Samsung (Hangul: 삼성; Hanja: 三星; Korean pronunciation: [samsʌŋ]; means "tristar" in English) is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol (business conglomerate).
Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities, and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s; these areas would drive its subsequent growth. Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has increasingly globalised its activities and electronics; in particular, its mobile phones and semiconductors have become its most important source of income. As of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value.
Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics (the world's largest information technology company, consumer electronics maker and chipmaker measured by 2017 revenues), Samsung Heavy Industries (the world's 2nd largest shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues), and Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T (respectively the world's 13th and 36th largest construction companies). Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance (the world's 14th largest life insurance company), Samsung Everland (operator of Everland Resort, the oldest theme park in South Korea) and Cheil Worldwide (the world's 15th largest advertising agency measured by 2012 revenues).
Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics, media and culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River". Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports. Samsung's revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP.
|Founded||1 March 1938 in Daegu, Japanese Korea|
|Headquarters||40th floor Samsung Electronics Building, 11, Seocho-daero 74-gil,|
|Products||Apparel, automotive, chemicals, consumer electronics, electronic components, medical equipment, semiconductors, solid state drives, DRAM, ships, telecommunications equipment, home appliances|
|Services||Advertising, construction, entertainment, financial services, hospitality, information and communications technology, medical and health care services, retail, shipbuilding|
|Revenue||US$210.9 billion (2017)|
|US$37.1 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$265 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$188.9 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
Samsung C&T Corporation
Samsung Heavy Industries
Samsung Life Insurance
Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance
In 1938, Lee Byung-chul (1910–1987) of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe (삼성상회, 三星商會). Samsung started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong (now Ingyo-dong). It dealt in dried-fish, locally-grown groceries and noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947. When the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee founded Cheil Mojik and built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu. It was the largest woollen mill ever in the country.
Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance, securities and retail.
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After a few years, Cho and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30 equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Samsung Group and Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire and other businesses.
In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered the electronics industry. It formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, and made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set.
In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered telecommunications hardware. Its early products were switchboards. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing. They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s.
After Lee, the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups—Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and the Hansol Group. Shinsegae (discount store, department store) was originally part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group (Food/Chemicals/Entertainment/logistics), and the Hansol Group (Paper/Telecom). Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd", adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, Shinsegae, and CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". One Shinsegae department store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group".
In 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest heavily in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; in 1984, a plant in New York; in 1985, a plant in Tokyo; in 1987, a facility in England; and another facility in Austin, Texas, in 1996. As of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13,000,000,000 in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and one of the largest single foreign investments in the United States.
Samsung started to rise as an international corporation in the 1990s. Samsung's construction branch was awarded contracts to build one of the two Petronas Towers in Malaysia, Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the Burj Khalifa in United Arab Emirates. In 1993, Lee Kun-hee sold off ten of Samsung Group's subsidiaries, downsized the company, and merged other operations to concentrate on three industries: electronics, engineering and chemicals. In 1996, the Samsung Group reacquired the Sungkyunkwan University foundation.
Samsung became the world's largest producer of memory chips in 1992 and is the world's second-largest chipmaker after Intel (see Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Market Share Ranking Year by Year). In 1995, it created its first liquid-crystal display screen. Ten years later, Samsung grew to be the world's largest manufacturer of liquid-crystal display panels. Sony, which had not invested in large-size TFT-LCDs, contacted Samsung to cooperate, and, in 2006, S-LCD was established as a joint venture between Samsung and Sony in order to provide a stable supply of LCD panels for both manufacturers. S-LCD was owned by Samsung (50% plus one share) and Sony (50% minus one share) and operates its factories and facilities in Tangjung, South Korea. As of 26 December 2011, it was announced that Samsung had acquired the stake of Sony in this joint venture.
Compared to other major Korean companies, Samsung survived the 1997 Asian financial crisis relatively unharmed. However, Samsung Motor was sold to Renault at a significant loss. As of 2010, Renault Samsung is 80.1 percent owned by Renault and 19.9 percent owned by Samsung. Additionally, Samsung manufactured a range of aircraft from the 1980s to 1990s. The company was founded in 1999 as Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), the result of a merger between then three domestic major aerospace divisions of Samsung Aerospace, Daewoo Heavy Industries and Hyundai Space and Aircraft Company. However, Samsung still manufactures aircraft engines and gas turbines.
In 2010, Samsung announced a ten-year growth strategy centered around five businesses. One of these businesses was to be focused on biopharmaceuticals, to which has committed ₩2,100,000,000,000.
On 24 August 2012, nine American jurors ruled that Samsung Electronics had to pay Apple $1.05 billion in damages for violating six of its patents on smartphone technology. The award was still less than the $2.5 billion requested by Apple. The decision also ruled that Apple did not violate five Samsung patents cited in the case. Samsung decried the decision saying that the move could harm innovation in the sector. It also followed a South Korean ruling stating that both companies were guilty of infringing on each other's intellectual property. In first trading after the ruling, Samsung shares on the Kospi index fell 7.7%, the largest fall since 24 October 2008, to 1,177,000 Korean won. Apple then sought to ban the sales of eight Samsung phones (Galaxy S 4G, Galaxy S2 AT&T, Galaxy S2 Skyrocket, Galaxy S2 T-Mobile, Galaxy S2 Epic 4G, Galaxy S Showcase, Droid Charge and Galaxy Prevail) in the United States which has been denied by the court.
In 2015, Samsung has been granted more U.S. patents than any other company - including IBM, Google, Sony, Microsoft and Apple. The company received 7,679 utility patents through 11 December.
