San Remo conference

The San Remo conference was an international meeting of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council as an outgrowth of the Paris Peace Conference, held at Villa Devachan in Sanremo, Italy, from 19 to 26 April 1920. Resolutions passed at this conference determined the allocation of Class "A" League of Nations mandates for the administration of three Ottoman territories in the Middle East: Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia. Whilst Syria and Mesopotamia were provisionally recognized as states which would be given Mandatory assistance, Palestine would instead be administered by the Mandatory under an obligation to implement the Balfour Declaration. The boundaries of the three territories were to be determined by the Principal Allied Powers.

It was attended by the four Principal Allied Powers of World War I who were represented by the prime ministers of Britain (David Lloyd George), France (Alexandre Millerand), Italy (Francesco Nitti) and by Japan's Ambassador Keishirō Matsui.

San Remo Conference 1920
Delegates to the Conference standing outside Villa Devachan, from left to right: Matsui, Lloyd George, Curzon, Berthelot, Millerand, Scialoja, Nitti

Overview

The conference was attended by the allies, the US representative joining the meeting later in an observer capacity [1]

British Empire:

France:

  • Alexandre Millerand, President of the French Council of Ministers
  • Philippe Berthelot
  • Albert Kammerer

Italy:

  • Francesco Saverio Nitti, Prime Minister (in the Chair)
  • Vittorio Scialoja
  • Secretaries: Signor Garbasso, Signor Galli, Signor Trombetti, Lieutenant Zanchi.

Japan:

  • Matsui Keishirō
  • Secretaries: Mr. Saito, Mr. Sawada.

Interpreter:

  • Gustave Henri Camerlynck

United States of America (as observers):

Prior events

It was convened following the February precursor Conference of London (1920) where the allies met to discuss the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and the negotiation of agreements that would become the Treaty of Sèvres.

On 30 September 1918 supporters of the Arab Revolt in Damascus had declared a government loyal to Sharif Hussein, who had been declared "King of the Arabs" by religious leaders and other notables in Mecca.[2] During the meetings of the Council of Four in 1919, British Prime Minister Lloyd George stated that the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was the basis for the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which proposed an independent Arab state or confederation of states.[3] In July 1919 the parliament of Greater Syria had refused to acknowledge any right claimed by the French Government to any part of Syrian territory.[4]

On 6 January 1920 the then Prince Faisal initialed an agreement with French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau which acknowledged "the right of the Syrians to unite to govern themselves as an independent nation".[5] A Pan-Syrian Congress, meeting in Damascus, had proclaimed an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria on 8 March 1920.[6] The new state included modern Syria and Jordan, portions of northern Mesopotamia which had been set aside under the Sykes–Picot Agreement for an independent Arab state or confederation of states, and nominally the areas of modern Israel-Palestine and Lebanon, although the latter areas were never under Faisal's control. Faisal was declared the head of state. At the same time Prince Zeid, Faisal's brother, was declared regent of Mesopotamia.

Issues addressed

The peace treaty with Turkey, the granting of League of Nation mandates in the Middle East, Germany's obligations under the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919, and the Allies' position on Soviet Russia.[7]

Agreements reached

Asserting that not all parts of the Middle East were ready for full independence, mandates were established for the government of three territories: Syria (including Lebanon), Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine. In each case, one of the Allied Powers was assigned to implement the mandate until the territories in question could "stand alone." Great Britain and France agreed to recognize the provisional independence of Syria and Mesopotamia, while claiming mandates for their administration. Palestine was included within the Ottoman administrative districts of southern Syria comprising the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem together with the Sanjak of Nablus and Sanjak of Akka (Acre), forming the region that was commonly referred to as "Southern Syria"[8] or "Palestine".[9][10][11]

