Samos

Samos (/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/; Greek: Σάμος, Greek pronunciation: [ˈsamos]) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit.

In ancient times Samos was an especially rich and powerful city-state, particularly known for its vineyards and wine production.[1] It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island.

The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.[1]

Samos

Περιφερειακή ενότητα Σάμου
Δήμος Σάμου
Vathy, capital of Samos
Vathy, capital of Samos
Official seal of Samos

Seal
Samos within the North Aegean
Samos within the North Aegean
Samos is located in Greece
Samos
Samos
Samos within the North Aegean
Coordinates: 37°45′N 26°50′E / 37.750°N 26.833°ECoordinates: 37°45′N 26°50′E / 37.750°N 26.833°E
Country Greece
RegionNorth Aegean
CapitalSamos
Area
 • Total477.4 km2 (184.3 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total32,977
 • Density69/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal codes
831 xx
Area codes2273
Car platesMO
Websitewww.samos.gr

Etymology

Strabo derived the name from the Phoenician word sama meaning "high".[2][3][4]

Geography

The area of the island is 477.395 km2 (184.3 sq mi),[5] and it is 43 km (27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from Anatolia by the approximately 1-mile-wide (1.6 km) Mycale Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos has several relatively large and fertile plains.

A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards, from which muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital, Vathy, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, and Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.

Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis (anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as "Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.[1]

According to Strabo, the name Samos is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore".

Image gallery

Samos island 3D version 1

NASA satellite 3D view of Samos.

Psalida Samiopoula

Psalida Beach. At the distant background Mount Kerketeas.

Samos 050 2009

View of Poseidonio.

Fauna

Samos is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal, stone marten, wild boar, flamingos and monk seal.[6]

Climate

Samos is one of the sunniest places in Europe with almost 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time. Its climate is mild and wet in winter and dry in summer.

History

Early and Classical Antiquity

Samoskouros
Kouros of Samos, the largest surviving Kouros in Greece, showing Egyptian influence (Archaeological Museum of Samos).

In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called Samian ware by the Romans). Its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera—the Heraion.[1]

Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis: Samos became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar.[9]

The feud between Miletus and Samos broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme. The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.[1]

Eupalinian aqueduct

In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply). Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner.[10] With a length of over 1 km (0.6 mi), Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Pythagoreion.

Persian Wars and Persian rule

After Polycrates' death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians led the revolt against Persia, during the Battle of Mycale,[1] which was part of the offensive by the Delian League (led by Cimon).

Samian War

In the Delian League Samos held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens until 440 BC when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate.[1] It was punished, but Thucydides tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but Samos was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents per annum.

Peloponnesian War

During the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Samos took the side of Athens against Sparta, providing their port to the Athenian fleet. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Samos appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens (411 BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens, Samos was besieged by Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy.[1]

In 394 BC the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved vital in the Social War (357-355 BC). After the Lamian War (322 BC), when Athens was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be followed.[1]

Famous Samians of Antiquity

Samos 070 2009
Panorama of Pythagoreion, the place of birth of Pythagoras.

Perhaps the most famous persons ever connected with classical Samos were the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras and the fabulist Aesop. In 1955 the town of Tigani was renamed Pythagoreio in honor of the philosopher.

Other notable personalities include the philosophers Melissus of Samos and Epicurus, who were of Samian birth, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, whom history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the solar system. The historian Herodotus, known by his Histories resided in Samos for a while.

There was a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus, the architect of the Temple of Hera (Olympia), and the great sculptor and inventor Theodorus, who is said to have invented with Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze.

The vases of Samos were among the most characteristic products of Ionian pottery in the 6th century.