On 2 August 2016, Samsung Electronics unveiled the Galaxy Note7 smartphone, which went on sale on 19 August 2016. However, in early September 2016, Samsung suspended sales of the phone and announced an informal recall. This occurred after some units of the phones had batteries with a defect that caused them to produce excessive heat, leading to fires and explosions. Samsung replaced the recalled units of the phones with a new version; however, it was later discovered that the new version of the Galaxy Note 7 also had the battery defect. Samsung recalled all Galaxy Note7 smartphones worldwide on 10 October 2016, and permanently ended production of the phone the following day.
Samsung has made the following acquisitions and attempted acquisitions:
Samsung Techwin was listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 012450), with its principal activities being the development and manufacture of surveillance, aeronautics, optoelectronics, automations and weapons technology. It was announced to be sold to Hanwha Group in December 2014 and the take-over completed in June 2015.
Samsung Thales Co., Ltd. (until 2001 known as Samsung Thomson-CSF Co., Ltd.) was a joint venture between Samsung Techwin and the France-based aerospace and defence company Thales. It was established in 1978 and is based in Seoul. Samsung's involvement was passed on to Hanwha Group as part of the Techwin transaction.
Samsung Total was a 50:50 joint venture between Samsung and the France-based oil group Total S.A. (more specifically Samsung General Chemicals and Total Petrochemicals). Samsung's role was passed on to Hanwha Group when the latter acquired Samsung General Chemicals.
In FY 2009, Samsung reported consolidated revenues of 220 trillion KRW ($172.5 billion). In FY 2010, Samsung reported consolidated revenues of 280 trillion KRW ($258 billion), and profits of 30 trillion KRW ($27.6 billion) (based upon a KRW-USD exchange rate of 1,084.5 KRW per USD, the spot rate as of 19 August 2011). These amounts do not include the revenues from all of Samsung's subsidiaries based outside South Korea.
Ace Digitech is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 036550).
Cheil Worldwide is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 030000).
Credu is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 067280).
Imarket Korea is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 122900).
Samsung Card is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 029780).
Samsung SDS is a multinational IT Service company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in March 1985. Its principal activity is the providing IT system(ERP, IT Infrastructure, IT Consulting, IT Outsourcing, Data Center). Samsung SDS is the Korea's largest IT service company. It achieved total revenues of 6,105.9 billion won (US$5.71 billion) in 2012.
Samsung C&T Corporation is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (000830).
Samsung Electro-Mechanics, established in 1973 as a manufacturer of key electronic components, is headquartered in Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. It is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 009150).
Samsung Electronics is a multinational electronics and information technology company headquartered in Suwon and the flagship company of the Samsung Group. Its products include air conditioners, computers, digital televisions, liquid crystal displays (including thin film transistors (TFTs) and active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs)), mobile phones, monitors, printers, refrigerators, semiconductors and telecommunications networking equipment. It is the world's largest mobile phone maker by unit sales in the first quarter of 2012, with a global market share of 25.4%. It is also the world's second-largest semiconductor maker by 2011 revenues (after Intel).
Samsung Electronics is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 005930).
Samsung Engineering is a multinational construction company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in January 1969. Its principal activity is the construction of oil refining plants; upstream oil and gas facilities; petrochemical plants and gas plants; steel making plants; power plants; water treatment facilities; and other infrastructure. It achieved total revenues of 9,298.2 billion won (US$8.06 billion) in 2011.
Samsung Engineering is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 02803450).
Samsung Everland covers the three main sectors of Environment & Asset, Food Culture and Resort.
Samsung Fine Chemicals is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 004000).
Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance is a multinational general insurance company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in January 1952 as Korea Anbo Fire and Marine Insurance and was renamed Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance in December 1993. Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance offers services including accident insurance, automobile insurance, casualty insurance, fire insurance, liability insurance, marine insurance, personal pensions and loans. As of March 2011 it had operations in 10 countries and 6.5 million customers. Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance had a total premium income of $11.7 billion in 2011 and total assets of $28.81 billion on 31 March 2011. It is the largest provider of general insurance in South Korea. Samsung Fire has been listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange since 1975 (number 000810).
Samsung Heavy Industries is a shipbuilding and engineering company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in August 1974. Its principal products are bulk carriers, container vessels, crude oil tankers, cruisers, passenger ferries, material handling equipment steel and bridge structures. It achieved total revenues of 13,358.6 billion won in 2011 and is the world's second-largest shipbuilder by revenues (after Hyundai Heavy Industries).
Samsung Heavy Industries is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 010140).
Samsung Life Insurance Co., Ltd. is a multinational life insurance company headquartered in Seoul. It was founded in March 1957 as Dongbang Life Insurance and became an affiliate of the Samsung Group in July 1963. Samsung Life's principal activity is the provision of individual life insurance and annuity products and services. As of December 2011 it had operations in seven countries, 8.08 million customers and 5,975 employees. Samsung Life had total sales of 22,717 billion won in 2011 and total assets of 161,072 billion won at 31 December 2011. It is the largest provider of life insurance in South Korea.
Samsung Life Insurance is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 032830)
Samsung Machine Tools of America is a national distributor of machines in the United States. Samsung GM Machine Tools is the head office of China, It is an SMEC Legal incorporated company.
The Samsung Medical Center was founded on 9 November 1994, under the philosophy of "contributing to improving the nation's health through the best medical service, advanced medical research and development of outstanding medical personnel". The Samsung Medical Center consists of a hospital and a cancer center. The hospital is located in an intelligent building with floor space of more than 200,000 square meters and 20 floors above ground and 5 floors underground, housing 40 departments, 10 specialist centers, 120 special clinics and 1,306 beds.