The decisions of the San Remo conference confirmed the mandate allocations of the Conference of London. The San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British government had undertaken to favour the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine without prejudice to the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. Britain received the mandate for Palestine and Iraq; France gained control of Syria, including present-day Lebanon. Following the 1918 Clemenceau–Lloyd George Agreement, Britain and France also signed the San Remo Oil Agreement, whereby Britain granted France a 25 percent share of the oil production from Mosul, with the remainder going to Britain[12] and France undertook to deliver oil to the Mediterranean. The draft peace agreement with Turkey signed at the conference became the basis for the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. Germany was called upon to carry out its military and reparation obligations under the Versailles Treaty, and a resolution was adopted in favor of restoring trade with Russia.[7]

Minutes of Meetings of the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers in San Remo at the Villa Devachan, April 24 and April 25, 1920.djvu&page=11
The resolution per the conference minutes, 25 April 1920

San Remo Resolution – 25 April 1920

It was agreed –

(a) To accept the terms of the Mandates Article as given below with reference to Palestine, on the understanding that there was inserted in the procès-verbal an undertaking by the Mandatory Power that this would not involve the surrender of the rights hitherto enjoyed by the non-Jewish communities in Palestine; this undertaking not to refer to the question of the religious protectorate of France, which had been settled earlier in the previous afternoon by the undertaking given by the French Government that they recognized this protectorate as being at an end.

(b) that the terms of the Mandates Article should be as follows:

The High Contracting Parties agree that Syria and Mesopotamia shall, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of Article 22, Part I (Covenant of the League of Nations), be provisionally recognized as independent States, subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The boundaries of the said States will be determined, and the selection of the Mandatories made, by the Principal Allied Powers.[13]

The High Contracting Parties agree to entrust, by application of the provisions of Article 22, the administration of Palestine, within such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied Powers, to a Mandatory, to be selected by the said Powers. The Mandatory will be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on the 8th [2nd] November, 1917, by the British Government, and adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.[a]

La Puissance mandataire s’engage à nommer dans le plus bref delai une Commission speciale pour etudier toute question et toute reclamation concernant les differentes communautes religieuses et en etablir le reglement. Il sera tenu compte dans la composition de cette Commission des interets religieux en jeu. Le President de la Commission sera nommé par le Conseil de la Societé des Nations. [The Mandatory undertakes to appoint in the shortest time a special commission to study any subject and any queries concerning the different religious communities and regulations. The composition of this Commission will reflect the religious interests at stake. The President of the Commission will be appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.]

The terms of the mandates in respect of the above territories will be formulated by the Principal Allied Powers and submitted to the Council of the League of Nations for approval.

Turkey hereby undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article [132 of the Treaty of Sèvres] to accept any decisions which may be taken in this connection.

(c) Les mandataires choisis par les principales Puissances alliés sont: la France pour la Syrie, et la Grande Bretagne pour la Mesopotamie, et la Palestine. [The officers chosen by the principal allied Powers are: France for Syria and Great Britain for Mesopotamia and Palestine.]

In reference to the above decision the Supreme Council took note of the following reservation of the Italian Delegation:

La Delegation Italienne en consideration des grands interêts economiques que l’Italie en tant que puissance exclusivement mediterranéenne possède en Asie Mineure, reserve son approbation à la presente resolution, jusqu’au reglement des interêts italiens en Turquie d’Asie. [The Italian delegation, in view of the great economic interests that Italy, as an exclusively Mediterranean power, possesses in Asia Minor, withholds its approval of this resolution until Italian interests in Turkey in Asia shall have been settled.][14]

Subsequent events

Zionist Rejoicings. British Mandate For Palestine Welcomed, The Times, Monday, Apr 26, 1920
"Zionist Rejoicings. British Mandate For Palestine Welcomed", The Times, Monday, 26 April 1920, following conclusion of the conference.