Hellenistic and Roman Eras

For some time (about 275–270 BC) Samos served as a base for the Egyptian fleet of the Ptolemies, at other periods it recognized the overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 BC, it was transferred by the Romans to their vassal, the Attalid dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamon, in Asia Minor.[1]

Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor, Samos sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus and Vespasian. Nevertheless, Samos remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna and Ephesus the title "first city of lonia";[1] it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy it became part of the Provincia Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian prefecture of Oriens.[1]

Byzantine and Genoese Eras

Vronda monastery exterior view
Vronta monastery
Church Kokkari Samos
Church in Kokkari village
Pythagoreion harbour
The harbour of Pythagoreion

As part of the Byzantine Empire, Samos became part of the namesake theme. After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios, and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346–1566; 1475 interrupted by an Ottoman period). It was also ruled by Tzachas between 1081–1091.[1]

Ottoman rule

Samos - Camocio Giovanni Francesco - 1574
Samos map, 1574

Samos came under Ottoman rule in 1475[11] or c. 1479/80,[12] at which time the island was practically abandoned due to the effects of piracy and the plague. The island remained desolate for almost a full century before the Ottoman authorities, by now in secure control of the Aegean, undertook a serious effort to repopulate the island.[12]

In 1572/3, the island was granted as a personal domain (hass) to Kilic Ali Pasha, the Kapudan Pasha (the Ottoman Navy's chief admiral). Settlers, including Greeks and Arvanites from the Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands, as well as the descendants of the original inhabitants who had fled to Chios, were attracted through the concession of certain privileges such as a seven-year tax exemption, a permanent exemption from the tithe in exchange for a lump annual payment of 45,000 piastres, and a considerable autonomy in local affairs.[12] The island recovered gradually, reaching a population of some 10,000 in the 17th century, which was still concentrated mostly in the interior. It was not until the mid-18th century that the coast began to be densely settled as well.[12]

Under Ottoman rule, Samos (Ottoman Turkish: سيسام Sisam) came under the administration of the Kapudan Pasha's Eyalet of the Archipelago, usually as part of the Sanjak of Rhodes rather than as a distinct province.[11] Locally, the Ottoman authorities were represented by a voevoda, who was in charge of the fiscal administration, the kadi (judge), the island's Orthodox bishop and four notables representing the four districts of the island (Vathy, Chora, Karlovasi and Marathokampos).[12] Ottoman rule was interrupted during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, when the island came under Russian control in 1771–1774.[12]

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca that concluded the war contained clauses that enabled a great expansion of the commercial activities of the Ottoman Empire's Greek Orthodox population. Samian merchants also took advantage of this, and an urban mercantile class based on commerce and shipping began to grow.[12] The Samian merchants' voyages across the Mediterranean, as well as the settlement of Greeks from the Ionian Islands (which in 1797 had passed from Venice to the French Republic), introduced to Samos the progressive ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and of the French Revolution, and led to the formation of two rival political parties, the progressive-radical Karmanioloi ("Carmagnoles", named after the French Revolutionary song Carmagnole) and the reactionary Kallikantzaroi ("goblins") who represented mostly the traditional land-holding elites. Under the leadership of Lykourgos Logothetis, in 1807 the Karmanioloi gained power in the island, introducing liberal and democratic principles and empowering the local popular assembly at the expense of the land-holding notables. Their rule lasted until 1812, when they were overthrown by the Ottoman authorities and their leaders expelled from the island.[12]

Greek Revolution

Flag of the Administration of Samos
Flag of the Administration of Samos during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830).
Logothetis Lykourgos Greek Fighter
Lykourgos Logothetis, leader of the Revolution in Samos.

In March 1821, the Greek War of Independence broke out, and on 18 April, under the leadership of Logothetis and the Karmanioloi, Samos too joined the uprising. In May, a revolutionary government with its own constitution was set up to administer the island, mostly inspired by Logothetis.[13]

The Samians successfully repulsed three Ottoman attempts to recapture the island: in summer 1821, in July 1824, when Greek naval victories off Samos and at Gerontas averted the threat of an invasion, and again in summer 1826. In 1828, the island became formally incorporated into the Hellenic State under Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias, as part of the province of the Eastern Sporades, but the London Protocol of 1830 excluded Samos from the borders of the independent Greek state.[13]

The Samians refused to accept their re-subordination to the Sultan, and Logothetis declared Samos to be an independent state, governed as before under the provisions of the 1821 constitution. Finally, due to the pressure of the Great Powers, Samos was declared an autonomous, tributary principality under Ottoman suzerainty. The Samians still refused to accept this decision until an Ottoman fleet enforced it in May 1834, forcing the revolutionary leadership and a part of the population to flee to independent Greece, where they settled near Chalkis.[13]

Autonomous Principality

Flag of the Principality of Samos (1834–1912)
Flag of the Principality of Samos. It is the contemporary Greek flag with the two upper quadrants in red to symbolize Ottoman suzerainty.

