophosema (Turner, 1947)

Elachista litharga Kaila, 2011

Elachista levipes Kaila, 2011

Elachista cerrita Kaila, 2011

Elachista velox Kaila, 2011

Elachista impiger Kaila, 2011

Elachista alacera Kaila, 2011

Elachista essymena Kaila, 2011

Elachista festina Kaila, 2011

Genus Urodeta

Urodeta inusta Kaila, 2011

Genus Perittia

Perittia daleris Kaila, 2011

Perittia antauges Kaila, 2011

Perittia deroga Kaila, 2011

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Oncocnemis

Oncocnemis was a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae; it is now considered a synonym of Sympistis

Sandarac

Sandarac (or sandarach) is a resin obtained from the small cypress-like tree Tetraclinis articulata. The tree is native to the northwest of Africa with a notable presence in the Southern Morocco part of the Atlas mountains. The resin exudes naturally on the stems of the tree. It is also obtained by making cuts on the bark. It solidifies when exposed to the air. It comes to commerce in the form of small solid chips, translucent, and having a delicate yellow tinge. Morocco has been the main place of origin of sandarac. A similar resin is obtained in southern Australia from some species of the Australian cypress-like trees Callitris, but the resin has not been systematically collected in Australia.Historically, especially in the Late Medieval and Renaissance era, sandarac was used to make varnish. When "varnish" was spoken of in Renaissance Italy (Italian vernice) it usually meant sandarac. Copal and other resins displaced it as equally good, less expensive varnishing materials. Nevertheless the sandarac varnish is still valued today for use as a protective coating on paintings and antiques. It gives a coat which is hard, lustrous and durable. The varnish is made by melting the resin and mixing it with (e.g.) linseed oil. Sandarac resin melts at about 150°C. to a colourless or slightly yellow liquid. Its specific gravity is about 1.04.In mid-to-late 19th century photography, a varnish was applied as a preservative to photographic negatives and positives. Sandarac resin was preferred by some photographers for this purpose.Although it is not very strongly aromatic, sandarac resin was and is also used as an incense. The aroma has been compared to balsam.

Besides the resin and the varnish, the word sandarac may refer to the tree that produces the resin. Entirely separately from that, the ancient Greeks and Romans used the word sandarac to refer to arsenic sulfide particularly red arsenic sulfide. In medieval Latin the term sandaraca meant red lead as well as red arsenic sulfide. The word's resin/varnish meaning came to Europe from Arabic in the early 16th century. To distinguish this meaning from the Greek and medieval Latin meaning, it was occasionally called "Arabian sandarac" or "sandaracha Arabum" in New Latin writings. The name in Arabic was and is سندروس sandarūs.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Sympistis

Sympistis is a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae.

Sympistis sandaraca

Sympistis sandaraca is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found from the mountains of south-western Alberta south to at least Colorado and California.

Its habitat consists of dry open woodland in mountainous areas.

The wingspan is 32–34 mm. Adults are on wing in late summer and fall.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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