While Transjordan was not mentioned during the discussions[15],three months later, in July 1920, the French defeat of the Arab Kingdom of Syria state precipitated the British need to know 'what is the "Syria" for which the French received a mandate at San Remo?' and "does it include Transjordania?"[16] – it subsequently decided to pursue a policy of associating Transjordan with the mandated area of Palestine but not to apply the special provisions which were intended to provide a national home for the Jewish people West of the Jordan[b][c][d][e] – and the French proclaimed Greater Lebanon and other component states of its Syrian mandate on 31 August 1920. For France, the San Remo decision meant that most of its claims in Syria were internationally recognized and relations with Faisal were now subject to French military and economic considerations. The ability of Great Britain to limit French action was also significantly diminished.[17] France issued an ultimatum and intervened militarily at the Battle of Maysalun in July 1920, deposing the Arab government and removing King Faisal from Damascus in August 1920. In 1920, Great Britain appointed Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel as high commissioner and established a mandatory government in Palestine that remained in power until 1948.[18]

Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant, which contained the general rules to be applied to all Mandated Territories, was written two months before the signing of the Versaille Peace Treaty. It was not known at that time to which territories paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 would relate. The territories which came under the regime set up by this article were three former parts of the Ottoman Empire and seven former overseas possessions of Germany referred to in Part IV, Section I, of the treaty of peace. Those 10 territorial areas were originally administered under 15 mandates.[19]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Quigley (2010, p. 29) "The provision on Palestine thus read differently from the provision on Syria and Mesopotamia and omitted reference to any provisional recognition of Palestine as an independent state. The provision on Palestine read differently for the apparent reason that the mandatory would administer, hence the thrust of the provision was to make that point clear. In any event, the understanding of the resolution was that all the Class A mandates were states. Before leaving San Remo, Curzon telegraphed a memorandum to the Foreign Office in London to explain the San Remo decisions. In explaining to the Foreign Office how the boundaries between the mandate territories would he fixed, Curzon wrote that "[t]he boundaries of these States will not be included in the Peace Treaty [with Turkey] but are also to be determined by the principal Allied Powers."
  2. ^ Karsh & Karsh (2001) A telegram from Earl Curzon to Sir Herbert Samuel, dated 6 August 1920 stated: "I suggest that you should let it be known forthwith that in the area south of the Sykes-Picot line, we will not admit French authority and that our policy for this area to be independent but in closest relations with Palestine;" (in Rohan Butler et al., Documents of British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939, first series volume XIII London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963, p. 331.) Karsh writes that at the same time Curzon wrote to Vansittart, stating: "His Majesty's Government are already treating 'Trans-Jordania' as separate from the Damascus State, while at the same time avoiding any definite connection between it and Palestine, thus leaving the way open for the establishment there, should it become advisable, of some form of independent Arab government, perhaps by arrangement with King Hussein or other Arab chiefs concerned."
  3. ^ Wilson (1988, p. 44) Since the end of the war the territory north of Ma'an had been ruled by Damascus as a province of Faysal's Kingdom of Syria. Although it fell within the British zone according to the Sykes-Picot agreement, Britain was content with the arrangement because it favoured Arab rule in the interior and Faysal was, after all, British protege. However, when France occupied Damascus the picture changed dramatically. Britain did not want to see France extend its control southward to the borders of Palestine and closer to the Suez Canal.... It suddenly became important to know 'what is the "Syria" for which the French received a mandate at San Remo?' and 'does it include Transjordania?'... The British foreign secretary, Lord Curzon, decided that it did not and that Britain henceforth would regard the area as independent, but in 'closest relation' with Palestine.
  4. ^ Wilson (1988, pp. 46–48) Samuel then organised a meeting of Transjordanian leaders at Salt on 21 August, at which he would announce British plans... On 20 August Samuel and a few political officers left Jerusalem by car, headed for the Jordan river, the frontier of British territory at that time. ‘It is an entirely irregular proceeding,’ he noted, ‘my going outside my own jurisdiction into a country which was Faisal's, and is still being administered by the Damascus Government, now under French influence. But it is equally irregular for a government under French influence to be exercising functions in territory which is agreed to be within the British sphere: and of the two irregularities I prefer mine.’... The meeting, held in the courtyard of the Catholic church, was attended by about 600 people..... Sentence by sentence his speech describing British policy was translated into Arabic: political officers would be stationed in towns to help organise local governments; Transjordan would not come under Palestinian administration; there would be no conscription and no disarmament......On balance, Samuel's statement of policy was unobjectionable. Three things feared by the Arabs of Transjordan – conscription, disarmament, and annexation by Palestine – were abjured.... The presence of a few British agents, unsupported by troops, seemed a small concession in return for the protection Britain's presence would afford against the French, who, it was feared, might press their occupation southward... Samuel returned to Jerusalem well pleased with the success of his mission. He left behind several officers to see to the administration of Transjordan and the maintenance of British influence.
  5. ^ Wasserstein (2003, pp. 105–106) "Palestine, therefore, was not partitioned in 1921–1922. Transjordan was not excised but, on the contrary, added to the mandatory area. Zionism was barred from seeking to expand there – but the Balfour Declaration had never previously applied to the area east of the Jordan. Why is this important? Because the myth of Palestine's 'first partition' has become part of the concept of 'Greater Israel' and of the ideology of Jabotinsky's Revisionist movement."