In 1834, the island of Samos became the territory of the Principality of Samos, a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey, paying the annual sum of £2,700. It was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathy, Chora, Marathokampos, and Karlovasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.[1]

The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century, at Chora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the ancient city.[1]

After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to Vathy, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the residence of the prince and the seat of government.[1]

Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.

Modern era

Samos1912
The union with the Kingdom of Greece in 1912.
LEON-SAMOS-0927
Statue of a lion in Samos town; erected in 1930 to celebrate the centenary of Greek independence.

The island was united with the Kingdom of Greece in 1913, a few months after the outbreak of the First Balkan War. Although other Aegean islands had been quickly captured by the Greek Navy, Samos was initially left to its existing status quo out of a desire not to upset the Italians in the nearby Dodecanese. The Greek fleet landed troops on the island on 13 March 1913. The clashes with the Ottoman garrison were short-lived as the Ottomans withdrew to the Anatolian mainland, so that the island was securely in Greek hands by 16 March.[14][15]

During World War II, the island was occupied by the Italians from May 1941 until the Italian surrender in September 1943. Samos was briefly taken over by Greek and British forces on 31 October, but following the Allied defeat in the Battle of Leros and a fierce aerial bombardment, the island was abandoned on 19 November and taken over by German troops. The German occupation lasted until 4 October 1944, when the island was liberated by the Greek Sacred Band.

On August 3, 1989, a Short 330 aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines) crashed near Samos Airport; thirty-one passengers died.

Government

Samos is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Samos was created out of part of the former Samos Prefecture. At the same reform, the current municipality Samos was created out of the 4 former municipalities:[16]

Samos has a sister town called Samo, which is located in Calabria, Italy.

Province

The province of Samos (Greek: Επαρχία Σάμου) was one of the provinces of the Samos Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present regional unit.[17] It was abolished in 2006.

Economy

Samos muscat wine
Muscat of Samos
Boytsa me glyko krasi - panoramio
Samian wine

The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture and the tourist industry[18] which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The main agricultural products include grapes, honey, olives, olive oil, citrus fruit, dried figs, almonds and flowers. The Muscat grape is the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported under several other appellations.

Cuisine

Local specialities:

UNESCO

Marathokambos
View of Marathokampos village.
Karlovasi-Agios Nikolaos
Agios Nikolaos Church, Karlovasi.
Karlovasi
Picture of the town of Karlovasi.

The island is the location of the joint UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Heraion of Samos and the Pythagoreion which were inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1992.[19]

Notable people

Ancient

Modern

  • Lykourgos Logothetis (1772–1850), leader of the Samians during the revolution of 1821
  • Themistoklis Sofoulis (1860–1949), politician and PM of Greece
  • Ion Ghica (1816–1897), Romanian revolutionary, mathematician, diplomat, prime minister of Romania, first president of the Romanian Academy, prince of Samos
  • Nikos Stavridis (1910–1987), actor
  • Nerses Ounanian (1924-1957), Armenian-Uruguayan sculptor

Gallery

Samos town - Archaeological museum and Municipal building

The town hall and the archaeological museum in Vathy

Samos town Agios Spyridonas church 01

St Spyridon, Samos town

Former tobacco factory, Samos Town. - panoramio

Old tobacco factory, Samos town

Kokkari Sea Beach

Kokkari beach

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bunbury, Caspari & Gardner 1911, p. 116.
  2. ^ Everett-Heath, John (2017). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462.
  3. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=A5JKDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT258. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Leaf, Walter (2010). Homer, the Iliad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108016872.
  5. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  6. ^ "Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Greece" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  7. ^ "Samos Climate". Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Climate Data for Samos". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  9. ^ "Samos (island, Greece) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  10. ^ The Siloam Tunnel was first Archived 2011-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. p. 107. ISBN 9783920153568.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Landros Christos; Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.3. Ottoman rule". Cultural Portal of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  13. ^ a b c Landros Christos, Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.4. The Greek War of Independence, 1821". Cultural Portal of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  14. ^ Hall, Richard C. (2000). The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 0-415-22946-4.
  15. ^ Erickson, Edward J. (2003). Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-275-97888-5.
  16. ^ "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French)
  18. ^ Ioannis Spilanis, H. Vayanni et K. Glyptou (2012). Evaluating the tourism activity in a destination: the case of Samos Island, Revue Etudes Caribéennes, http://etudescaribeennes.revues.org/6257
  19. ^ "Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07.

