Samvatsara

Samvatsara (संवत्सर) is a Sanskrit term for a "year" in Vedic literature such as the Rigveda and other ancient texts.[1] In the medieval era literature, a samvatsara refers to the "Jovian year", that is a year based on the relative position of the planet Jupiter, while the solar year is called varsha.[2][3] A jovian year is not equal to a solar year based on the relative position of Earth and Sun.[3] A Jovian year is defined in Indian calendars as the time Brihaspati (Jupiter) takes to transit from one constellation to the next relative to its mean motion.[3]

There are 60 samvatsara mentioned in the historic Indian calendars, and these are called Brihaspati samvatsara chakra.[3] These are not numbered but each has been given a name. Once all 60 samvatsaras are over, the cycle starts over again.

The ancient text Surya Siddhanta calculates the Jovian year to be about 361.026721 days or about 4.232 days shorter than the Earth-based solar year.[3] This difference requires that about once every 85 solars years (~ 86 jovian years), one of the named samvatsara is expunged (skipped as a shadow year), to synchronize the two calendars.[4] However, the details of the synchronization varies slightly between the north and south Indian calendars.[5]

List of Samvatsaras

The sixty Samvatsaras are divided into 3 groups of 20 Samvatsaras each. The first 20 from Prabhava to Vyaya are assigned to Brahma. The next 20 from Sarvajit to Parabhava to Vishnu and the last 20 to Shiva.

Samvatsaras
Number Name (IAST)[5][6] नाम தமிழ் సంవత్సర నామం ಸಂವತ್ಸರಗಳು Current cycle -

Vikram Samvat

Current cycle

(Gregorian)

