San Luis Potosí (Spanish pronunciation: [san ˈlwis potoˈsi] (listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.
It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by 8 other Mexican states, making it the state with the most borders with other neighboring states. The northern borders are with Nuevo León and Coahuila; the northeastern one with Tamaulipas; the eastern one with Veracruz; the southern ones with Hidalgo, Querétaro, Guanajuato and (state) Aguascalientes; and the northwestern one with Zacatecas.
San Luis Potosí
Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí
|Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí|
State of San Luis Potosí within Mexico
|Capital||San Luis Potosí|
|Largest City||San Luis Potosí|
|Admission||December 22, 1823|
|• Governor||Juan Manuel Carreras López|
|• Total||61,137 km2 (23,605 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,180 m (10,430 ft)|
|• Density||44/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||20th|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-SLP|
|HDI||0.757 high Ranked 26th|
|GDP||US$ 22,825,212.99 th[a]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. The state's GDP was $281,040,000 thousand of pesos in 2012, amount corresponding to $22,825,212.99 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.32 pesos (value of May 21, 2012).|
In pre-Columbian times the territory now occupied by the state of San Luis Potosí contained the cultural areas of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica. Its northern and western-central areas were inhabited by the Otomi and Chichimeca tribes. These indigenous groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Although most natives died during the Spanish settlements, huasteco groups still live, along with pame and náhuatl, although their numbers are significantly small.
In 1592, gold and silver deposits were discovered which triggered the establishment of the state. Spanish miners established the first town known as “San Luis de Mezquitique”, modern location of the capital San Luis Potosí. This led to Juan de Oñate being appointed as the first mayor.
The State was given the name "San Luis Rey", King Saint Louis, in honor of Louis IX of France, and "Potosí" because the wealth of the state compared to the rich silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Settlers hoped of rivaling the Bolivian mine wealth, but this was never truly accomplished. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Franciscans, Augustinians, and Jesuits arrived in the area and settled, then began to build churches and buildings, many of which are still standing and have been turned into museums and universities.
In mid-1821, after the Independence of Mexico, General Jose Antonio Echavarri intimidated and threatened the Mayor and the City Council to surrender the city of San Luis to the Army of the Three Guarantees of Agustín de Iturbide (Ejercito de las Tres Garantias de Iturbide), who at the time was emperor of Mexico. They submitted to his demand, as there was no way to resist, and thus proclamation of Independence of San Luis Potosí was declared. The first Constitution of San Luis Potosí was then written on October 16, 1826, and this was in effect until 1835 when Congress proclaimed it centralist. At this point, local legislatures disappeared and state governors were appointed by the central government. This situation lasted until the promulgation of the 1857 Constitution.
The state participation in the Mexican–American War in the years of 1846-1847 gave it the name "San Luis de la Patria", Saint Louis of the Motherland, for having contributed important leaders and ideas during the struggle with the United States. During the Reform War, state involvement was very prominent, and during the French Intervention in 1863, the city of San Luis Potosí became the capital of the country under the order of President Benito Juárez.
During the regime of Maximilian, San Luis became an important location. The city was held by the Imperialists until late 1866. In that year the telegraph line was opened between San Luis Potosí and Mexico City, which opened up communication lines and helped begin the industrialization of the state.
The state lies mostly on the Mexican Plateau, with the exception of the eastern part of the state, where the tableland breaks down into the tropical valley of the Tampaon River (which continues flowing northwestward until it becomes the Pánuco River, which divides San Luis Potosí from the north-eastern state of Tamaulipas). The surface of the plateau is comparatively level, with some low mountainous wooded ridges. The Sierra Madre Oriental runs north and south through the state, and separates the Mexican Plateau from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the east. The Sierra Madre Oriental is home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The easternmost portion of the state lies on the Gulf Coastal Plain, and covered by the Veracruz moist forests. The eastern part is included in the region commonly referred to as "La Huasteca".
The Tampaón river and its tributaries drain the southern and southeastern portion of the state. The northern and central portion of the state, including the capital, lie on an interior drainage basin which does not drain to the sea.
The mean elevation is about 6,000 ft ensuring a temperate climate for the most part. The state lies partly within the arid zone of the north, while the southern half receiving a more liberal rainfall through the influence of the Nortes, which deliver significant amounts of rain. The rainfall, however, is uncertain at the western and northern regions, and much of the state does not have major rivers. The soil is fertile and in favorable seasons large crops of wheat, maize, beans and cotton are grown on the uplands. In the low tropical valleys, sugar, coffee, tobacco, peppers and fruit are staple products. Stockraising is an important industry and hides, tallow and wool are exported. Fine cabinet and construction woods are also made and exported to a limited extent.