References

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBunbury, Edward Herbert; Caspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck; Gardner, Ernest Arthur (1911). "Samos" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–117.

Further reading

Ancient sources
  • Herodotus, especially book iii.
  • Strabo xiv. pp. 636–639
  • Thucydides, especially books i. and viii.
  • Xenophon, Hellenica, books i. ii.
Modern texts
  • A. Agelarakis, "Anthropologic Results: The Geometric Period Necropolis at Pythagoreion". Archival Report. Samos Island Antiquities Authority, Greece, (2003).
  • J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos (London, 1966).
  • J. Boehlau, Aus ionischen and italischen Nekropolen (Leipzig, 1898). (E. H. B.; M. 0. B. C.; E. Ga.).
  • C. Curtius, Urkunden zur Geschichte von Samos (Wesel, 1873).
  • P. Gardner, Samos and Samian Coins (London, 1882).
  • V. Guérin, Description de l'île de Patmos et de l'île de Samos (Paris, 1856).
  • K. Hallof and A. P. Matthaiou (eds), Inscriptiones Chii et Sami cum Corassiis Icariaque (Inscriptiones Graecae, xii. 6. 1–2). 2 vols. (Berolini–Novi Eboraci: de Gruyter, 2000; 2004).
  • B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 515–518.
  • L. E. Hicks and G. F. Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1901), No. 81.
  • H. Kyrieleis, Führer durch das Heraion von Samos (Athen, 1981).
  • T. Panofka, Res Samiorum (Berlin, 1822).
  • Pauly-Wissowa (in German, on Antiquity)
  • T. J. Quinn, Athens and Samos, Chios and Lesbos (Manchester, 1981).
  • G. Shipley, A History of Samos 800–188 BC (Oxford, 1987).
  • R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Herodot und Samos (Bochum, 1976).
  • H. F. Tozer, Islands of the Aegean (London, 1890).
  • K. Tsakos, Samos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology (Athens, 2003).
  • H. Walter, Das Heraion von Samos (München, 1976).
  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
Volumes of the Samos series of archaeological reports published by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.
  • 1. V. Milojčić, Die prähistorische Siedlung unter dem Heraion (Bonn, 1961).
  • 2. R. C. S. Felsch, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1988).
  • 3. A. E. Furtwängler, Der Nordbau im Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1989).
  • 4. H. P. Isler, Das archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1978).
  • 5. H. Walter, Frühe samische Gefäße (Bonn, 1968).
  • 6.1. E. Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefäße des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Bonn, 1973).
  • 7. G. Schmidt, Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1968).
  • 8. U. Jantzen, Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1972).
  • 9. U. Gehrikg, with G. Schneider, Die Greifenprotomen aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 2004).
  • 10. H. Kyrieleis, Der große Kuros von Samos (Bonn, 1996).
  • 11. B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des strengen Stils (Bonn, 1974).
  • 12. R. Horn, Hellenistische Bildwerke auf Samos (Bonn, 1972).
  • 14. R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1974).
  • 15. H. J. Kienast, Die Stadtmauer von Samos (Bonn, 1978).
  • 16. W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von Samos (Bonn, 1984).
  • 17. W. Martini and C. Streckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos: das frühbyzantinische Klostergut (Bonn, 1993).
  • 18. V. Jarosch, Samische Tonfiguren aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1994).
  • 19. H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos auf Samos (Bonn, 1995).
  • 20. U. Jantzen with W. Hautumm, W.-R. Megow, M. Weber, and H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos: die Funde (Bonn, 2004).
  • 22. B. Kreuzer, Die attisch schwarzfigurige Keramik aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1998).
  • 24.1. T. Schulz with H. J. Kienast, Die römischen Tempel im Heraion von Samos: die Prostyloi (Bonn, 2002).
  • 25. C. Hendrich, Die Säulenordnung des ersten Dipteros von Samos (Bonn, 2007).