Prior cycle 1 Prior cycle 2
  1. Prabhava प्रभव பிரபவ ప్రభవ ಪ್ರಭವ 2044 1987-1988 CE 1927-1928 CE 1867-1868 CE
  2. Vibhava विभव விபவ విభవ ವಿಭವ 2045 1988-1989 CE 1928-1929 CE 1868-1869 CE
  3. Śukla शुक्ल சுக்ல శుక్ల ಶುಕ್ಲ 2046 1989-1990 CE 1929-1930 CE 1869-1870 CE
  4. Pramodadūta प्रमोद பிரமோதூத ప్రమోద్యూత ಪ್ರಮೋದೂತ 2047 1990-1991 CE 1930-1931 CE 1870-1871 CE
  5. Prajāpati प्रजापति பிரசோற்பத்தி ప్రజోత్పత్తి ಪ್ರಜಾಪತಿ 2048 1991-1992 CE 1931-1932 CE 1871-1872 CE
  6. Āṅgīrasa अंगिरा ஆங்கீரச ఆంగీరస ಅಂಗಿರಸ 2049 1992-1993 CE 1932-1933 CE 1872-1873 CE
  7. Śrīmukha श्रीमुख ஸ்ரீமுக శ్రీముఖ ಶ್ರೀಮುಖ 2050 1993-1994 CE 1933-1934 CE 1873-1874 CE
  8. Bhāva भाव பவ భావ ಭಾವ 2051 1994-1995 CE 1934-1935 CE 1874-1875 CE
  9. Yuva युवा யுவ యువ ಯುವ 2052 1995-1996 CE 1935-1936 CE 1875-1876 CE
10. Dhātṛu धाता தாது ధాత ಧಾತೃ 2053 1996-1997 CE 1936-1937 CE 1876-1877 CE
11. Īśvara ईश्वर ஈஸ்வர ఈశ్వర ಈಶ್ವರ 2054 1997-1998 CE 1937-1938 CE 1877-1878 CE
12. Bahudhānya बहुधान्य வெகுதானிய బహుధాన్య ಬಹುಧಾನ್ಯ 2055 1998-1999 CE 1938-1939 CE 1878-1879 CE
13. Pramāthi प्रमाथी பிரமாதி ప్రమాధి ಪ್ರಮಾಥಿ 2056 1999-2000 CE 1939-1940 CE 1879-1880 CE
14. Vikrama विक्रम விக்கிரம విక్రమ ವಿಕ್ರಮ 2057 2000-2001 CE 1940-1941 CE 1880-1881 CE
15. Vṛushaprajā वृषप्रजा விஷு వృశాప్రజా ವೃಷಪ್ರಜಾ 2058 2001-2002 CE 1941-1942 CE 1881-1882 CE
16. Chitrabhānu चित्रभानु சித்திரபானு చిత్రభాను ಚಿತ್ರಭಾನು 2059 2002-2003 CE 1942-1943 CE 1882-1883 CE
17. Subhānu सुभानु சுபானு స్వభాను ಸ್ವಭಾನು 2060 2003-2004 CE 1943-1944 CE 1883-1884 CE
18. Tāraṇa तारण தாரண తారణ ತಾರಣ 2061 2004-2005 CE 1944-1945 CE 1884-1885 CE
19. Pārthiva पार्थिव பார்த்திப పార్థివ ಪಾರ್ಥಿವ 2062 2005-2006 CE 1945-1946 CE 1885-1886 CE
20. Vyaya अव्यय விய వ్యయ ವ್ಯಯ 2063 2006-2007 CE 1946-1947 CE 1886-1887 CE
21. Sarvajit सर्वजीत சர்வசித்து సర్వజిత ಸರ್ವಜಿತ್ 2064 2007-2008 CE 1947-1948 CE 1887-1888 CE
22. Sarvadhārin सर्वधारी சர்வதாரி సర్వధారి ಸರ್ವಧಾರಿ 2065 2008-2009 CE 1948-1949 CE 1888-1889 CE
23. Virodhin विरोधी விரோதி విరోధి ವಿರೋಧಿ 2066 2009-2010 CE 1949-1950 CE 1889-1890 CE
24. Vikṛti विकृति விக்ருதி వికృతి ವಿಕೃತಿ 2067 2010-2011 CE 1950-1951 CE 1890-1891 CE
25. Khara खर கர ఖర ಖರ 2068 2011-2012 CE 1951-1952 CE 1891-1892 CE
26. Nandana नंदन நந்தன నందన ನಂದನ 2069 2012-2013 CE 1952-1953 CE 1892-1893 CE
27. Vijaya विजय விஜய విజయ ವಿಜಯ 2070 2013-2014 CE 1953-1954 CE 1893-1894 CE
28. Jaya जय ஜய జయ ಜಯ 2071 2014-2015 CE 1954-1955 CE 1894-1895 CE
29. Manmatha मन्मथ மன்மத మన్మధ ಮನ್ಮಥ 2072 2015-2016 CE 1955-1956 CE 1895-1896 CE
30. Durmukha दुर्मुख துன்முகி దుర్ముఖ ದುರ್ಮುಖ 2073 2016-2017 CE 1956-1957 CE 1896-1897 CE
31. Hevilambi हेविलंबि ஹேவிளம்பி హేవిళంబి ಹೇವಿಳಂಬಿ 2074 2017-2018 CE 1957-1958 CE 1897-1898 CE