Potosí (in Bolivia) was believed to have enough gold to build a bridge between Potosí and Spain. San Luis Potosí was compared to it upon the discovery of the mines and therefore named after it.
At one time San Luis Potosí ranked among the leading mining provinces of Mexico, but the revolts following independence resulted in a great decline in that industry. The area around Real de Catorce has some of the richest silver mines in the country. Other well-known silver mining districts are Peñón Blanco, Ramos and Guadalcázar. The development of Guadalcazar dates from 1620 and its ores yield gold, copper, zinc and bismuth, as well as silver. In the Ramos district, the Cocinera lode was said to have had a total yield of over $60,000,000 in the first decade of the 20th century.
|Flora and fauna of San Luis Potosí|
|Eugenes fulgens||Felis concolor||Cardinalis sinuatus||Agkistrodon taylori||Ursus americanus|
|Vulpes macrotis||Aquila chrysaetos||Pecari tajacu||Meleagris gallopavo||Eleutherodactylus guttilatus|
|Pinus nelsonii||Pachyphytum oviferum||Beaucarnea recurvata||Echinocereus pentalophus||Fagus mexicana|
The State of San Luis Potosí is divided into 58 municipalities (Spanish: municipios), each headed by a municipal president (mayor). These are similar in function to counties. Is it so divided into four zones municipalities Altiplano (Highlands), Centro (centre), Media and Huasteca zone
The coat of arms of the state shows Louis IX of France, after whom the state was named, standing on a hill in the town of Cerro de San Pedro, where gold and silver were discovered. The state was well known for its gold and silver mines, so there are two gold bars on the left and two silver bars on the right. The blue and yellow backgrounds represent night and day, respectively.
Currently one of the mountains, Wirikuta, within the state's declared National Sacred Site is being purchased for silver mining by a Canadian company, “First Majestic Silver Corp”. The mountain is an important site for the Huichol ceremonial migration, Peyote hunt, and deer dance. On October 27, 2000 United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) claimed this site as a protected area for its importance as a cultural route and endemic flora and fauna species. Later on June 9, 2001 it was declared as a National Sacred Site under the State of San Luis Potosí's Natural Protection act. Canada's First Majestic Silver Corp still decided to purchase mineral rights on November 13, 2009 with 80% of their interest within the protected land. The company's current methods includes open pit mining and lixivation through cyanide, using two kilograms of NaCN per tonne of ore. While open pit mining itself removes entire habitats and landscapes, the addition of sodium cyanide, NaCN, is a lethal method requiring only 0.2 grams to kill a person. In April, 2010 the company also opened a new cyanidation plant in Coahila, Mexico where it has started producing 3500 tons of cyanide a day to help them expand their mining efforts. Currently the Huicholes are trying to find outside groups to help them in the conservation of their land and culture by protecting this mountain.
The State has a unique position within the country, since it is located in between three major cities; Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara, and near four major ports; Tampico, Altamira, Manzanillo, and Mazatlán. Its varied climate patterns and territory along with extensive communications networks enabled it to maintain attractive business environments.
Traditionally, the Real de Minas potosino has driven the industrial engines in the state of San Luis Potosí, and as such, nowadays basic metallurgy still has the largest contribution within the Gross Domestic Product of the entity. The main metals and products extracted across mines are zinc, copper, lead, gold, silver, mercury, manganese, and arsenic. Other major industries following the mining lead are in the sectors of chemicals, foods, beverages, tobacco, and textiles.
The services sector, also known as tertiary, is second regarding contribution to the state's income with a 21%, followed by commerce, hotels and restaurants with 18%. These combined activities employ 51% of the economically active population or EAP.
Agriculture has been a traditional activity, sometimes still practiced in the Huasteca region. Currently, even if it contributes very little to the state GDP, it nevertheless employs as much as 20% of the EAP of the entity. The main agricultural products grown on Potosí soil are maize, beans, barley, sugar cane, oranges, coffee, sour lemon, prickly pear, and mango. Livestock activities are focused on raising sheep, cattle, and pigs.
The state is also a contributor to the large automotive industry of Mexico. General Motors now has a plant under construction, San Luis Potosí Assembly, to employ up to 1,800 people which will have the capacity to produce up to 160,000 vehicles per year, or about 440 cars per day.
Cummins has also had a manufacturing presence in San Luis Potosí since 1980 and employs nearly 2,000 people there.
ABB Group multinational in Mexico moved its headquarters from Mexico City to San Luis Potosí in 2007.
Throughout the state, major industrial parks can be seen, especially in highly urbanized areas such as the capital, San Luis Potosí, and other major cities.