References

  1. ^ "San Remo Peace Conference Minutes". Office For Israeli Constitutional Law. 25 April 1920. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  2. ^ George 2005, p. 6.
  3. ^ "FRUS: Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919: The Council of Four: minutes of meetings March 20 to May 24, 1919". digicoll.library.wisc.edu.
  4. ^ Baker 1979, p. 161.
  5. ^ Paris 2003, p. 69.
  6. ^ King, William C. (24 April 1922). "King's Complete History of the World War ...: 1914–1918. Europe's War with Bolshevism 1919–1920. War of the Turkish Partition 1920–1921. Warfare in Ireland, India, Egypt, Far East 1916–1921. Epochal Events Thruout the Civilized World from Ferdinand's Assassination to Disarmament Conference". History Associates – via Google Books.
  7. ^ a b Olson, James Stuart (24 April 1991). "Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Hasan Afif El-Hasan (2010). Israel Or Palestine? Is the Two-state Solution Already Dead?. Algora Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-87586-793-9. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  9. ^ Büssow, Johann (11 August 2011). Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem 1872-1908. BRILL. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-04-20569-7. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  10. ^ The 1915 Filastin Risalesi ("Palestine Document") is a country survey of the VIII Corps of the Ottoman Army, which identified Palestine as a region including the sanjaqs of Akka (the Galilee), the Sanjaq of Nablus, and the Sanjaq of Jerusalem (Kudus Sherif), see Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 2: Ethnography and Cartography, Salim Tamari
  11. ^ "Annex III – Ottoman Administrative Districts – Map". UN. 1915.
  12. ^ Blakeslee, George Hubbard; Hall, Granville Stanley; Barnes, Harry Elmer (24 April 1921). "The Journal of International Relations". Clark University – via Google Books.
  13. ^ Quigley 2010, p. 29.
  14. ^ San Remo Resolution-Palestine Mandate 1920, MidEastWeb
  15. ^ Biger 2004, p. 173.
  16. ^ Hubert Young to Ambassador Hardinge (Paris), 27 July 1920, FO 371/5254, cited in Wilson (1988, p. 44)
  17. ^ "France in Syria: the abolition of the Sharifian government, April–July 1920. Middle Eastern Studies | HighBeam Research". web.archive.org. 27 February 2011.
  18. ^ Wasserstein, Bernard (1 October 1976). "Herbert Samuel and the Palestine problem". The English Historical Review. XCI (CCCLXI): 753–775. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCI.CCCLXI.753 – via academic.oup.com.
  19. ^ "FRUS: Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919: I: The treaty of peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany, signed at Versailles, June 28, 1919". digicoll.library.wisc.edu.

Sources

  1. Baker, Randall (1979). King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz. Oleander. ISBN 978-0900891489.
  2. George, Alan (2005). Jordan: Living in the Crossfire. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1842774717.
  3. Karsh, Efraim; Karsh, Inari (2001). Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, 1789–1923. Harvard UP. ISBN 978-0674005419.
  4. Paris, Timothy J (2003). Britain, the Hashemites and Arab Rule, 1920–1925. Routledge. ISBN 978-0714654515.
  5. Quigley, John (2010). The Statehood of Palestine: International Law in the Middle East Conflict. CUP. ISBN 978-1139491242.
  6. Wasserstein, Bernard (2003). Israelis and Palestinians : Why do they fight? Can they stop?. Yale UP. ISBN 978-0300101720.
  7. Wilson, Mary Christina (1988). King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan. (Cambridge Middle East Library). CUP. ISBN 978-0521324212.