32. Vilambi विलंबी விளம்பி విళంబి ವಿಳಂಬಿ 2075 2018-2019 CE 1958-1959 CE 1898-1899 CE
33. Vikāri विकारी விகாரி వికారి ವಿಕಾರಿ 2076 2019-2020 CE 1959-1960 CE 1899-1900 CE
34. Śārvarin शार्वरी சார்வரி శార్వరి ಶಾರ್ವರಿ 2077 2020-2021 CE 1960-1961 CE 1900-1901 CE
35. Plava प्लव பிலவ ప్లవ ಪ್ಲವ 2078 2021-2022 CE 1961-1962 CE 1901-1902 CE
36. Śubhakṛta शुभकृत சுபகிருது శుభకృత ಶುಭಕೃತ 2079 2022-2023 CE 1962-1963 CE 1902-1903 CE
37. Śobhana शोभकृत சோபகிருது శోభకృత ಶೋಭನ 2080 2023-2024 CE 1963-1964 CE 1903-1904 CE
38. Krodhin क्रोधी குரோதி క్రోధి ಕ್ರೋಧಿನ್ 2081 2024-2025 CE 1964-1965 CE 1904-1905 CE
39. Viśvāvasu विश्वावसु விசுவாசுவ విశ్వావసు ವಿಶ್ವಾವಸು 2082 2025-2026 CE 1965-1966 CE 1905-1906 CE
40. Parābhava पराभव பரபாவ పరాభవ ಪರಾಭವ 2083 2026-2027 CE 1966-1967 CE 1906-1907 CE
41. Plavaṅga प्ल्वंग பிலவங்க ప్లవంగ ಪ್ಲವಂಗ 2084 2027-2028 CE 1967-1968 CE 1907-1908 CE
42. Kīlaka कीलक கீலக కీలక ಕೀಲಕ 2085 2028-2029 CE 1968-1969 CE 1908-1909 CE
43. Saumya सौम्य சௌமிய సౌమ్య ಸೌಮ್ಯ 2086 2029-2030 CE 1969-1970 CE 1909-1910 CE
44. Sādhāraṇa साधारण சாதாரண సాధారణ ಸಾಧಾರಣ 2087 2030-2031 CE 1970-1971 CE 1910-1911 CE
45. Virodhakṛta विरोधकृत விரோதகிருது విరోధికృత ವಿರೋಧಿಕೃತ್ 2088 2031-2032 CE 1971-1972 CE 1911-1912 CE
46. Paridhāvin परिधावी பரிதாபி పరిధావి ಪರಿಧಾವಿ 2089 2032-2033 CE 1972-1973 CE 1912-1913 CE
47. Pramādin प्रमादी பிரமாதீச ప్రమాదీచ ಪ್ರಮಾದಿ 2090 2033-2034 CE 1973-1974 CE 1913-1914 CE
48. Ānanda आनंद ஆனந்த ఆనంద ಆನಂದ 2091 2034-2035 CE 1974-1975 CE 1914-1915 CE
49. Rākṣasa राक्षस ராட்சச రాక్షస ರಾಕ್ಷಸ 2092 2035-2036 CE 1975-1976 CE 1915-1916 CE
50. Nala/Anala आनल நள నల ನಲ (ಅನಲ) 2093 2036-2037 CE 1976-1977 CE 1916-1917 CE
51. Piṅgala पिंगल பிங்கள పింగళ ಪಿಂಗಲ 2094 2037-2038 CE 1977-1978 CE 1917-1918 CE
52. Kālayukta कालयुक्त காளயுக்தி కాళయుక్తి ಕಾಲಯುಕ್ತ 2095 2038-2039 CE 1978-1979 CE 1918-1919 CE
53. Siddhārthin सिद्धार्थी சித்தார்த்தி సిద్ధార్థ ಸಿದ್ಧಾರ್ಥಿ 2096 2039-2040 CE 1979-1980 CE 1919-1920 CE
54. Raudra रौद्र ரௌத்திரி రౌద్రి ರೌದ್ರ 2097 2040-2041 CE 1980-1981 CE 1920-1921 CE
55. Durmati दुर्मति துன்மதி దుర్మతి ದುರ್ಮತಿ 2098 2041-2042 CE 1981-1982 CE 1921-1922 CE
56. Dundubhi दुन्दुभी துந்துபி దుందుభి ದುಂದುಭಿ 2099 2042-2043 CE 1982-1983 CE 1922-1923 CE
57. Rudhirodgārin रूधिरोद्गारी ருத்ரோத்காரி రుధిరోద్గారి ರುಧಿರೋದ್ಗಾರಿ 2100 2043-2044 CE 1983-1984 CE 1923-1924 CE
58. Raktākṣin रक्ताक्षी ரக்தாட்சி రక్తాక్షి ರಕ್ತಾಕ್ಷಿ 2101 2044-2045 CE 1984-1985 CE 1924-1925 CE
59. Krodhana/Manyu क्रोधन குரோதன క్రోధన ಕ್ರೋಧನ 2102 2045-2046 CE 1985-1986 CE 1925-1926 CE
60. Akshaya आक्षय அட்சய అక్షయ ಅಕ್ಷಯ 2103 2046-2047 CE 1986-1987 CE 1926-1927 CE

