Samuel S. Carroll

Samuel Sprigg "Red" Carroll (September 21, 1832 – January 28, 1893) was a career officer in the United States Army who rose to the rank of brigadier general during the American Civil War. The Maryland native was most known for his service as the commander of the famed "Gibraltar Brigade," an infantry brigade in the Army of the Potomac that played a key role during the defense of Cemetery Hill during the Battle of Gettysburg, as well as in repulsing a portion of Pickett's Charge.

Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Samuel S Carroll
Samuel S. Carroll
Nickname(s)"Red"
BornSeptember 21, 1832
Takoma Park, Maryland
DiedJanuary 28, 1893 (aged 60)
near Takoma Park, Maryland
Place of burial
AllegianceUnited States
Union
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1856–1869
RankUnion Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brigadier General
Union Army major general rank insignia.svgBrevet Major General
Commands held8th Ohio Infantry
Gibraltar Brigade
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

Early life

Samuel S. Carroll was born near what is now Takoma Park, Maryland. He was a descendant of Charles Carroll, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was educated in the local schools, and received an appointment to the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. He graduated 44th of 49 cadets in the Class of 1856 and was brevetted as a second lieutenant in the infantry. He was assigned to frontier duty at a variety of posts in the Old West before returning to West Point as the post's quartermaster.

He was married to Miss Helen Bennett in St. Louis, Missouri, on September 3, 1856. Helen was the eldest child of William Bennett, a prominent merchant born in Maryland, and his wife Catherine DuBois. They had three known children.

Civil War

Carroll was promoted to the rank of captain in the 10th U.S. Infantry shortly after the Civil War erupted. In December 1861, he was appointed as colonel of the 8th Ohio Infantry, a three-years' regiment that exclusively saw duty in the Eastern Theater. During the 1862 Valley Campaign, Carroll commanded the 4th Brigade in James Shields' division. Carroll commanded the vanguard of the Union army at the Battle of Cross Keys. He was commended for his performance at the Battle of Cedar Mountain. Transferred with this brigade to the Northern Virginia area, he was severely wounded in the chest in a fight near the Rapidan River. He recovered in time to resume his field command in III Corps before the Battle of Fredericksburg.

In 1863, Carroll commanded the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division of the II Corps at the Battle of Chancellorsville. During the second day at Gettysburg, his 8th Ohio was involved in skirmishing along the Emmitsburg Road, while the other three regiments of the Gibraltar Brigade, 14th Indiana, Col. John Coons (191) 4th Ohio, Lieut. Col. Leonard W. Carpenter (299)and 7th West Virginia, Lieut. Col. Jonathan H. Lockwood (counter-attacked oncoming Confederates from North Carolina and the Louisiana Tigers from Jubal Early's division on the slopes of Cemetery Hill, driving them back in the growing darkness. Carroll later led his depleted brigade in some small engagements during the Mine Run Campaign.

Carroll was promoted to brigadier general on May 12, 1864. He was twice wounded during the Overland Campaign, once at the Wilderness and again at Spotsylvania Court House. His left arm was amputated. After his recovery, he commanded the Department of West Virginia briefly and later led a division in the Army of the Shenandoah.

Post-war career

When the war ended, Carroll stayed in the postbellum Regular Army, serving in the inspector general's department. Partially invalided by his war-time injuries, he retired from the army in 1869 with the brevet rank of major general. In August 1886, his wife divorced him.

Death and legacy

In late January 1893, Carroll contracted pneumonia and died six days later at the age of 60 at his country residence, "Belleview", near Takoma Park, Maryland. His death was hastened by his never having fully recovered from his wounds. His funeral was held in St. John's Church in Washington, D.C.. He was buried with full military honors in Oak Hill Cemetery in Georgetown, Washington, D.C..

The main street in Takoma Park is named Carroll Avenue in his memory.

See also

References

  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
  • Welsh, Jack D., Medical Histories of Union Generals, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-87338-853-4.

External links

14th Indiana Infantry Regiment

The 14th Indiana Infantry Regiment, later referred to as the Gallant Fourteenth, was an infantry regiment and part of the Union Army's celebrated "Gibraltar Brigade" of the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. Organized in May 1861 at Camp Vigo, near Terre Haute, Indiana, it was the state's first regiment organized for three years of service. The 14th Indiana served in major campaigns and battles in the Eastern Theater, mostly in West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. During its three years of service, the regiment had a total of 222 casualties (11 officers and 211 enlisted men).