External links

Annaea

Annaea or Annaia (Ancient Greek: Ἄνναια) or Anaea or Anaia (Ἀναία), was a town of ancient Ionia. It is placed by Stephanus of Byzantium in Caria, and opposite to Samos. Ephorus says that it was so called from an Amazon Anaea, who was buried there. If Anaea was opposite Samos, it must have been in Ionia (or well into Roman times, Lydia), which did not extend south of the Maeander River. From the expressions of Thucydides, it may have been on or near the coast, and in or near the valley of the Maeander. Some Samian exiles posted themselves here in the Peloponnesian War. The passage of Thucydides seems to make it a naval station, and one near enough to annoy Samos.It later became a bishopric, now a titular see (see Anaea (Asia)).

Its site is located near Kadı Kalesi, Asiatic Turkey.

Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (; Greek: Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known heliocentric model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it. He was influenced by Philolaus of Croton, but Aristarchus identified the "central fire" with the Sun, and he put the other planets in their correct order of distance around the Sun. Like Anaxagoras before him, he suspected that the stars were just other bodies like the Sun, albeit further away from Earth. His astronomical ideas were often rejected in favor of the geocentric theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Nicolaus Copernicus attributed the heliocentric theory to Aristarchus.

Battle of Samos

The Battle of Samos (Greek: Ναυμαχία της Σάμου) was a naval battle fought on August 5–17, 1824 off the Greek island of Samos during the Greek War of Independence.

Conon of Samos

Conon of Samos (Greek: Κόνων ὁ Σάμιος, Konōn ho Samios; c. 280 – c. 220 BCE) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician. He is primarily remembered for naming the constellation Coma Berenices.

Greek landing ship Samos (L179)

USS LST-33 was an LST-1-class tank landing ship of the United States Navy built during World War II. She was transferred to the Royal Hellenic Navy on 18 August 1943, before being commissioned into the USN, and was renamed Samos (Σάμος).

Jak and Daxter

Jak and Daxter is a video game franchise created by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin and owned by Sony Computer Entertainment. The series was developed by Naughty Dog with a number of installments being outsourced to Ready at Dawn and High Impact Games. The first game, released on December 3, 2001, was one of the earliest titles for the PlayStation 2, and is regarded as a defining franchise for the console.

The games are considered story-based platformers that feature a mixture of action, racing and puzzle solving. The series is set in a fictional universe that incorporates science fantasy elements, and centers on the eponymous characters as they try to uncover the secrets of their world, and unravel the mysteries left behind by an ancient race of Precursors.

The first three games in the series were re-released on the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Vita as part of a remastered collection that includes support for the PlayStation Network and the PlayStation Suite. The remastered collection was handled by Mass Media Inc. with Naughty Dog assisting with the conversion of the games. The series has also produced various forms of extended media and merchandise, and has sold over 12 million copies worldwide.

On April 3, 2017, PlayStation announced that the original three Jak and Daxter games, along with Jak X: Combat Racing, will be ported to the PlayStation 4. Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy was released on August 22 of the same year, alongside the release of Uncharted: The Lost Legacy. Later on December 6, Jak II, Jak 3 and Jak X: Combat Racing were released.

Lykourgos Logothetis

Lykourgos Logothetis (Greek: Λυκούργος Λογοθέτης, 10 February 1772 – 25 May 1850 (O.S.)), born Georgios Paplomatas, was a Samian who became the island's leader during the Greek War of Independence.