Further reading

  • Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace. New York: Henry Holt.
  • Stein, Leonard (1961). The Balfour Declaration. London: Valentine Mitchell.
  • "Conferees Depart from San Remo", New York Times, April 28, 1920, Wednesday. "CONFEREES DEPART FROM SAN REMO; Millerand Receives Ovation from Italians on His Homeward Journey. RESULTS PLEASE GERMANS; Berlin Liberal Papers Rejoice at Decision to Invite Chancellor to Spa Conference."

External links

1920 Nebi Musa riots

The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem. Five Jews and four Arabs were killed, and several hundred were injured. The riots coincided with and are named after the Nebi Musa festival, which took place every year on Easter Sunday, and followed rising tensions in Arab-Jewish relations. The events came shortly after the Battle of Tel Hai and the increasing pressure on Arab nationalists in Syria in the course of the Franco-Syrian War.

Speeches were given by Arab religious leaders during the festival (in which large numbers of Muslims traditionally gathered for a religious procession), which included slogans referencing Zionist immigration and previous confrontations around outlying Jewish villages in the Galilee. The trigger which turned the procession into a riot is not known with certainty - some evidence exists suggesting Jewish provocation, but it is also possible, though unreported, that Arab activities triggered the riots.The British military administration of Palestine was criticized for withdrawing troops from inside Jerusalem and because it was slow to regain control. As a result of the riots, trust between the British, Jews, and Arabs eroded. One consequence was that the Jewish community increased moves towards an autonomous infrastructure and security apparatus parallel to that of the British administration.In its wake, sheikhs of 82 villages around the city and Jaffa, claiming to represent 70% of the population, issued a document protesting the demonstrations against the Jews. This condemnation may have been procured with bribes. Notwithstanding the riots, the Palestinian Jewish community held elections for the Assembly of Representatives on 19 April 1920 among Jews everywhere in Palestine except Jerusalem, where they were delayed to 3 May. The riots also preceded the San Remo conference which was held from 19 to 26 April 1920 at which the fate of the Middle East was to be decided.

1920 in Italy

Events from the year 1920 in Italy.

Conference of London (1920)

In the Conference of London, (12–10 April 1920), following World War I, leaders of Britain, France, and Italy met to discuss the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and the negotiation of agreements that would become the Treaty of Sèvres. Under the leadership of British prime minister David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of France Alexandre Millerand, and Prime Minister of Italy Francesco Saverio Nitti, the allied powers reached agreements that would form the basis of their arguments at the San Remo conference.

Eric Forbes Adam

Eric Graham Forbes Adam (3 October 1888 – 7 July 1925) was a British diplomat and First Secretary to the Foreign Office.

Adam was born in Malabar Hill, Bombay, India, the second son of Sir Frank Forbes Adam, 1st Baronet. His older brother was General Sir Ronald Forbes Adam, 2nd Baronet. He was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge.

While at Cambridge, Adam played one first-class cricket match for Cambridge University against Yorkshire on 1–3 June 1911 at Fenner's. He batted at number 6 in Cambridge's first innings, scoring 10 before being caught by Arthur Dolphin off the bowling of Wilfred Rhodes. During Yorkshire's first innings he gained some measure of revenge on Rhodes by catching him for 1 off the bowling of John Frederick Ireland – the only catch of his first-class career. In Cambridge's second innings he opened the batting with David Collins, scoring 17 before being bowled by Alonzo Drake. Cambridge won the match by 69 runs.

Adam married Agatha Perrin, daughter of R.W. Macan in 1918; their son was Sir Christopher Adam, 3rd Baronet (1920–2009).Adam served as 3rd Secretary in the British Peace Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919; the London Conference of 1920 and the San Remo Conference. He was First Secretary in the British Delegation to the Lausanne Conference of 1922–1923.