The 14th Indiana fought at the Battle of Antietam, the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Chancellorsville, and at the Battle of Gettysburg. At Gettysburg, the 14th Indiana helped secure Cemetery Hill. From August 16 to September 6, 1863, the regiment was detached for duty in New York City to help prevent further violence following the New York City draft riots of July 1863. After its return to active duty, the regiment fought in the Bristoe Campaign and the Mine Run Campaign, as well as several major battles, including the Battle of the Wilderness and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. The Battle of Cold Harbor was the regiment's final last engagement before it left the front on June 6, 1864. Regimental members who had completed their military served mustered out on June 20, 1864, at Indianapolis; its veterans who had re-enlisted and its remaining recruits were transferred to the 20th Regiment Indiana Infantry.

Army National Guard

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states, territories and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the Army National Guard of the United States, part of the United States National Guard. The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, and the District of Columbia, and operates under their respective governors.The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area.

Battle of Cross Keys

The Battle of Cross Keys was fought on June 8, 1862, in Rockingham County, Virginia, as part of Confederate Army Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's campaign through the Shenandoah Valley during the American Civil War. Together, the battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic the following day were the decisive victories in Jackson's Valley Campaign, forcing the Union armies to retreat and leaving Jackson free to reinforce Gen. Robert E. Lee for the Seven Days Battles outside Richmond, Virginia.

Cedar Mountain Union order of battle

The following Union army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Cedar Mountain of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is shown separately.

Cemetery Hill

Cemetery Hill is a landform on the Gettysburg Battlefield that was the scene of fighting each day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863). The northernmost part of the Army of the Potomac defensive "fish-hook" line, the hill is gently sloped and provided a site for American Civil War artillery (cf. the heavily wooded, adjacent Culp's Hill).

Charles H. Carroll

Charles Holker Carroll (May 4, 1794 – June 8, 1865) was an American farmer and politician from New York who was a descendant of the Carrolls of Carrollton and married into the Van Rensselaer family.

Colonial families of Maryland

The Colonial families of Maryland were the leading families in the Province of Maryland. Several also had interests in the Colony of Virginia, and the two are sometimes referred to as the Chesapeake Colonies. Many of the early settlers came from the West Midlands in England, although the Maryland families were composed of a variety of European nationalities, e.g. French, Irish, Welsh, Scottish, Swedish, in addition to English.

Maryland was uniquely created as a colony for Catholic aristocracy and gentry, but Anglicanism eventually came to dominate, partly through influence from neighboring Virginia.

Charles I of England granted the province palatinate status under Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. The foundational charter created an aristocracy of lords of the manor for Maryland.

The first areas of colonization were on the Patuxent River and up along the Chesapeake Bay near and around current St. Mary's and Charles counties.

Gibraltar Brigade

The "Gibraltar Brigade" was a famed infantry brigade within the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. Noted for its tenacity in combat, the brigade drew its nickname from the steadfastness of the Rock of Gibraltar. It served in many of the leading battles of the Eastern Theater, including key actions during the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 when elements of the brigade counter-attacked Confederates from North Carolina and the Louisiana Tigers on Cemetery Hill. Another portion of the brigade helped repulse Pickett's Charge the following day.

Through much of the war, the Gibraltar Brigade was composed of the 4th Ohio Infantry, 8th Ohio Infantry, 14th Indiana Infantry, and the 7th West Virginia Infantry. The brigade was augmented by the 24th and 28th New Jersey before the Battle of Fredericksburg. Before the Overland Campaign in early 1864, its ranks were bolstered by the addition of the 1st Delaware, 12th New Jersey, and the 10th New York Battalion.

Its commanders included Nathan Kimball, Samuel S. Carroll, and Thomas A. Smyth.

Jackson's Valley Campaign

Jackson's Valley Campaign, also known as the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862, was Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. Employing audacity and rapid, unpredictable movements on interior lines, Jackson's 17,000 men marched 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days and won several minor battles as they successfully engaged three Union armies (52,000 men), preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond.Jackson suffered a tactical defeat (his sole defeat of the war) at the First Battle of Kernstown (March 23, 1862) against Col. Nathan Kimball (part of Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army), but it proved to be a strategic Confederate victory because President Abraham Lincoln reinforced the Union's Valley forces with troops that had originally been designated for the Peninsula Campaign against Richmond. On May 8, after more than a month of skirmishing with Banks, Jackson moved deceptively to the west of the Valley and drove back elements of Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont's army in the Battle of McDowell, preventing a potential combination of the two Union armies against him. Jackson then headed down the Valley once again to confront Banks. Concealing his movement in the Luray Valley, Jackson joined forces with Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and captured the Federal garrison at Front Royal on May 23, causing Banks to retreat to the north. On May 25, in the First Battle of Winchester, Jackson defeated Banks and pursued him until the Union Army crossed the Potomac River into Maryland.

Bringing in Union reinforcements from eastern Virginia, Brig. Gen. James Shields recaptured Front Royal and planned to link up with Frémont in Strasburg. Jackson was now threatened by three small Union armies. Withdrawing up the Valley from Winchester, Jackson was pursued by Frémont and Shields. On June 8, Ewell defeated Frémont in the Battle of Cross Keys and on the following day, crossed the North River to join forces with Jackson to defeat Shields in the Battle of Port Republic, bringing the campaign to a close.