The son of a wealthy shipowner, Logothetis received a good education at Constantinople and then served as an official in the Phanariote administration of Wallachia. His political career experienced great vicissitudes: he served as an elder in his home island, taking the side of the progressive-radical Karmanioloi ("Carmagnoles", named after the French Revolutionary song Carmagnole) and the reactionary Kallikantzaroi ("goblins") who represented mostly the traditional land-holding elites. Under Logothetis, the Karmanioloi ruled Samos from 1807 until the intervention of the Ottoman authorities in 1812, which restored the Kallikantzaroi to power and forced the Karmanioloi to flee the island. During this time of exile he became a member of the Filiki Etaireia, and assumed the conspirational name by which he is better known. On the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence he returned to Samos and was quickly elected the island's political and military leader, founding the "Military-Political System of Samos", which he led until 1833, with the exception of the period 1828–30, when Samos was administered as part of the nascent Greek state. In 1833, through the intervention of the Great Powers, the island returned to Ottoman suzerainty as an autonomous principality, and Logothetis was forced to leave for the independent Kingdom of Greece. There he became involved in politics, and became a senator. He died of heart failure on 25 May 1850.

Melissus of Samos

Melissus of Samos (; Greek: Μέλισσος ὁ Σάμιος; fl. 5th century BC) was the third and last member of the ancient school of Eleatic philosophy, whose other members included Zeno and Parmenides. Little is known about his life, except that he was the commander of the Samian fleet in the Samian War. Melissus’ contribution to philosophy was a treatise of systematic arguments supporting Eleatic philosophy. Like Parmenides, he argued that reality is ungenerated, indestructible, indivisible, changeless, and motionless. In addition, he sought to show that reality is wholly unlimited, and infinitely extended in all directions; and since existence is unlimited, it must also be one.

Military-Political System of Samos

The Military-Political System of Samos (Greek: Στρατοπολιτικόν Σύστημα Σάμου) was a provisional regime that existed in the island of Samos during the Greek War of Independence.

Samos rose up against Ottoman rule on 18 April 1821, under the leadership of Konstantinos Lachanas. In May 1821, the Samiot leader Lykourgos Logothetis formalized the provisional administrative regime of the island, with the promulgation of the "Military-Political Organization of the Island of Samos" (Στρατοπολιτικός Διοργανισμός της Νήσου Σάμου). This constitutional document organized both the executive-legislative and military administration of the island. At the apex of the system was a Governor-General (Γενικός Διοικητής), assisted by three Political Judges (Πολιτικοί Κριτές) who were elected by a General Assembly of the island, composed of the elected ephors of each village, and the Secretary of the Administration (Γραμματεύς του Διοικητηρίου). There were also a Police President, Harbour Masters and Customs officials. The island's military was organized into four chiliarchies, with the Governor-General as the commander-in-chief. Logothetis appointed four of his closest aides as the first chiliarchs, who appointed subordinate pentakosiarchs, and they in turn appointed subordinate hekatontarchs, etc.Nevertheless, the Greek provisional government that emerged from the First National Assembly at Epidaurus attempted to abolish the separate Samian institutions with its law on provincial administration 30 April 1822, and impose an appointed governor, Kyriakos Moralis. This led to a short civil war on the island, with the supporters of the local system winning out. With the exception of a short period in 1828–1830, during the governorship of Ioannis Kapodistrias, when Samos was administered as part of the Province of the Eastern Sporades, the island retained its autonomous political system.

Due to its proximity to the Anatolian shore and its distance from the main centres of the Greek Revolution on the Greek mainland, Samos was particularly vulnerable to Ottoman attack. With the crucial assistance of the Greek revolutionary fleet, the Samians were successful in repelling three Ottoman attempts at recapturing the island, in July 1821, August–September 1824 and July–August 1826. The island, however, was not incorporated into the independent Kingdom of Greece. Instead, the island resumed its separate government until it was transformed into an autonomous tributary principality in 1834.

Principality of Samos

The island of Samos had participated in the Greek War of Independence and had successfully resisted several Turkish and Egyptian attempts to occupy it, but it was not included with the boundaries of the newly independent Kingdom of Greece after 1832. Instead, in 1834 the island was granted self-government as a semi-independent state, the Principality of Samos (Greek: Ἡγεμονία τῆς Σάμου; Turkish: Sisam Beyliği).

Tributary to the Ottoman Empire, paying the annual sum of £2700, it was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince". The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member Senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathy, Chora, Marathokampos, and Karlovasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathy.With the outbreak of the First Balkan War, Themistoklis Sofoulis landed on the island with a group of exiled Samians and swiftly took control: the Ottoman garrison withdrew to Anatolia, and on 11/24 November 1912, the island's parliament officially declared union with Greece. The unification took place officially on 2 March 1913.