See also

References

  1. ^ Bettina Bäumer; Kapila Vatsyayan (1992). Kalātattvakośa: A Lexicon of Fundamental Concepts of the Indian Arts. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 215–216. ISBN 978-81-208-1044-0.
  2. ^ Bettina Bäumer; Kapila Vatsyayan (1992). Kalātattvakośa: A Lexicon of Fundamental Concepts of the Indian Arts. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 217–218. ISBN 978-81-208-1044-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e Robert Sewell; Śaṅkara Bālakr̥shṇa Dīkshita (1896). The Indian Calendar. S. Sonnenschein & Company. pp. 5, 32–33.
  4. ^ Robert Sewell; Śaṅkara Bālakr̥shṇa Dīkshita (1896). The Indian Calendar. S. Sonnenschein & Company. p. 33.
  5. ^ a b Robert Sewell; John Faithful Fleet (1924). The Siddhantas and the Indian Calendar. Asian Educational Services. pp. 292–294. ISBN 978-81-206-0364-6.
  6. ^ S. Balachandra Rao (2000). Indian Astronomy: An Introduction. Universities Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-81-7371-205-0.

Sources

Ajila

Ajila is a common surname of the Bunt people, the landed gentry of Tulu Nadu region in the south west of India. It is also the name of the Jain Bunt Dynasty who ruled the principality of Venur for several centuries(1154 to 1786 C.E). The most notable of the Ajila kings was Veera Timmannarasa Ajila IV who erected the monolith of Bahubali in 1604 C.E.The descendants of the Ajila rulers still survive and inhabit the Aladangady Aramane (Ajila Palace).The succession to the Ajila throne was as per the Bunt custom of matrilineal inheritance (Aliyasantana). The present head of the Ajila dynasty is Padmaprasad Ajila,fourteenth in line through the matrilineal lineage of Veera Timmannarasa Ajila IV. An inscription in Old Kannada by Veera Timmannarasa Ajila IV unearthed in 2006 reads On Saturday, the seventh day of Kanya month in Vikari Samvatsara, the Ajila king, Swasthi Shri Mahamandalika Somanatha Perunana Salva Shri Veera Thimmaraja Wodeya made a regulation for his 3,000 followers that they should perpetuate the grant of pepper made by him to his traditional tenants. They should also maintain the grants made to the Bunts of the palace. They and the merchants who has settled in the kingdom must attend the ‘Brahmotsava’ ceremony in the temple of Aladangadi. Neglecting this regulation is equal to neglecting the tradition and also the four deities of Aruvu, Shri Somanatha, Shri Shanthishwara of Venur.

Astrarium

An astrarium, also called a planetarium, is the mechanical representation of the cyclic nature of astronomical objects in one timepiece. It is an astronomical clock.

BPL (time service)

BPL is the call sign of the official long-wave time signal service of the People's Republic of China, operated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, broadcasting on 100 kHz from CAS's National Time Service Center in Pucheng County, Shaanxi at 34°56′54″N 109°32′34″E, roughly 70 km northeast of Lintong, along with NTSC's short-wave time signal BPM on 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 15.0 MHz.

BPL broadcasts LORAN-C compatible format signal from 5:30 to 13:30 UTC, using an 800 kW transmitter covering a radius up to 3000 km.

Chronometry

Chronometry (from Greek χρόνος chronos, "time" and μέτρον metron, "measure") is the science of the measurement of time, or timekeeping. Chronometry applies to electronic devices, while horology refers to mechanical devices.

It should not to be confused with chronology, the science of locating events in time, which often relies upon it.

Clock position

A clock position is the relative direction of an object described using the analogy of a 12-hour clock to describe angles and directions. One imagines a clock face lying either upright or flat in front of oneself, and identifies the twelve hour markings with the directions in which they point.

Using this analogy, 12 o'clock means ahead or above, 3 o'clock means to the right, 6 o'clock means behind or below, and 9 o'clock means to the left. The other eight hours refer to directions that are not directly in line with the four cardinal directions.

In aviation, a clock position refers to a horizontal direction; it may be supplemented with the word high or low to describe the vertical direction which is pointed towards your feet. 6 o'clock high means behind and above the horizon, while 12 o'clock low means ahead and below the horizon.

Common year

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar, (like the earlier Julian calendar), employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

The common year of 365 days has 52 weeks and one day, hence a common year always begins and ends on the same day of the week (for example, January 1 and December 31 fell on a Sunday in 2017) and the year following a common year will start on the subsequent day of the week. In common years, February has four weeks, so March will begin on the same day of the week. November will also begin on this day.

In the Gregorian calendar, 303 of every 400 years are common years. By comparison, in the Julian calendar, 300 out of every 400 years are common years, and in the Revised Julian calendar (used by Greece) 682 out of every 900 years are common years.

Endurantism

Endurantism or endurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity. According to the endurantist view, material objects are persisting three-dimensional individuals wholly present at every moment of their existence, which goes with an A-theory of time. This conception of an individual as always present is opposed to perdurantism or four dimensionalism, which maintains that an object is a series of temporal parts or stages, requiring a B-theory of time. The use of "endure" and "perdure" to distinguish two ways in which an object can be thought to persist can be traced to David Lewis.

Gudi Padwa

Gudhi Padwa (Marathi: गुढी पाडवा IAST: Guḍhī Pāḍavā) and Konkani: संवसर पाडवो,Sanvsar Pādvo) is a spring-time festival that marks the traditional new year for Marathi and Konkani Hindus. It is celebrated in and near Maharashtra and Goa on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar.