Jackson followed up his successful campaign by forced marches to join Gen. Robert E. Lee for the Seven Days Battles outside Richmond. His audacious campaign elevated him to the position of the most famous general in the Confederacy (until this reputation was later supplanted by Lee) and has been studied ever since by military organizations around the world.

Kernstown I Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the First Battle of Kernstown of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is shown separately.

List of Ohio's American Civil War generals

See also Ohio in the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, Ohio contributed a large number of officers, politicians, and troops to the Union war effort.

The following is a partial list of generals or rear admirals either born in Ohio or living in Ohio when they joined the Army or Navy (or in a few cases, men who were buried in Ohio following the war, although they did not directly serve in Ohio units). There were 134 men given the temporary rank of brevet brigadier general, a few of whom are also included in this listing.

In addition, the following Ohioans served as generals in the Confederate States Army:

Charles Clark

Robert H. Hatton

Bushrod Johnson

Philip N. Luckett

Roswell S. Ripley

Otho F. Strahl

Maryland Route 195

Maryland Route 195 (MD 195) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Maryland. Known as Carroll Avenue, the state highway runs 1.90 miles (3.06 km) from Eastern Avenue at the District of Columbia boundary in Takoma Park north to MD 193 in Silver Spring. MD 195 is the main north–south state highway through Takoma Park in southeastern Montgomery County. The highway provides access to Washington Adventist University and Washington Adventist Hospital and crosses Sligo Creek on the Carroll Avenue Bridge. The state highway was constructed from Washington to Silver Spring in the late 1920s on a road that has existed since the 19th century. The Carroll Avenue Bridge was built in 1932 as the third bridge at the site. The bridge will be reconstructed in 2015.

Nathan Kimball

Nathan Kimball (November 22, 1822 – January 21, 1898) was a physician, politician, postmaster, and military officer, serving as a general in the Union army during the American Civil War. He was the first statewide commander of the Grand Army of the Republic veterans organization in Indiana.

O'Carroll

Not to be confused with the Mac Cearbhaill of Airgíalla.

O'Carroll (Irish: Ó Cearbhaill), also known as simply Carroll or Carrell, is a Gaelic Irish clan which is the most prominent sept of the Ciannachta (also known as Clan Cian). Their genealogies claim that they are kindred with the Eóganachta (themselves led by the MacCarthys), descended paternally from Ailill Aulom. From the Middle Ages until 1552, the family ruled an area within the Kingdom of Munster known as Éile. The last monarch Tiege Caoc O'Carroll surrendered and regranted to the Tudor Kingdom of Ireland.

Port Republic Union order of battle

The following United States Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Port Republic of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately.

R. Bruce Ricketts

Robert Bruce Ricketts (April 29, 1839 – November 13, 1918) distinguished himself as an artillery officer in the American Civil War. He is best known for his battery's defense against a Confederate attack on Cemetery Hill on the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg.

Thomas Alfred Smyth

Thomas Alfred Smyth (December 25, 1832 – April 9, 1865) was a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was the last Union general killed in the war. In March 1867, he was nominated and confirmed a brevet major general of volunteers posthumously to rank from April 7, 1865.

William McKinley

William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver (effectively, expansionary monetary policy).

McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" (the gold standard unless altered by international agreement) and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity.

Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency. He promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish–American War of 1898—the United States victory was quick and decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army. The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.

Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism, protectionism and free silver. His legacy was suddenly cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days later and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. As an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is generally considered above average, though his highly positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt.

Winfield Scott Hancock

Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. He served with distinction in the Army for four decades, including service in the Mexican–American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War. Known to his Army colleagues as "Hancock the Superb", he was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. One military historian wrote, "No other Union general at Gettysburg dominated men by the sheer force of their presence more completely than Hancock." As another wrote, "his tactical skill had won him the quick admiration of adversaries who had come to know him as the 'Thunderbolt of the Army of the Potomac'." His military service continued after the Civil War, as Hancock participated in the military Reconstruction of the South and the Army's presence at the Western frontier.

Hancock's reputation as a war hero at Gettysburg, combined with his status as a Unionist and supporter of states' rights, made him a potential presidential candidate. His noted integrity was a counterpoint to the corruption of the era, for as President Rutherford B. Hayes said,If, when we make up our estimate of a public man, conspicuous both as a soldier and in civil life, we are to think first and chiefly of his manhood, his integrity, his purity, his singleness of purpose, and his unselfish devotion to duty, we can truthfully say of Hancock that he was through and through pure gold.When the Democrats nominated him for President in 1880, he ran a strong campaign, but was narrowly defeated by Republican James A. Garfield.

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