Pythagoras

Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570 – c. 495 BC) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend, but he appears to have been the son of Mnesarchus, a seal engraver on the island of Samos. Modern scholars disagree regarding Pythagoras's education and influences, but they do agree that, around 530 BC, he travelled to Croton, where he founded a school in which initiates were sworn to secrecy and lived a communal, ascetic lifestyle. This lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included vegetarianism, although modern scholars doubt that he ever advocated for complete vegetarianism.

The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body. He may have also devised the doctrine of musica universalis, which holds that the planets move according to mathematical equations and thus resonate to produce an inaudible symphony of music. Scholars debate whether Pythagoras developed the numerological and musical teachings attributed to him, or if those teachings were developed by his later followers, particularly Philolaus of Croton. Following Croton's decisive victory over Sybaris in around 510 BC, Pythagoras's followers came into conflict with supporters of democracy and Pythagorean meeting houses were burned. Pythagoras may have been killed during this persecution, or escaped to Metapontum, where he eventually died.

In antiquity, Pythagoras was credited with many mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five regular solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, and the identity of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher ("lover of wisdom") and that he was the first to divide the globe into five climatic zones. Classical historians debate whether Pythagoras made these discoveries, and many of the accomplishments credited to him likely originated earlier or were made by his colleagues or successors. Some accounts mention that the philosophy associated with Pythagoras was related to mathematics and that numbers were important, but it is debated to what extent, if at all, he actually contributed to mathematics or natural philosophy.

Pythagoras influenced Plato, whose dialogues, especially his Timaeus, exhibit Pythagorean teachings. Pythagorean ideas on mathematical perfection also impacted ancient Greek art. His teachings underwent a major revival in the first century BC among Middle Platonists, coinciding with the rise of Neopythagoreanism. Pythagoras continued to be regarded as a great philosopher throughout the Middle Ages and his philosophy had a major impact on scientists such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Isaac Newton. Pythagorean symbolism was used throughout early modern European esotericism and his teachings as portrayed in Ovid's Metamorphoses influenced the modern vegetarian movement.

Samiopoula

Samiopoula (Greek: Σαμιοπούλα) is a Greek islet located on the south of Samos Island and at a distance of .85 km (0.46 nmi). It is under the authority of the regional unit of Samos and the local jurisdiction of the municipal unit of Pythagoreio. The 2001 census reported a population of five inhabitants. The name Samiopoula is a derivative of Samos (in Greek Σάμος) and literally means "small Samos".

Samos (satellite)

The Samos E or SAMOS ("Satellite and Missile Observation System") program was a relatively short-lived series of reconnaissance satellites for the United States in the early 1960s, also used as a cover for the initial development of the KH-7 Gambit system. Reconnaissance was performed with film cameras and television surveillance from polar low Earth orbits with film canister returns and transmittals over the United States. Samos was first launched in 1960 from Vandenberg Air Force Base.

SAMOS was also known by the unclassified terms Program 101 and Program 201.

Samos (theme)

The Theme of Samos (Greek: θέμα Σάμου, thema Samou) was a Byzantine military-civilian province, located in the eastern Aegean Sea, established in the late 9th century. As one of the Byzantine Empire's three dedicated naval themes (Greek: θέματα ναυτικᾶ), it served chiefly to provide ships and troops for the Byzantine navy.

Samos International Airport

Samos International Airport (also known as Aristarchos) (IATA: SMI, ICAO: LGSM) is an airport on Samos Island, Greece.

The airport is named after Aristarchos of Samos, an ancient astronomer and mathematician, and lies within 5 km from the nearby town of Pythagorio. The airport features a single short runway serving both arrivals and departures. The airports surroundings leave little room for error or mistake on the behalf of the pilots – with nearby mountains and sea at the end of the short runway. There are often strong Meltemi winds blowing from the north during the summer months which further contribute to the difficulty of the landing.

There is only one terminal within the airport. There are five boarding gates, none of which have jet-bridges. Passenger facilities are split across two floors and include a duty-free shop and a small café.

