Sammarinese Fascist Party

The Sammarinese Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Sammarinese) or PFS was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943.[1]

It was founded and led by Giuliano Gozi, a Sammarinese World War I veteran who volunteered in the Royal Italian Army, on 10 August 1922, and was modelled directly on the National Fascist Party of surrounding Italy. Gozi came from a distinguished family and held the posts of foreign minister (in San Marino, the foreign minister leads the cabinet) and interior minister; these two offices gave him control of the military and police. From the beginning, the party used violence and intimidation against opponents such as the Socialists. Its party newspaper was the Il Popolo Sammarinese, modelled after the Il Popolo d'Italia. In terms of policy and ideology, the party was not innovative and stuck closely to Italian Fascism. They pursued industrialization which turned a country of mostly farmers into one of factory workers. They did not adopt Anti-Jewish laws as Italy did in 1938 as the tiny country did not have any visible Jewish community.

In April 1923, Gozi was elected as the first Fascist Captain Regent. After the October elections, both Captains-Regent were Fascists and remained so in subsequent elections for the next two decades as all other political parties were banned in 1926 effectively making San Marino a one-party state. However, independent politicians continued to form a majority in the Grand and General Council until 1932. In addition, the party was split between Gozi's faction and Ezio Balducci's faction, forcing them to look to the Italian party for guidance and mediation.

In 1932, Balducci's faction started a rival newspaper, La Voce del Titano. The next year he was accused of plotting a coup and arrested by Italian authorities after fleeing to Rome. Balducci and other alleged conspirators were purged from the party and tried and sentenced to hard labour in 1934 by a special court but the punishment was never carried out.

Sammarinese Fascist Party

Partito Fascista Sammarinese
LeaderGiuliano Gozi
Founded10 August 1922
Dissolved16 November 1944
HeadquartersCity of San Marino
NewspaperIl Popolo Sammarinese
IdeologyFascism (Italian)
Political positionFar-right

Electoral history

Grand and General Council elections

Grand and General Council
Election Party leader Votes % Seats +/–
1923 Giuliano Gozi 1,437

(as part of the Bloc)

100%
29 / 60
Increase 29
1926 Giuliano Gozi 2,444 100%
60 / 60
Increase 31
1932 Giuliano Gozi 2,573 100%
60 / 60
Steady
1938 Giuliano Gozi 2,916 100%
64 / 64
Increase 4

References

  1. ^ Veenendaal, Wouter (2014). "Political history and democratization of San Marino". Politics and Democracy in Microstates. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781317646570. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
1923 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 4 March 1923 to elect the seventh term of the Grand and General Council. It was a snap election which marked the beginning of the Fascist rule of the republic. Left-wing parties were prevented from participating, while all centre-right forces ran as a single "Patriotic Bloc". Of the 60 seats, 29 were taken by the Sammarinese Fascist Party, 20 by the Sammarinese People's Party, 9 by the Sammarinese Democratic Union and two by the Fascist-puppets Volunteers of War. Later the country was taken over by the Fascist Party.

1926 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 12 December 1926 to elect the eighth term of the Grand and General Council. It was a sham election, all opposition being prevented to participate by internal and Italian threats. After it had taken over the country in April 1923, the Sammarinese Fascist Party was the only party to contest the elections, winning all 60 seats, while the official report spoke of a sole dissident bullet. A new electoral law guaranteed safe undisputed seats to the two incumbent Captains Regents.

1932 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 28 August 1932. After it had risen to power over the country in April 1923, the Sammarinese Fascist Party was the only party to contest the elections, winning all 60 seats.

1938 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 29 May 1938. After it had taken over the country in April 1923, the Sammarinese Fascist Party was the only party to contest the elections, winning all 60 seats.

1943 Sammarinese general election

General elections were held in San Marino on 5 September 1943. After the former ruling party, the Sammarinese Fascist Party had been dissolved on 28 July, the "Lista Unica" was formed by a coalition of all political parties. It won all 60 seats.

Arengo

The Arengo was the name of the assembly that ruled San Marino from the fifth century C.E. to 1243. It was made up of the heads of San Marino's Great families and had no leader or fixed meeting place. This made San Marino almost unique in the period as a state that had no Head of State. However this form of rule was cumbersome and the Arengo was crippled by feuds between the Great Families. By the early 13th century the Arengo had become so dysfunctional that the citizens of San Marino decided to elect their own assembly, which they called the Grand and General Council. This assembly became very powerful, and by 1243 the Pope, who was the nominal ruler of San Marino, made the Grand and General Council the supreme body of San Marino.

Elections in San Marino

Elections in San Marino gives information on election and election results in San Marino.