Adam was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1923.Adam died in Istanbul in 1925, aged 36, and is buried in Haydarpaşa Cemetery in Istanbul.

Homeland for the Jewish people

A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion. In the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars led to the idea of Jewish emancipation. This unleashed a number of religious and secular cultural streams and political philosophies among the Jews in Europe, covering everything from Marxism to Chassidism. Among these movements was Zionism as promoted by Theodore Herzl. In the late 19th century, Herzl set out his vision of a Jewish state and homeland for the Jewish people in his book Der Judenstaat. Herzl was later hailed by the Zionist political parties as the founding father of the State of Israel.In the Balfour Declaration of 1917, the United Kingdom became the first world power to endorse the establishment in Palestine of a "national home for the Jewish people." The British government confirmed this commitment by accepting the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922 (along with their colonial control of the Pirate Coast, Southern Coast of Persia, Iraq and from 1922 a separate area called Transjordan, all of the Middle-Eastern territory except the French territory). The European powers mandated the creation of a Jewish homeland at the San Remo conference of 19–26 April 1920. In 1948, the State of Israel was established.

Howard Grief

Howard Grief (19 April 1940 - 2 June 2013) was a Jerusalem-based attorney and notary born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He served as the adviser on Israel under international law to Yuval Ne'eman while Ne'eman was the Minister of Energy and Infrastructure in the Yitzhak Shamir Government.

Mandate for Mesopotamia

The Draft Mandate for Mesopotamia (Arabic: الانتداب البريطاني على العراق‎) was a proposed League of Nations Mandate intended to be entrusted to Britain that was subsequently replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922, an agreement between Britain and Iraq with some similarities to the proposed mandate.

The proposed mandate was awarded on April 25, 1920, at the San Remo conference in Italy in accordance with the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement, but was not yet documented or defined. It was to be a Class A mandate under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. A draft mandate document was prepared by the British Colonial Office in June 1920, and submitted in draft form to the League of Nations in December 1920.

The proposed mandate faced certain difficulties to be established, as a nationwide Iraqi revolt broke out in 1920, after which it was decided the territory would become the Kingdom of Iraq, via the Anglo-Iraq Treaty. The Kingdom of Iraq became independent in 1931–1932, in accordance with the League of Nations stance, which stated such states would be facilitated into progressive development as fully independent states.The civil government of Anglo-administered Iraq was headed originally by the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, and his deputy, Colonel Arnold Wilson. British reprisals after the murder of a British officer in Najaf failed to restore order. British administration had yet to be established in the mountains of north Iraq. The most striking problem facing the British was the growing anger of the nationalists, who felt betrayed at being accorded mandate status.

Occupied Enemy Territory Administration

The Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA) was a joint British and French military administration over Levantine provinces of the former Ottoman Empire between 1918 and 1920, set up on 23 October 1918 following the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Although it was declared by the British military, who were in control of the region, it was preceded on 30 September 1918 by the 1918 Anglo–French Modus Vivendi, in which it was agreed that the British would give the French control in certain areas.Following the occupation of the Adana Vilayet (the region of Cilicia) in December 1918, a new territory, OETA North, was set up.The administration ended in OETA West and OETA South in 1920 following the assignment of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon and British Mandate for Palestine at the 19–26 April 1920 San Remo conference.In OETA East, British administration ended following the withdrawal of British forces from the territory in November 1919, and the subsequent declaration of the Arab Kingdom of Syria over the same area. The region, which would become part of TransJordan, was separated from the Kingdom after the French defeated King Faisal in July 1920 and combined the northern part of the territory with OETA West.