The 655-bed Cancer Center has 11 floors above ground and 8 floors underground, with floor space of over 100,000 square meters. SMC is a tertiary hospital manned by approximately 7,400 staff including over 1,200 doctors and 2,300 nurses. Since its foundation, the Samsung Medical Center has successfully incorporated and developed an advanced model with the motto of becoming a "patient-centered hospital", a new concept in Korea.
Samsung SDI is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 006400). On 5 December 2012, the European Union's antitrust regulator fined Samsung SDI and several other major companies for fixing prices of TV cathode-ray tubes in two cartels lasting nearly a decade. SSDI also builds lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles such as the BMW i3, and acquired Magna Steyr's battery plant near Graz in 2015. SSDI began using the "21700" cell format in August 2015. Samsung plans to convert its factory in Göd, Hungary to supply 50,000 cars per year.
Samsung Securities is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 016360).
Samtron was a subsidiary of Samsung until 1999 when it became independent. After that, it continued to make computer monitors and plasma displays until 2003, Samtron became Samsung when Samtron was a brand. In 2003 the website redirected to Samsung.
Hotel Shilla (also known as "The Shilla") opened in March 1979, following the intention of the late Lee Byung-chull, the founder of the Samsung Group. Hosting numerous state visits and international events, it has played the role of locomotive for the service industry in Korea with pride and responsibility as "the face representing the Samsung Group" and "the hotel representing Korea". Hotel Shilla maintains elegance and a tradition of winning guests' hearts with the aim of becoming "the best hospitality company". By joining LHW, it is on par with the most luxurious hotels in the world. Meanwhile, it has added modernistic design elements on top of the roof called tradition, thus going through changes to make itself a premium lifestyle space. In addition, with its know-how as a service company in the background, it started a duty-free shop business, and has built its image as the best global distribution company. Also, it is expanding its business into commissioned management of fitness facilities with five-star hotels in Korea and abroad as well as into the restaurant business. Hotel Shilla promises to be a globally prestigious hospitality company that offers the best value for money by making creative innovations and continuously taking on challenges.
Shilla Hotels and Resorts is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 008770).
S-1 was founded as Korea's first specialized security business in 1997 and has maintained its position at the top of industry with the consistent willingness to take on challenges. S1 Corporation is listed on the Korea Exchange stock-exchange (number 012750).
State-run Korea Agro-Fisheries Trade Corp. set up the venture, aT Grain Co., in Chicago, with three other South Korean companies, Korea Agro-Fisheries owns 55 percent of aT Grain, while Samsung C&T Corp, Hanjin Transportation Co. and STX Corporation each hold 15 percent.
Brooks Automation Asia Co., Ltd. is a joint venture between Brooks Automation (70%) and Samsung (30%) which was established in 1999. The venture locally manufactures and configure vacuum wafer handling platforms and 300mm Front-Opening Unified Pod (FOUP) load port modules, and designs, manufactures and configures atmospheric loading systems for flat panel displays.
Samsung Biologics will be jointly owned. Samsung Electronics Co. and Samsung Everland Inc. will each own a 40 percent stake in the venture, with Samsung C&T Corp. and Durham, North Carolina-based Quintiles each holding 10 percent. It will contract-make medicines made from living cells, and Samsung Group plans to expand into producing copies of biologics including Rituxan, the leukemia and lymphoma treatment sold by Roche Holding AG and Biogen Idec Inc.
Samsung Bioepis is a joint venture between Samsung Biologics (85%) and the U.S.-based Biogen Idec (15%). In 2014, Biogen Idec agreed to commercialize future anti-TNF biosimilar products in Europe through Samsung Bioepis.
Samsung BP Chemicals, based in Ulsan, is a 49:51 joint venture between Samsung and the UK-based BP, which was established in 1989 to produce and supply high-value-added chemical products. Its products are used in rechargeable batteries and liquid crystal displays.
Samsung Corning Precision Glass is a joint venture between Samsung and Corning, which was established in 1973 to manufacture and market cathode ray tube glass for black and white televisions. The company's first LCD glass substrate manufacturing facility opened in Gumi, South Korea, in 1996.
Samsung Sumitomo LED Materials is a Korea-based joint venture between Samsung LED Co., Ltd., an LED maker based in Suwon, Korea-based and the Japan-based Sumitomo Chemical. The JV will carry out research and development, manufacturing and sales of sapphire substrates for LEDs.
SB LiMotive is a 50:50 joint company of Robert Bosch GmbH (commonly known as Bosch) and Samsung SDI founded in June 2008. The joint venture develops and manufactures lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid-, plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles.
Sermatech Korea owns 51% of its stock, while Samsung owns the remaining 49%. The U.S. firm Sermatech International, for a business specializing in aircraft construction processes such as special welding and brazing.
Siam Samsung Life Insurance: Samsung Life Insurance holds a 37% stake while the Saha Group also has a 37.5% stake in the joint venture, with the remaining 25% owned by Thanachart Bank.
SMP Ltd. is a joint venture between Samsung Fine Chemicals and MEMC. MEMC Electronic Materials Inc. and an affiliate of Korean conglomerate Samsung are forming a joint venture to build a polysilicon plant.
Stemco is a joint venture established between Samsung Electro-Mechanics and Toray Industries in 1995.
Toshiba Samsung Storage Technology Corporation (TSST) is joint venture between Samsung Electronics and Toshiba of Japan which specialises in optical disc drive manufacturing. TSST was formed in 2004, and Toshiba owns 51% of its stock, while Samsung owns the remaining 49%.
In 1998, Samsung created a U.S. joint venture with Compaq—called Alpha Processor Inc. (API)--to help it enter the high-end processor market. The venture was also aimed at expanding Samsung's non-memory chip business by fabricating Alpha processors. At the time, Samsung and Compaq invested $500 million in Alpha Processor.