Samos Prefecture

Samos Prefecture (Greek: Νομός Σάμου) was a prefecture in Greece, consisting of the islands of Samos, Ikaria and the smaller islands of Fournoi Korseon. In 2011 the prefecture was abolished and the territory is now covered by the regional units of Samos and Ikaria. Its capital was the town of Vathy, on Samos.

Samoš

Samoš (Serbian Cyrillic: Самош) is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the Kovačica municipality, in the South Banat District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority (89.73%) and its population numbering 1,247 people (2002 census).

Tunnel of Eupalinos

The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct (in Greek: Efpalinion orygma - Ευπαλίνιον όρυγμα) is a tunnel of 1,036 m (3,399 ft) length in Samos, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct. The tunnel is the second known tunnel in history which was excavated from both ends (Ancient Greek: αμφίστομον, romanized: amphistomon, "having two openings"), and the first with a geometry-based approach in doing so. Today it is a popular tourist attraction.

Vathy, Samos

Vathy (Greek: Βαθύ, Vathý) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Samos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Samos, of which it is a municipal unit. It is the capital and main town of the island. The municipal unit has an area of 125.153 km2. The municipal unit comprises numerous towns, villages, and settlements, but its two largest are Samos (town) (pop. 6,191 in 2011), and Vathy (pop. 1,888). The town of Samos is the largest on the island, and the heart of its economy based on tourism. Vathy is a sister city of Kuşadası, Turkey since October 28, 1999.

Climate data for Samos Airport, Greece
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
21.4
(70.5)
24.0
(75.2)
28.0
(82.4)
34.4
(93.9)
39.4
(102.9)
43.0
(109.4)
40.6
(105.1)
37.2
(99.0)
31.6
(88.9)
26.0
(78.8)
23.0
(73.4)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
13.7
(56.7)
16.3
(61.3)
19.8
(67.6)
25.1
(77.2)
30.5
(86.9)
33.7
(92.7)
33.6
(92.5)
28.6
(83.5)
23.6
(74.5)
18.8
(65.8)
14.9
(58.8)
22.7
(72.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
10.7
(51.3)
12.8
(55.0)
15.9
(60.6)
20.5
(68.9)
25.8
(78.4)
28.8
(83.8)
28.8
(83.8)
24.4
(75.9)
20.0
(68.0)
15.4
(59.7)
12.2
(54.0)
18.8
(65.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
7.7
(45.9)
9.3
(48.7)
12.1
(53.8)
15.9
(60.6)
21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
20.2
(68.4)
16.5
(61.7)
12.1
(53.8)
9.5
(49.1)
15.0
(59.0)
Record low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.0
(41.0)
7.4
(45.3)
8.8
(47.8)
14.8
(58.6)
16.4
(61.5)
12.2
(54.0)
7.0
(44.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−3.4
(25.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 148.5
(5.85)
102.8
(4.05)
85.9
(3.38)
31.8
(1.25)
15.5
(0.61)
2.7
(0.11)
0.7
(0.03)
1.1
(0.04)
22.7
(0.89)
28.9
(1.14)
110.4
(4.35)
163.7
(6.44)
714.7
(28.14)
Average precipitation days 12.4 10.4 8.6 7.4 4.0 1.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 4.6 9.3 13.7 73.2
Average relative humidity (%) 70.2 68.1 67.5 64.4 59.1 50.5 43.7 46.0 51.6 62.2 68.6 72.6 61.3
Source #1: Hellenic National Meteorological Service (temperature and precipitation days)[7]
Source #2: NOAA (precipitation, and extremes)[8]
Regional unit of Chios
Regional unit of Ikaria
Regional unit of Lemnos
Regional unit of Lesbos
Regional unit of Samos
Subdivisions of the municipality of Samos
Municipal unit of Karlovasi
Municipal unit of Marathokampos
Municipal unit of Pythagoreio
Municipal unit of Vathy
Journeys of Paul the Apostle
First journey
Second journey
Third journey
Former provinces of Greece
Attica
Central Greece
Central Macedonia
Crete
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Epirus
Ionian Islands
North Aegean
Peloponnese
South Aegean
Thessaly
West Greece
Western Macedonia

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.