The word पाडवा (pāḍavā) or पाडवो (pāḍavo) or पाड्ड्वा/पाड्ड्वो (pāḍḍvā/pāḍḍvo) comes from the Sanskrit word प्रतिपदा (pratipadā), which refers to the first day of a lunar fortnight. The festival is observed with colorful floor decorations called rangoli, a special Gudhi flag (garlanded with flowers, mango and neem leaves, topped with upturned silver or copper vessel), street processions, dancing and festive foods.In India, first day of the bright phase of the moon is called Gudhi Padwa in Marathi, pāḍya (Konkani: पाडयो;Kannada: ಪಾಡ್ಯ; Telugu: పాడ్యమి, paadyami; ). Konkani Hindus variously refer to the day as सौसार पाडवो or सौसार पाडयो (saṁsāra pāḍavo / saṁsāra pāḍye), संसार (saṁsāra) being a corruption of the word संवत्सर (saṁvatsara). Telugu Hindus celebrate the same occasion as Ugadi, while Konkani and Kannada Hindus in Karnataka refer to it as युगादि, ಯುಗಾದಿ (yugādi). The same new year festival is known by other names in different regions of the Indian subcontinent. However, this is not the universal new year for all Hindus. For some, such as those in and near Gujarat, the new year festivities coincide with the five day Diwali festival. For many others, the new year falls on Vaisakhi between 13 to 15 April, according to the solar cycle part of the Hindu lunisolar calendar, and this is by far the most popular not only among Hindus of the Indian subcontinent but also among Buddhists and Hindus in many parts of southeast Asia.The Sindhi community celebrates this day as Cheti Chand as the new year and observed as the emergence day of Lord Jhulelaal. Prayers are offered to Lord Jhulelaal and the festival is celebrated by making delicacies like Tehri (sweet rice) and Saai Bhaaji (Palak made in dal).

HD2IOA

HD2IOA is the callsign of a time signal radio station operated by the Navy of Ecuador. The station is located at Guayaquil, Ecuador and transmits in the HF band on 3.81 and 7.6 MHz.The transmission is in AM mode with only the lower sideband (part of the time H3E and the rest H2B/H2D) and consists of 780 Hz tone pulses repeated every ten seconds and voice announcements in Spanish.

While sometimes this station is described as defunct, reception reports of this station on 3.81 MHz appear regularly at the Utility DX Forum.

Hexadecimal time

Hexadecimal time is the representation of the time of day as a hexadecimal number in the interval (0,1).

The day is divided into 1016 (1610) hexadecimal hours, each hour into 10016 (25610) hexadecimal minutes, and each minute into 1016 (1610) hexadecimal seconds.

Intercalation (timekeeping)

Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months.

Kaikini

Kaikini is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the Bhatkal taluk of Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka. One of the ancient temple, Shree Shivamuneeshwara Shantadurga Temple, established in the year 1752, is situated in Kaikini. Every year the Navratri festival is celebrated with pomp and splendour. Devotees from far away places like Mumbai, Mangalore, Bangalore, Pune, Dharwad, etc. visit the temple for this annual ritual of the Navratri festival.

Shri Shivamuneeshwar Shantadurga Devasthan, Kaikini, is an ancient and powerful shrine of Holy Mother Shree Shantadurga and the saint Shree Shivamuni, belonging to KAIKINI Family of Chitrapur Saraswat Community, located in Kaikini Village of Bhatkal Taluk, Karnataka State, Seven Kilo Meters North of Shri Chitrapur Math, Shirali. This Holy Shrine is dedicated to Goddess Shri Shantadurga. The very location of the temple, its antiquity, and the divinity of the magnificent temple creates a memorable feeling of devotion and piety.

This Holy Shrine was built by Shree Shivayya Pandit of Kaikini family who later came to be known as ‘Shivamuni’ after taking Sanyasa Deeksha from his Guru Shri Swami Chidanand of Bailur Math. He was an ardent Sadhaka of Holy Mother Shree Shantadurga. The following deities are worshiped in this temple since times unknown.

(1) Shree Shivaling (Shree Shivamuneeshwar) on the Samadhi of the Saint Shri Shivamuni

(2) Shree Shantadurga and Shree Mahakali which were brought by the ancestors from Goa (Gomantak) when leaving their home during the cruel times of Portuguese Inquisition.

(3) Shree Gopalakrishna and Shree Chakra which was received by Shri Shivamuni from his Guru Shri Chidanand as Holy Prasad.