Global Steel Exchange was a joint venture formed in 2000 between Samsung, the U.S.-based Cargill, the Switzerland-based Duferco Group, and the Luxembourg-based Tradearbed (now part of the ArcelorMittal), to handle their online buying and selling of steel.
S-LCD Corporation was a joint venture between Samsung Electronics (50% plus one share) and the Japan-based Sony Corporation (50% minus one share) which was established in April 2004. On 26 December 2011, Samsung Electronics announced that it would acquire all of Sony's shares in the venture.
Samsung Heavy Industries owns 10% of the Brazilian shipbuilder Atlântico Sul, whose Atlântico Sul Shipyard is the largest shipyard in South America. The Joao Candido, Brazil's largest ship, was built by Atlântico Sul with technology licensed by Samsung Heavy Industries. The companies have a technical assistance agreement through which industrial design, vessel engineering and other know-how is being transferred to Atlântico Sul.
Samsung Heavy Industries currently holds a 14.1% stake in Doosan Engine, making it the second-largest shareholder.
Samsung Techwin currently holds a 10% stake in Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI). Other major shareholders include the state-owned Korea Finance Corporation (26.75%), Hyundai Motor (10%) and Doosan (10%).
Samsung currently owns 19.9% of the automobile manufacturer Renault Samsung Motors.
Samsung currently owns 9.6% of Seagate Technology, making it the second-largest shareholder. Under a shareholder agreement, Samsung has the right to nominate an executive to Seagate's Board of Directors.
Taylor Energy is an independent American oil company that drills in the Gulf of Mexico based in New Orleans, Louisiana. Samsung Oil & Gas USA Corp., subsidiaries of Samsung, currently owns 20% of Taylor Energy.
Major clients of Samsung include:
Samsung has an audio logo, which consists of the notes E♭, A♭, D♭, E♭; after the initial E♭ tone it is up a perfect fourth to A♭, down a perfect fifth to D♭, then up a major second to return to the initial E♭ tone. The audio logo was produced by Musikvergnuegen and written by Walter Werzowa.
In July 2016, Samsung unveiled its SamsungOne font, a typeface that hopes to give a consistent and universal visual identity to the wide range of Samsung products. SamsungOne was designed to be used across Samsung's diverse device portfolio, with a focus on legibility for everything from smaller devices like smartphones to larger connected TVs or refrigerators, as well as Samsung marketing and advertisements. The font family supports 400 different languages through over 25,000 characters.
Samsung donates around US$100 million per annum to the Samsung Medical Center, a non-profit healthcare provider founded by the group in 1994. Samsung Medical Center incorporates Samsung Seoul Hospital, Kangbook Samsung Hospital, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Samsung Cancer Center and Samsung Life Sciences Research Center. The Samsung Cancer Center, located in Seoul, is the largest cancer center in Asia.
Samsung Electronics spent an estimated $14 billion (U.S.) on advertising and marketing in 2013. At 5.4% of annual revenue, this is a larger proportion than any of the world's top-20 companies by sales (Apple spent 0.6% and General Motors spent 3.5%). Samsung became the world's biggest advertiser in 2012, spending $4.3 billion, compared to Apple's $1 billion. Samsung's global brand value of $39.6 billion is less than half that of Apple.
In 2007, former Samsung chief lawyer Kim Yong Chul claimed that he was involved in bribing and fabricating evidence on behalf of the group's chairman Lee Kun-hee and the company. Kim said that Samsung lawyers trained executives to serve as scapegoats in a "fabricated scenario" to protect Lee, even though those executives were not involved. Kim also told the media that he was "sidelined" by Samsung after he refused to pay a $3.3 million bribe to the U.S. Federal District Court judge presiding over a case where two of their executives were found guilty on charges related to memory chip price fixing. Kim revealed that the company had raised a large amount of secret funds through bank accounts illegally opened under the names of up to 1,000 Samsung executives—under his own name, four accounts were opened to manage 5 billion won.
"You can even say the Samsung chairman is more powerful than the President of South Korea. [South] Korean people have come to think of Samsung as invincible and above the law", said Woo Suk-hoon, host of a popular economics podcast in a Washington Post article headlined "In South Korea, the Republic of Samsung", published on 9 December 2012. Critics claimed that Samsung knocked out smaller businesses, limiting choices for South Korean consumers, and sometimes colluded with fellow giants to fix prices while bullying those who investigate. Lee Jung-hee, a South Korean presidential candidate, said in a debate, "Samsung has the government in its hands. Samsung manages the legal world, the press, the academics and bureaucracy".
The Fair Trade Commission of Taiwan is investigating Samsung and its local Taiwanese advertising agency for false advertising. The case was commenced after the Commission received complaints stating that the agency hired students to attack competitors of Samsung Electronics in online forums. Samsung Taiwan made an announcement on its Facebook page in which it stated that it had not interfered with any evaluation report and had stopped online marketing campaigns that constituted posting or responding to content in online forums.
Samsung was the subject of several complaints about child labor in its supply chain from 2012 to 2015.
In July 2014, Samsung cut its contract with Shinyang Electronics after it received a complaint about the company violating child labor laws. Samsung says that its investigation turned up evidence of Shinyang using underage workers and that it severed relations immediately per its "zero tolerance" policy for child labor violations.
CLW issued a statement in August 2014 claiming that HEG employed over ten children under the age of 16 at a factory in Huizhou, Guangdong. The group said the youngest child identified was 14 years old. Samsung said that it conducted an onsite investigation of the production line that included one-on-one interviews but found no evidence of child labor being used. CLW responded that HEG had already dismissed the workers described in its statement before Samsung's investigators arrived.
CLW also claimed that HEG violated overtime rules for adult workers. CLW said a female college student was only paid her standard wage despite working four hours of overtime per day even though Chinese law requires ovetime pay at 1.5 to 2.0 times standard wages.