San Marino elects on national level a legislature. The Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) has 60 members, elected for a five-year term by semi-proportional representation with national majority bonus (the winning coalition receives at least 35 seats on 60).

San Marino has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

The first elections were held in March 1906 after the Arengo held on the same year that established democracy in the country. Between 1926 and 1943, the Sammarinese Fascist Party takes the power and the rest of parties are banned. Democracy is restored in 1945.

Since early 2008, there is an electoral threshold of 3.5%. Since 2016, if none of the coalitions achieves an absolute majority of seats, a runoff between the two largest coalitions is held.

Giuliano Gozi

Giuliano Gozi (7 August 1894 – 18 January 1955) was Captain-Regent of San Marino 5 times between April 1923 and April 1942. He also served as foreign minister from 1917 until 1943.

When Italy entered World War I in 1915, he joined the Royal Italian Army, and rose to the rank of lieutenant. He was a recipient of the Gold Medal of Military Valor.

As founder and leader of the Sammarinese Fascist Party (the only legal party), he was the de facto leader of the country from the early 1920s until the end of World War II, when he retired from politics.A previous Giuliano Gozi was also Captain Regent of San Marino for the following dates:

Apr - Oct 1768

Oct 1771 - Apr 1772

Apr - Oct 1775

Apr - Oct 1779

Oct 1783 - Apr 1784

Oct 1786 - Oct 1787 (two consecutive terms)

Apr - Oct 1792

Apr - Oct 1796

Grand and General Council

The Grand and General Council (Italian: Consiglio Grande e Generale) is the parliament of San Marino. The council has 60 members elected for a five-year term.

History of San Marino

As the only surviving medieval microstate in the Italian peninsula, the history of San Marino is intertwined with medieval, renaissance and modern-day history of the Italian peninsula, beginning with independence from the Roman Empire on 257 AD (Diocletian kingdom).

Like Andorra, Vatican City , Liechtenstein and Monaco, it is one of the sole surviving examples of the typical medieval city-states of Germany, Italy and Pyrenees.

List of fascist movements by country

This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of fascist movements by country A–F

List of fascist movements by country G–M

List of fascist movements by country N–T

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

List of fascist movements by country N–T

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

List of newspapers in San Marino

Below is a list of newspapers published in San Marino.

List of political parties in San Marino

San Marino has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Patriotic Bloc (San Marino)

The Patriotic Bloc was a centre-rightist coalition of parties which ran undisputed the Sammarinese election of 1923.

The Bloc was dominated by the Sammarinese Fascist Party, and was also composed by the Sammarinese People's Party, the Sammarinese Democratic Union, and the Fascist-puppets Volunteers of War. Italian Fascists' threads prevented any opposition presence, so the Bloc won all the seats to the Grand and General Council. By this means the Fascists took over the country in 1926, with Italy becoming a one-party state.

S.P. Tre Penne

S.P. Tre Penne is a football club based in the City of San Marino. The club was founded in 1956, and currently plays in Girone B of Campionato Sammarinese di Calcio. The team colors were blue and white when home, and red when away. Later on the team color was changed to green.

On 9 July 2013, Tre Penne became the first Sammarinese team to win a game in a European competition by defeating Shirak 1–0 in the second leg of their 2013–14 UEFA Champions League first qualifying round contest.

Sammarinese Democratic Union

The Sammarinese Democratic Union was a conservative political movement in San Marino and a counterpart of the liberal coalition which ruled Italy before the fascist era.

Sammarinese People's Party

The Sammarinese People's Party (PPS) was a Christian democratic political party in San Marino, forerunner of the current Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, and counterpart of the Italian People's Party.

San Marino

San Marino ( (listen), Italian: [sam maˈriːno]), officially the Republic of San Marino (Italian: Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved small-sized country, surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest settlement is Dogana in the municipality of Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe. With Italian being the official language, along with strong financial and ethno-cultural connections, San Marino maintains close ties to its much larger neighbour; it is located close to the riviera of Rimini, one of Italy's main coastal resort areas.

The country derives its name literally from Saint Marinus, a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In AD 257, Marinus, according to legend, participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in AD 301; thus, San Marino lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.San Marino is governed by the Constitution of San Marino (Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini), a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, that dictate the country's political system, among other matters. The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents, or constitution, still in effect.The country's economy mainly relies on finance, industry, services and tourism. It is among one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita), with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus, and has the world's highest rate of car ownership, being the only country with more vehicles than people.

San Marino is one of the only three countries in the world to be completely surrounded by a single other country (the others being Vatican City, also surrounded by Italy, and Lesotho). It is the third smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller. It is also the fifth smallest country in the world.

History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Culture

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