The minimum wage in the state is 66.45 pesos per day as of 2015 In July 2014 BMW announced it was establishing a $1 billion plant in San Luis Potosí which will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars annually, commencing in 2019.
The state of San Luis Potosí reports a population of about 2,678,231 people, according to the latest projection which took place in the year 2013. Population growth rate from 2010, the last official census, to 2013 was about 3.6%.
The state's population is relatively young, 60% of its residents being under 30 years of age. The state reports a life expectancy rate similar to the national average, that is, 72 years for men, and 77 years of age for women.
Regarding cultural and ethnic diversity, 11% of the state population is indigenous, and the most representative language is that of the Nahuatl, followed by the Huasteco. The native people of the state are among the tallest in Mexico and include the Huastecs and Pame people.
Concerning immigrants and people of European ancestry, 89% of the population has some form of European roots, mostly from Spain. During the colonization and establishment of Mexico, there was a constant flow of Spanish immigrants. There have also been large influxes during instabilities in Spain, such as during the Spanish Civil War. Besides Spanish people, there is also a significant population of descendants of Italian immigrants, especially in cities such as Rio Verde and Cerritos. Most of the European peoples have arrived through the state of Veracruz to the East.
Nonetheless, due to its relative isolation, the state is one of the nine states in Mexico which report high rates of migration into the United States.
The average schooling rate for those over 15 years of age lies at 7.7 years of education, considerably lower than the 8.1 found nationally. The same portion of those older than the age of 15 yield a 28% dropout rate of primary school. Children under the age of 14 years have a 4% school dropout rate. The literacy rate is about 90.8%, most of the illiterate being the older generation. There is only one major university in the state, despite there being other minor schools throughout.
This institution of higher education is the following:
Other higher education institutions include:
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport serves the capital of San Luis Potosí (named the same) with a variety of domestic and international daily flights. Other cities such as Matehuala, Tamuin and Rioverde also have airports but they are only domestic flights.
Besides airports, the state has an extensive road network, like the rest of the country. Most of the roads are paved in urban areas and highways. Some small towns, however, have cobblestone streets.
Arts and sciences
The 2012 San Luis Potosí Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the 19th edition of the tournament which was part of the 2012 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in San Luis Potosí, Mexico between 2 and 8 April 2012.2013 San Luis Open Challenger
The 2013 San Luis Open Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the 20th edition of the tournament which was part of the 2013 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in San Luis Potosí, Mexico between 25 and 31 March 2013.2014 San Luis Potosí Challenger
The 2014 San Luis Potosí Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It was the 20th edition of the tournament which was part of the 2014 ATP Challenger Tour. It took place in San Luis Potosí, Mexico between 14 and 19 April 2014.Atlético San Luis
Club Atlético de San Luis, commonly known as Atlético San Luis, is a Mexican professional football club based in San Luis Potosí, replacing San Luis Potosí's Liga MX team San Luis FC after its relocation. San Luis was promoted to Liga MX on 2019 and will participate in that category from the 2019-20 season.Ciudad Valles
Ciudad Valles is the second-largest city in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. It is located in the eastern part of the state at 21°59′00″N 99°1′0″W. The city is also the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name. The city had a 2014 census population of 176,935.Huastec language
The Wasteko (Huasteco) language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecos living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz. Though relatively isolated from them, it is related to the Mayan languages spoken further south and east in Mexico and Central America. According to the 2005 population census, there are about 200,000 speakers of Huasteco in Mexico (some 120,000 in San Luis Potosí and some 80,000 in Veracruz).
The language and its speakers are also called Teenek, and this name has gained currency in Mexican national and international usage in recent years.
The now-extinct Chicomuceltec language was most closely related to Wasteko.
The first linguistic description of the Huasteco language accessible to Europeans was written by Andrés de Olmos, who also wrote the first grammatical descriptions of Nahuatl and Totonac.