On 19 October 2011, Samsung companies was fined €145,727,000 for being part of a price cartel of ten companies for DRAMs which lasted from 1 July 1998 to 15 June 2002. The companies received, like most of the other members of the cartel, a 10-% reduction for acknowledging the facts to investigators. Samsung had to pay 90% of their share of the settlement, but Micron avoided payment as a result of having initially revealed the case to investigators.
In Canada, during 1999, some DRAM micro chip manufacturers conspired to price fix, among the accused included Samsung. The price fix was investigated in 2002. A recession started to occur that year, and the price fix ended; however, in 2014, the Canadian government reopened the case and investigated silently. Sufficient evidence was found and presented to Samsung and two other manufacturers during a class action lawsuit hearing. The companies agreed upon a $120 million agreement, with $40 million as a fine, and $80 Million to be paid back to Canadians who purchased a computer, printer, MP3 player, gaming console or camera from April 1999 to June 2002.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korean: Samsung Jeonja, Hangul: 삼성전자; Hanja: 三星電子 [literally "tristar electronics"]) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Due to some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung chaebol, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people. It is the world's largest manufacturer of consumer electronics and semiconductors by revenue. As of June 2018, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$325.9 billion.Samsung is a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. It is the world's largest manufacturer of Mobile phones and Smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and later, the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and regarded for developing the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. It has also developed 5G capable smartphones and foldable phones. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. It is also the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world.Samsung has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors.In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis".Samsung Galaxy
Samsung Galaxy (stylized as SAMSUNG Galaxy since 2015, previously stylized as Samsung GALAXY) is a series of mobile computing devices designed, manufactured and marketed by Samsung Electronics. The product line includes the Galaxy S series of high-end smartphones, the Galaxy Tab series of tablets, the Galaxy Note series of tablets and phablets with the added functionality of a stylus, and smartwatches including the first version of the Galaxy Gear, with later versions dropping the Galaxy branding, until the release of the Galaxy Watch in 2018.
Samsung Galaxy devices use the Android operating system produced by Google, usually with a custom user interface called Samsung Experience (formerly known as TouchWiz). However, the Galaxy TabPro S is the first Galaxy-branded Windows 10 device that was announced in CES 2016. The Galaxy Watch is the first Galaxy-branded smartwatch since the release of later iterations of the Gear smartwatch from 2014 to 2017. On April of 2019, the company announced that it would postpone the release of its folding smartphone, The Samsung Galaxy Fold, days after several early reviewers said the screens on their devices had broken. A new launch date was not announced.Samsung Galaxy A series
The Samsung Galaxy A series is a line of mid-range smartphones manufactured by Samsung Electronics. Until 2018 models, the Galaxy A series is similar to the flagship Galaxy S series, but with lower specifications and features. Starting in 2019 (5th generation models), the Galaxy A series has been re-positioned as lower mid-range smartphones slightly above the Galaxy M series that was introduced in the same year. The first model in the series, the Samsung Galaxy Alpha, was released in September 2014; it was followed by the first-generation Samsung Galaxy A3 and A5, which were introduced in December 2014.
Following the announcement of the 2017 series, Samsung announced that they will sell up to 20 million Galaxy A series smartphones, targeting consumers in Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America.As of 2018, most of the Galaxy A series models are currently available to most countries. Galaxy Tab A is also part of the A series and sold to most countries as well.Samsung Galaxy Fold
Samsung Galaxy Fold is an Android foldable smartphone developed by Samsung Electronics. Unveiled February 20, 2019, its release has been postponed indefinitely after reviewers began experiencing issues with the flexible display. The device is capable of being folded open to expose a 7.3-inch tablet-sized flexible display.Samsung Galaxy Note 7
The Samsung Galaxy Note 7 (marketed as Samsung Galaxy Note7) is a now-discontinued Android phablet smartphone that was produced and marketed by Samsung Electronics. Unveiled on 2 August 2016, it was officially released on 19 August 2016 as a successor to the Galaxy Note 5. It was Samsung's first phone with a symmetrical connector and the last phone in the Galaxy Note Series to have a home button. Although it is the sixth main device in the Galaxy Note series, Samsung branded its series number as "7" instead of "6", so that consumers would not perceive it as being inferior to the flagship Samsung Galaxy S7.
The Galaxy Note 7 is an evolution of the Galaxy Note 5 that inherited hardware components and improvements from the Galaxy S7, including the restoration of expandable storage and IP68 water resistance, and new features such as a dual-sided curved display, support for high-dynamic-range (HDR) color, improvements to the bundled stylus and new software features which utilize it, an iris recognition system, and a USB-C port. Demand for the Galaxy Note 7 on-launch was high, breaking pre-order records in South Korea and causing international releases to be delayed in some markets due to supply shortages. The Galaxy Note 7 also received positive reviews from critics, praising the quality of its construction, HDR support, as well as its streamlined user interface, although it was panned for its high price and increasing similarities in overall specifications to the main Galaxy S series phones.
On 2 September 2016, Samsung suspended sales of the Galaxy Note 7 and announced an informal recall, after it was found that a manufacturing defect in the phones' batteries had caused some of them to generate excessive heat, resulting in fires. A formal U.S. recall was announced on 15 September 2016. Samsung exchanged the affected phones for a new revision, which utilized batteries sourced from a different supplier. However, after reports emerged of incidents where these replacement phones also caught fire, Samsung recalled the Galaxy Note 7 worldwide on 10 October 2016, and permanently ceased production of the device on 11 October. Due to the recalls, Samsung has issued software updates in some markets that are intended to "eliminate their ability to work as mobile devices", including restricting battery capacity, and blocking their ability to connect to wireless networks. Samsung has stated that it intends to recycle reusable silicon and components from the recalled models, and release refurbished models "where applicable".