Oraio

Oraio (Greek: Ωραίο, Bulgarian: Брещене, Орайово, Turkish: Yassıören, Yassioren) is a settlement in the municipality Myki in the Xanthi regional unit of Greece. Oraio is a Pomak Muslims minority village. It was founded in the 12th century AD, when its population was still Bulgarian Christian. The conversion to Islam occurred during the period 17th-18th century. Following the First Balkan War, Bulgaria took possession of Oraio in 1912, but after a period of eight months it was taken back by the Greek army. Shortly thereafter, as part of the accords concluding the Balkan Wars, Oraio and Western Thrace were ceded to Bulgaria and remained a part of the latter until the end of World War I. Following the Bulgarian defeat in this war, Western Thrace, and thus Oraio, was given to Greece in the second half of April 1920 at San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers (except the US). Later in 1923 it was left to Greece with the rest of Western Thrace region by the Treaty of Lausanne. It was occupied by Bulgaria in the period 1941–1944 during World War II. Later in 1944 it was left to Greece.

In the second half of April 1920 in San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers (except the US) Western Thrace was given to Greece.

Protectorate of the Holy See

At the San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920), the Mandate for Palestine was allocated by the League of Nations to Great Britain. France required the continuation of its religious protectorate in Palestine but Italy and Great Britain opposed it. France lost the religious protectorate, but, thanks to the Holy See, continued to enjoy liturgical honors in Mandatory Palestine until 1924, when the honors were abolished. The precise boundaries of all territories, including that of the British Mandate for Palestine, were left unspecified, to "be determined by the Principal Allied Powers". During that time, the British were in control of Palestine and the French took control of Syria, for which France had been given a mandate.

Robert Underwood Johnson

Robert Underwood Johnson (January 12, 1853 – October 14, 1937) was an American writer and diplomat. His wife was Katharine Johnson.

San Remo

San Remo may refer to places:

Sanremo, an Italian city

San Remo, New South Wales, a town in New South Wales, Australia

San Remo, Victoria, a town in Victoria, Australia

San Remo, Western Australia, a suburb of Mandurah, Australia

San Remo, New York, a hamlet in Suffolk County, New York, USASanremo or San Remo may also refer to:

San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (1994)

San Remo conference of 1920 held at Sanremo, Italy

Romulus of Genoa (Saint Romulus), a bishop of Genoa after whom the town of Sanremo was named

Sanremo Music Festival

The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City

San Remo Apartments, Inc., an historical condominium in Seattle

Hôtel San Rémo, a hotel casino in Las Vegas

Rallye San Remo, a rally competition

San Remo, a fictional city in the TV series Petrocelli. The scenes were filmed in Tucson, Arizona

San Remo Music Publishing, based in London and founded by Gary Barlow and Simon Moran

San Remo Macaroni Company, an Australian pasta company

San Remo Oil Agreement

The San Remo Oil Agreement was an agreement between Britain and France signed at the San Remo conference on 24 April 1920. As a result of this agreement, the French Compagnie Française de Petroles (CFP)

acquired a 25% share in the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC). The other shareholders were the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) with 47.5%, the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co 22.5% and the remaining 5% Calouste Gulbenkian.

State of Aleppo

The State of Aleppo (1920–1924; French: État d'Alep; Arabic: دولة حلب‎ Dawlat Ḥalab) was one of the five states that were established by the French High Commissioner in Syria and Lebanon General Henri Gouraud in the French Mandate of Syria which followed the San Remo conference and the collapse of King Faisal I's short-lived monarchy in Syria.

The other states were the State of Damascus (1920), the State of Alawites (1920) and the State of Jabal Druze (1921). The State of Greater Lebanon (1920) became later the modern country of Lebanon. The capital of the State of Aleppo was Aleppo.

State of Damascus

The State of Damascus (1920–1924; French: État de Damas; Arabic: دولة دمشق‎ Dawlat Dimashq ) was one of the six states established by the French General Henri Gouraud in the French Mandate of Syria which followed the San Remo conference and the defeat of King Faisal's short-lived monarchy in Syria.

The other states were the State of Aleppo (1920), the State of Alawites (1920), the State of Jabal Druze (1921), and The Sanjak of Alexandretta (1921). The State of Greater Lebanon (1920) became later the modern country of Lebanon.