Shree Shivamuni attained Samadhi by being merged with the Eternal and Supreme Brahman in Shaka year 1674, Angirasa Samvatsara in the forenoon (at 9.50 a.m.) of Saturday, Vadi of 5th Adhika Ashadha, when the Sun was in Dakshinayana in the sign Mithuna with the planet Jupiter. (The corresponding date of English Calendar is Saturday, 20 June 1752.)

His Holy Samadhi is in this Temple of Shree Shantadurga, the Presiding Deity, and hence the name of the temple is "Shree Shivamuneeshwar Shantadurga Devasthan".

This temple is situated in beautiful serene and natural green surroundings sanctified by the presence of Parivara Devata, Shree Kshetrapala and Holy Shree Naga Devata in the outer surroundings and Shree Shivaling, Shree Shantdurga, Shree Mahakali, Shree Gopalakrishna and Shre Chakra, in the Sanctum Sanctorum.

The Temple was renovated in 2014 and Shikhara Kalasha Sthapana, Shri Naga Punarpratishtapana

was performed on Friday, 9 February 2014 by Param Poojya Sadyojat Shankarashram Swamiji, Mathadhipati, Shri Chitrapur Math, Shirali.

Minute

The minute is a unit of time or angle. As a unit of time, the minute is most of times equal to ​1⁄60 (the first sexagesimal fraction) of an hour, or 60 seconds. In the UTC time standard, a minute on rare occasions has 61 seconds, a consequence of leap seconds (there is a provision to insert a negative leap second, which would result in a 59-second minute, but this has never happened in more than 40 years under this system). As a unit of angle, the minute of arc is equal to ​1⁄60 of a degree, or 60 seconds (of arc). Although not an SI unit for either time or angle, the minute is accepted for use with SI units for both. The SI symbols for minute or minutes are min for time measurement, and the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5′, for angle measurement. The prime is also sometimes used informally to denote minutes of time.

Samvatsari

Saṃvatsarī (Sanskrit: संवत्सरी) (lit. Annual Day or fig. Forgiveness Day) is the last day of Paryushana festival observed annually by the followers of Shwetambar sect of Jainism. It falls on Shukla Panchami (5th day of waxing fortnight) each year in Jain calendar month of Bhadrapada, somewhere between the middle of August and September in the Gregorian calendar.

On this day, Jains forgive and seek forgiveness for their mistakes committed knowingly or unknowingly from all the living beings. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called "samvatsari pratikramana" is performed on this day. After the pratikramana, Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world, including friends and relatives by uttering the phrase — Micchami Dukkadam or its variants like "Khamau Sa", "Uttam Kshama" or "Khamat Khamna".

Shyam Manohar Goswami

Shyam Manohar Goswami (IAST: Śyāma Manohara Gosvāmī, Hindi: श्याम मनोहर गोस्वामी, Gujarati: શ્યામ મનોહર ગોસ્વામી) also known as Shyamu Bava (IAST: Śyāmu Bāvā, Hindi: शयामू बावा, Gujarati: શ્યામુ બાવા), is the 16th descendent of Shri Vallabha Acharya, sanskritists, philosopher, spiritual leader, active reformer & guru of the Krishna-centered Pushtimarg sect of Vaishnavism.

Specious present

The specious present is the time duration wherein one's perceptions are considered to be in the present. Time perception studies the sense of time, which differs from other senses since time cannot be directly perceived but must be reconstructed by the brain.

Tomorrow (time)

Tomorrow is a temporal construct of the relative future; literally of the day after the current day (today), or figuratively of future periods or times. Tomorrow is usually considered just beyond the present and counter to yesterday. It is important in time perception because it is the first direction the arrow of time takes humans on Earth.

YVTO

YVTO is the callsign of the official time signal from the Juan Manuel Cagigal Naval Observatory in Caracas, Venezuela. The content of YVTO's signal, which is a continuous 1 kW amplitude modulated carrier wave at 5.000 MHz, is much simpler than that broadcast by some of the other time signal stations around the world, such as WWV.

The methods of time transmission from YVTO are very limited. The broadcast employs no form of digital time code. The time of day is given in Venezuelan Standard Time (VET), and is only sent using Spanish language voice announcements. YVTO also transmits 100 ms-long beeps of 1000 Hz every second, except for thirty seconds past the minute. The top of the minute is marked by a 0.5 second 800 Hz tone.The station previously broadcast on 6,100 MHz but appears to have changed to the current frequency by 1990.

Yesterday (time)

Yesterday is a temporal construct of the relative past; literally of the day before the current day (today), or figuratively of earlier periods or times, often but not always within living memory.

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Time in physics
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