The recall had a major impact on Samsung's business in the third quarter of 2016, with the company projecting that its operating profits would be down by 33% in comparison to the previous quarter. Credit Suisse analysts estimated that Samsung would lose at least US$17 billion in revenue from the production and recall of the Galaxy Note 7. The Note 7 had the shortest life span of any Samsung phone.
In July 2017, 9 months after the Note7 recall, Samsung released a refurbished version of the Galaxy Note 7 called Galaxy Note Fan Edition (marketed as Samsung Galaxy Note FE). It has a smaller battery of 3200 mAh and is supplied with Android Nougat with Samsung Experience UI, the operating system of the Galaxy S8. The successor to the Galaxy Note 7, the Galaxy Note 8, was announced on 23 August 2017 and released almost a month later.Samsung Galaxy Note 9
The Samsung Galaxy Note 9 (marketed as Samsung Galaxy Note9) is an Android phablet smartphone designed, developed and marketed by Samsung Electronics as part of the Samsung Galaxy Note series. It was awarded the "Best Phone of the Year" award by Consumer Reports. It was unveiled on 9 August 2018, as the successor to the Samsung Galaxy Note 8.Samsung Galaxy S
The Samsung Galaxy S is a touchscreen-enabled, slate-format Android smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Samsung Electronics. It is the first device of the third Android smartphone series produced by Samsung. It was announced to the press in March 2010 and released for sale in June 2010.
The Galaxy S is produced in over two dozen variations. The international 'GT-I9000' reference version features a 1 GHz ARM "Hummingbird" processor, a PowerVR graphics processor, 2 or 4 GB of internal flash memory, a 4 in (10 cm) 480×800 pixel Super AMOLED capacitive touchscreen display, Wi-Fi connectivity, a 5-megapixel primary camera and a 0.3-megapixel secondary front-facing camera. Derivative models may include localized cellular radios or changes to button layouts, keyboards, screens, cameras or the Android OS.
At the time of its release, the Galaxy S included the fastest graphical processing of any smartphone, was the thinnest smartphone at 9.9 mm and was the first Android phone to be certified for DivX HD.As of 2013, over 25 million Galaxy S units have been sold. The Galaxy S name continued on with the semi-related Snapdragon-based Galaxy S Plus and NovaThor-based Galaxy S Advance smartphones. The next major release of the series was the Samsung Galaxy S II.
In 2012, Samsung introduced the dual SIM version of the Galaxy S, Samsung Galaxy S Duos.Samsung Galaxy S10
Samsung Galaxy S10 is a line of Android smartphones manufactured by Samsung Electronics. The Galaxy S10 series is a celebratory series of the 10th anniversary of the Samsung Galaxy S flagship line. Unveiled during a press event, Samsung Galaxy Unpacked 2019 on February 20, 2019, they started shipping on March 8, 2019, and in some regions such as Australia and the United States, they started shipping on March 6, 2019.As has been done since the Galaxy S9, Samsung unveiled flagship Galaxy S10 and Galaxy S10+ models, differentiated primarily by screen size and an additional front-facing camera on the S10+. In addition, Samsung also unveiled a smaller model known as the Galaxy S10e, as well as a larger, 5G-compatible version, the Galaxy S10 5G.
The Galaxy S10e, S10 and S10+ launch prices started at $749, $899 and $999 respectively.Samsung Galaxy S4
The Samsung Galaxy S4 is an Android smartphone produced by Samsung Electronics and was first shown publicly on March 14, 2013, at Samsung Mobile Unpacked in New York City. It is the successor to the Galaxy S III, which maintains a similar design, but with upgraded hardware and an increased focus on software features that take advantage of its hardware capabilities—such as the ability to detect when a finger is hovered over the screen, and expanded eye tracking functionality. A hardware variant of the S4 became the first smartphone to support the emerging LTE Advanced mobile network standard.The S4 was made available in late April 2013 on 327 carriers in 155 countries. It became Samsung's fastest selling smartphone and eventually Samsung’s best selling smartphone with 20 million sold worldwide in the first two months, and 40 million in the first six months.While some users called all new Galaxy S4 features "innovation", others called them feature creep or just gimmicks. Those features are, for example, Smart Pause, Smart Rotation, Smart Scroll, Air View, Air gesture, Story Album and Temperature and humidity sensors.
The Galaxy S4's successor, the Samsung Galaxy S5, was announced by Samsung in February 2014 ahead of a release in April of that year.Samsung Galaxy S5
The Samsung Galaxy S5 is an Android smartphone produced by Samsung Electronics. Unveiled on 24 February 2014 at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain, it was released on 11 April 2014 in 150 countries as the immediate successor to the Galaxy S4. As with the S4, the S5 is an evolution of the prior year's model, placing a particular emphasis on an improved build with a textured rear cover and IP67 certification for dust and water resistance, a more refined user experience, new security features such as a fingerprint reader and private mode, expanded health features (such as a built-in heart rate monitor), and an updated camera.