Wasteko-language programming is carried by the CDI's radio station XEANT-AM, based in Tancanhuitz de Santos, San Luis Potosí.List of television stations in San Luis Potosí
The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. There are 19 television stations in San Luis Potosí which are independent or affiliated to at least one Televisa, TV Azteca, Nueve TV, or Canal Once network.Matehuala
Matehuala is the fourth-largest city in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. It is located at around 23°39′10″N 100°38′40″W, at an elevation of about 1,500 m. Matehuala is also the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name, located in the northern part of the state, on the border with the southwestern corner of Nuevo León. The city of Matehuala had a 2015 census population of 99,015 while its municipality's population was 99,015. The municipality has an area of 1,286.66 km2 (496.78 sq mi).Mexican Federal Highway 63
Federal Highway 63 (Carretera Federal 63) (Fed. 63) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors (los corredores carreteros federales) of Mexico. The highway connects the cities of Matehuala, San Luis Potosí and Mexquitic, San Luis Potosí.Mexican Federal Highway 69
Federal Highway 69 (Carretera Federal 69) (Fed. 69) is a free (libre) part of the federal highways corridors (los corredores carreteros federales) of Mexico. The highway connects Fed. 70 in Rioverde, San Luis Potosí to Fed. 120 in Jalpan de Serra, Querétaro.Mexicanal
Mexicanal is a Mexican-based Spanish-language pay television network launched the August 23, 2005 by Castalia Communications and Cablecom. The network's studios and broadcast center is based in the Mexican city of San Luis Potosí.Rioverde, San Luis Potosí
Rioverde is a city and its surrounding municipality located in the south-central part of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. It is the fifth-most populated city in the state, behind San Luis Potosí, Soledad de Graciano Sánchez, Ciudad Valles, and Matehuala. It is the agricultural, economic, turistic and demographic most important core in the Zona Media, one of the four geographical divisions of the state. The city had a 2005 census population of 49,183, while the municipality, of which it serves as municipal seat, had a population of 85,945 and an area extent of 3,109.71 km² (1,200.07 sq mi). The population of its metropolitan area, which includes the largest municipality of Ciudad Fernández, was 126,997.
The city is well known for its spring, called Media Luna. The city has been growing faster in the last four years. Rioverde lives up to its name in its rich surroundings and round the year pleasant weather. It is the birthplace of singer Ana Bárbara and composer Amador Ramos. The town has an Institute of Higher Education, the Technical Institute of Rioverde. It is one of the higher education federal institutes.San Luis F.C.
San Luis Fútbol Club, known more commonly as San Luis or San Luis Potosí, was a Mexican professional football club from the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The club was founded in 1957, when they were known as Santos (saints). The team's nickname of Tuneros, a reference to the tuna fruit, was later changed to Gladiadores. The nickname for the team was then changed to Reales. The nickname Tribu Real is a reference to the fact that the team was once named Real San Luis. Another nickname recently given to the team is El Equipo del Milagro (The Miracle team) because of the last-minute "miracle" to stay in the highest division. San Luis play their home games at Alfonso Lastras Ramirez Stadium. On May 28, 2013 it was confirmed the team would move to Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico and be renamed Chiapas Fútbol Club.San Luis Open Challenger Tour
The San Luis Open Challenger Tour is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, since 1984 and also in 1980 and 1981 too.San Luis Potosí City
San Luis Potosí, commonly called SLP or simply San Luis, is the capital and the most populous city of the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. The city lies at an elevation of 1,864 metres (6,115 feet). It has an estimated population of 824,229 in the city proper and a population of approximately 1,221,526 in its metropolitan area, formed with the neighbour city of Soledad de Graciano Sánchez and other surrounding municipalities, which makes the metropolitan area of Greater San Luis Potosí the eleventh largest in Mexico.
The city is in the west-central part of the state of San Luis Potosí, at 22.16°N, 100.98°W. The municipality has an area of 1,443.14 square kilometres (557.20 square miles). It is part of the macroregion of Bajío.The city is named after Louis IX of France (also known in Mexico as San Luis Rey de Francia, Saint Louis, King of France), who is the city's patron saint. Potosí was added in reference to the fabulously rich mines of Potosí, Bolivia, discovered some forty years before the city was founded, as the exploitation of silver and gold mines in Cerro de San Pedro, near San Luis, was the main reason for the founding of the city in 1592.Now, the city is one of the main industrial centres in central Mexico with a prolific manufacturing industry. A number of foreign industries have chosen to invest in San Luis Potosí in the last decades thanks to its strategic location for trade, as the city is located halfway between Mexico City and the United States border, as well as in the middle of the triangle formed by the three largest cities in Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey.Besides its industry-based economy, recently the city has been promoted as a touristic destination in central Mexico by state and federal programs. San Luis Potosí's historic center displays a great mixture of different artistic styles in many buildings and is a major example of colonial architecture in Mexico. In 2010, the historic center was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site within Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.San Luis Potosí International Airport
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport (IATA: SLP, ICAO: MMSP) is an international airport located at San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It handles national and international air traffic for the city of San Luis Potosí.XHEWA-FM
XEWA-AM/XHEWA-FM is a Class A Mexican radio station that serves the San Luis Potosí area, with its transmitter in Soledad de Graciano Sánchez. XEWA broadcasts on 540 kHz, a Canadian and Mexican clear-channel frequency.XHSLS-TDT
XHSLS-TDT channel 35 (virtual channel 9) is a television station in San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí which is owned by the state government. It is known as Nueve TV and carries local and national public television programming.
San Luis Potosí (capital)