Sykes–Picot Agreement

The Sykes–Picot Agreement was a 1916 secret treaty between the United Kingdom and France, with assent from the Russian Empire and Italy, to define their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in an eventual partition of the Ottoman Empire. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I and formed part of a series of secret agreements contemplating its partition. The primary negotiations leading to the agreement occurred between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, on which date the British and French diplomats, Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot, initialled an agreed memorandum. The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916.The agreement effectively divided the Ottoman Arab provinces outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of British and French control and influence. The agreement allocated to Britain control of what is today southern Israel and Palestine, Jordan and southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. As a result of the included Sazonov-Paléologue Agreement, Russia was to get Western Armenia in addition to Constantinople and the Turkish Straits already promised under the 1915 Constantinople Agreement. Italy assented to the agreement in 1917 via the Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, and received southern Anatolia. The Palestine region, with smaller boundaries than the later Mandatory Palestine was to fall under an "international administration".

The agreement was initially used directly as the basis for the 1918 Anglo–French Modus Vivendi which agreed a framework for the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in the Levant. More broadly it was to lead, indirectly, to the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire following Ottoman defeat in 1918. Shortly after the war, the French ceded Palestine and Mosul to the British. Mandates in the Levant and Mesopotamia were assigned at the April 1920 San Remo conference following the Sykes-Picot framework; the British Mandate for Palestine ran until 1948, the British Mandate for Mesopotamia was to be replaced by a similar treaty with Mandatory Iraq, and the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon lasted until 1946. The Anatolian parts of the agreement were assigned by the August 1920 Treaty of Sèvres; however these ambitions were thwarted by the 1919-23 Turkish War of Independence.

The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations. It negated the UK's promises to Arabs regarding a national Arab homeland in the area of Greater Syria in exchange for supporting the British against the Ottoman Empire. The agreement, along with others, was exposed to the public by the Bolsheviks in Moscow on 23 November 1917 and repeated in the British Guardian on November 26, 1917, such that "the British were embarrassed, the Arabs dismayed and the Turks delighted". The agreement's legacy has continued to cast a shadow over present-day conflicts in the region.

Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine

The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. The treaty was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.The treaty required Bulgaria:

to cede Western Thrace to the Entente (which awarded it to Greece at the San Remo conference) thereby cutting off Bulgaria's direct outlet to the Aegean Sea.

to sign a convention on population exchange with Greece.

to cede a further area of 2,563 km2 (990 sq mi) on its western border with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).

to return Dobruja, which according to the Treaty of Bucharest was partially ceded to Bulgaria and partially to the Central Powers (who later, on 25 September 1918, transferred this joint condominium to Bulgaria), to Romania, thus restoring the border set by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913).

to reduce its army to 20,000 men.

to pay reparations of £10 million.

to recognize the existence of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.The signing ceremony was held in Neuilly's town hall (hôtel de ville).In Bulgaria, the results of the treaty are popularly known as the Second National Catastrophe. Bulgaria subsequently regained South Dobruja as a result of the Treaty of Craiova. During World War II, together with Nazi Germany, it temporarily reoccupied most of the other territories ceded under the treaty.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 339

United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a ceasefire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed.

The resolution primarily reaffirmed the terms outlined in Resolution 338 (itself based on Resolution 242), returning the forces of both sides back to the position they held when the cease fire (338) came into effect, and a request from the United Nations Secretary-General to undertake measures toward the placement of observers to supervise the cease fire.

The resolution was adopted with 14 votes to none; the People's Republic of China did not participate in the voting.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 452

United Nations Security Council Resolution 452, adopted 20 July 1979, was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights, specifically the illegality thereof. It states "the policy of Israel in establishing settlements in the occupied Arab territories has no legal validity and constitutes a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949" and "calls upon the Government and people of Israel to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem."

The resolution was adopted by 14 votes to none, with 1 abstention (United States).

League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Subsequent treaties
Treaty of Sèvres
Other
Paintings
Key documents of Mandatory Palestine
1910s
1920s
1930s
1940s
To 1948
1948–91
1991–present

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