The Galaxy S5 received mostly positive reviews; The phone was praised for its display, hardware, camera, long battery life, and incorporating water resistance while retaining a removable battery and MicroSD slot. However, the S5 was criticized for bloated software, the inconsistent fingerprint scanner featured on the phone, and its plastic design in light of rival smartphones' more premium metal bodies.In August 2015, following the release of its latest flagship, the Galaxy S6, Samsung released an updated version called the "Galaxy S5 Neo" which has an Exynos 7 Octa (7580) processor clocked at 1.6 GHz. It has 2 GB of RAM, 16 GB of internal storage and comes with Android 6.0.1 "Marshmallow".Samsung Galaxy S6
Samsung Galaxy S6 is a line of Android smartphones manufactured and marketed by Samsung Electronics. Succeeding the Samsung Galaxy S5, the S6 was not released as a singular model, but instead in two variations unveiled and marketed together—the Galaxy S6 and Galaxy S6 Edge—with the latter differentiated primarily by having a display that is wrapped along the sides of the device. The S6 and S6 Edge were unveiled on March 1, 2015, during the Samsung Unpacked press event at MWC Barcelona, and released April 10, 2015. During the subsequent Samsung Unpacked event on August 13, 2015 (alongside the Galaxy Note 5), Samsung unveiled a third model, the Galaxy S6 Edge+, which features a larger phablet-sized display.
Although the overall design of the Galaxy S6 still features characteristics from prior models, its construction was revamped to use a metal unibody frame and glass backing instead of plastic. Samsung also promoted an improved camera, streamlined user interface, support for major wireless charging standards, and support for a mobile payments platform that allows the device to emulate the magnetic strip from a credit card.
The Galaxy S6 received mostly positive reviews from critics, who praised the devices' upgraded build quality over prior models, along with improvements to their displays, performance, camera, and other changes. However, Samsung's decision to remove the ability to expand their storage or remove the battery was panned as being potentially alienating to power users, and the S6 Edge was also panned for not making enough use of its curved display to justify its increased cost over the standard model on-launch.Samsung Galaxy S7
Samsung Galaxy S7, Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge and Samsung Galaxy S7 Active are Android smartphones manufactured and marketed by Samsung Electronics. The S7 series serves as the successor to the Galaxy S6, S6 Edge, S6 Edge+ and S6 Active released in 2015. The S7 and S7 Edge were officially unveiled on 21 February 2016 during a Samsung press conference at Mobile World Congress, with a European and North American release on 11 March 2016. The S7 Active was unveiled on 4 June 2016, and released on AT&T in the United States on 10 June 2016.The Galaxy S7 is an evolution of the prior year's model, with upgraded hardware, design refinements, and the restoration of features removed from the Galaxy S6, such as IP certification for water and dust resistance, as well as expandable storage. Succeeding the S6 and S6 Edge+, respectively, the S7 is produced in a standard model with a display size of 5.1-inch (130 mm) as well as an Edge variant whose display is curved along the wide sides of the screen and also has a larger 5.5-inch (140 mm) display. The S7 Active features a thicker more rugged frame and an increased battery capacity. The Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge are the last two phones in the Samsung Galaxy S series to have a physical home button with a front-sided fingerprint sensor embedded in the button (the S7 Active being the last in the Active series to feature three physical buttons with the fingerprint reader embedded home button) and the last Samsung Galaxy S series phones to use MicroUSB charging.Samsung Galaxy S8
The Samsung Galaxy S8, Samsung Galaxy S8+ and Samsung Galaxy S8 Active are Android smartphones (with the S8+ being the phablet smartphone) produced by Samsung Electronics as the eighth generation of the Samsung Galaxy S series. The S8 and S8+ were unveiled on 29 March 2017 and directly succeeded the Samsung Galaxy S7 and S7 edge, with a North American release on 21 April 2017 and international rollout throughout April and May. The S8 Active was announced on 8 August 2017 and is exclusive to certain U.S. cellular carriers.
The S8 and S8+ contain upgraded hardware and major design changes over the S7 line, including larger screens with a taller aspect ratio and curved sides on both the smaller and larger models, iris and face recognition, a new suite of virtual assistant features known as Bixby (along with a new dedicated physical button for launching the assistant), a shift from MicroUSB to USB-C charging, and Samsung DeX, a docking station accessory that allows the phones to be used with a desktop interface with keyboard and mouse input support. The S8 Active features tougher materials designed for protection against shock, shatter, water and dust, with a metal frame and a tough texture for improved grip that makes the S8 Active have a rugged design. The Active's screen measures the same size as the standard S8 model but loses the curved edges in favor of a metal frame.
The S8 and S8+ received mostly positive reviews. Their design and form factor received praise, while critics also liked the updated software and camera optimizations. They received criticism for duplicate software apps, lackluster Bixby features at launch, for the placement of the fingerprint sensor on the rear next to the camera. A video published after the phones' release proved that the devices' facial and iris scanners can be fooled by suitable photographs of the user.
The S8 and S8+ were in high demand at release. During the pre-order period, a record one million units were booked in South Korea, and overall sales numbers were 30% higher than the Galaxy S7. However, subsequent reports in May announced sales of over five million units, a notably lower first-month sales number than previous Galaxy S series models.
On March 11, 2018, Samsung launched the successor to the S8, the Samsung Galaxy S9.Samsung Galaxy S9
The Samsung Galaxy S9 and Samsung Galaxy S9+ are Android smartphones produced by Samsung Electronics as part of the Samsung Galaxy S series. The devices were revealed at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona on 25 February 2018, as the successors to the Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8+.The Galaxy S9 and S9+ have nearly identical features to the S8 batch, with the same display size and aspect ratio, just like their predecessor. One highly regarded change to distinguish between the models is the location of the fingerprint sensor. While the S8's is found beside the camera, the S9's is directly underneath it. Most notably, however, the S9 line is equipped with several camera improvements over the S8.
The phone has received generally favorable reviews, with critics mostly noting the enhanced camera and better positioned fingerprint scanner. Critics, however, still criticize the lack of improvement to other features compared to its predecessor.Samsung Galaxy S II
The Samsung Galaxy S II is a touchscreen-enabled, slate-format Android smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Samsung Electronics. It has additional software features, expanded hardware, and a redesigned physique compared to its predecessor, the Samsung Galaxy S. The S II was launched with Android 2.3 "Gingerbread", with updates to Android 4.1.2 "Jelly Bean".
Samsung unveiled the S II on 13 February 2011 at the Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona. It was one of the slimmest smartphones of the time, mostly 8.49 mm thick, except for two small bulges which take the maximum thickness of the phone to 9.91 mm.
The Galaxy S II has a 1.2 GHz dual-core "Exynos" system on a chip (SoC) processor, 1 GB of RAM, a 10.8 cm (4.3 in) WVGA Super AMOLED Plus screen display and an 8-megapixel camera with flash and 1080p full high definition video recording. It is one of the first devices to offer a Mobile High-definition Link (MHL), which allows up to 1080p uncompressed video output to an MHL enabled TV or to an MHL to HDMI adapter, while charging the device at the same time. USB On-The-Go is supported.The user-replaceable battery gives up to ten hours of heavy usage, or two days of lighter usage. According to Samsung, the Galaxy S II is capable of providing 9 hours of talk time on 3G and 18.3 hours on 2G.The Galaxy S II was popular and a huge success both critically and commercially, selling 3 million units within its first 55 days on the market. It was succeeded by the Samsung Galaxy S III in May 2012.Samsung Galaxy S III
The Samsung Galaxy S III (or Galaxy S3) is an Android smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Samsung Electronics. Launched in 2012, it had sold about 70 million units by 2015 with no recalls ever recorded.It has additional software features, expanded hardware, and a redesigned physique from its predecessor, the Samsung Galaxy S II. The "S III" employs an intelligent personal assistant (S Voice), eye-tracking ability, and increased storage. Although a wireless charging option was announced, it never came to fruition. However, there are third party kits which add support for wireless charging. Depending on country, the 4.8-inch (120 mm) smartphone comes with different processors and RAM capacity, and 4G LTE support. The device was launched with Android 4.0.4 "Ice Cream Sandwich", was updated to Android 4.3 "Jelly Bean", and can be updated to Android 4.4 "KitKat" on variants with 2 GB of RAM. The phone's successor, the Samsung Galaxy S4, was announced on 14 March 2013 and was released the following month.
Following an 18-month development phase, Samsung unveiled the S III on 3 May 2012. The device was released in 28 European and Middle Eastern countries on 29 May 2012, before being progressively released in other major markets in June 2012. Prior to release, 9 million pre-orders were placed by more than 100 carriers globally. The S III was released by approximately 300 carriers in nearly 150 countries at the end of July 2012. More than 20 million units of the S III were sold within the first 100 days of release and more than 50 million until April 2013.Because of overwhelming demand and a manufacturing problem with the blue variant of the phone, there was an extensive shortage of the S III, especially in the United States. Nevertheless, the S III was well-received commercially and critically, with some technology commentators touting it as the "iPhone killer". In September 2012, TechRadar ranked it as the No. 1 handset in its constantly updated list of the 20 best mobile phones, while Stuff magazine likewise ranked it at No. 1 in its list of 10 best smartphones in May 2012. The handset also won the "European Mobile Phone of 2012–13" award from the European Imaging and Sound Association, as well as T3 magazine's "Phone of the Year" award for 2012.
It played a major role in boosting Samsung's record operating profit during the second quarter of 2012. As of November 2012, the S III is part of a high-profile lawsuit between Samsung and Apple. In November 2012, research firm Strategy Analytics announced that the S III had overtaken Apple's iPhone 4S to become the world's best-selling smartphone model in Q3 2012.In April 2014, following the release of its new flagship, the Galaxy S5, Samsung released a refreshed version called the "Galaxy S3 Neo", which has a quad-core Snapdragon 400 processor clocked either at 1.2 or 1.4 GHz. It has 1.5 GB of RAM and 16 GB of internal storage and ships with Android 4.4.4 "KitKat".Samsung Galaxy S series
The Samsung Galaxy S series is a line of high-end Android-powered mobile devices produced by Samsung Electronics, a division of Samsung from South Korea.
The series consisted initially of smartphones and the first device, the Samsung Galaxy S, was announced in March 2010 and released for sale in June of that year. Since the introduction of the Samsung Galaxy Note in 2011, the Galaxy S line has co-existed with the Galaxy Note line as being Samsung's flagship smartphones.
Samsung later expanded the Galaxy S line to tablet computers with the announcement of the Galaxy Tab S in June 2014 and released the next month. As of 2019, the latest smartphones in the Galaxy S series are the Samsung Galaxy S10, Samsung Galaxy S10+ and Samsung Galaxy S10e, all released on 21 February 2019, and the latest tablet is the Samsung Galaxy Tab S4 released on August 1, 2018.Suwon Samsung Bluewings
Suwon Samsung Bluewings (Korean: 수원 삼성 블루윙즈) is a South Korean football club based in Suwon, South Korea, that plays in the K League 1. Founded in December 1995, they have become one of Asian football's most famous clubs with a host of domestic and continental honours. Suwon have won the championship on four occasions, in 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2008.
Asia's Player of the Century Cha Bum-kun was the manager of the club from 2004 to 2010, when he replaced former South Korea national team manager Kim Ho who had been the club's first manager.Tizen
Tizen () is a Linux-based mobile operating system backed by the Linux Foundation but developed and used primarily by Samsung Electronics.
The project was originally conceived as an HTML5-based platform for mobile devices to succeed MeeGo. Samsung merged its previous Linux-based OS effort, Bada, into Tizen, and has since used it primarily on platforms such as wearable devices and smart TVs.
Much of Tizen is open source software, although the software development kit contains proprietary components owned by Samsung, and portions of the OS are licensed under the Flora License—a derivative of the Apache License that only grants a patent license to "Tizen certified platforms"...
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