Sambalpur (Sambalpur ) is a Municipal Corporation and located in the western part of Odisha, and is one of the largest and oldest cities in the state. It is the headquarters of Northern Revenue Division, Mahanadi Coalfield Limited (MCL) and one of the railway division from East Coast Railway zone. It is situated about 300 km (190 mi) west of the state capital Bhubaneswar, 550 km (340 mi) west of Kolkata in West Bengal and 278 km (173 mi) east of Raipur in Chhattisgarh. It is on the bank of the Mahanadi River.

From top left to right: Budharaja Temple, Hirakud Reservoir, Gandhi Temple, Sitalsasthi Carnival, Samaleswari Temple
From top left to right: Budharaja Temple, Hirakud Reservoir, Gandhi Temple, Sitalsasthi Carnival, Samaleswari Temple
City of Culture, Handloom City, City of Textiles, Diamond city of India
Sambalpur is located in Odisha
Location in Orissa, India
Sambalpur is located in India
Sambalpur (India)
Coordinates: 21°28′N 83°58′E / 21.47°N 83.97°ECoordinates: 21°28′N 83°58′E / 21.47°N 83.97°E
Country India
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodySambalpur Municipal Corporation
 • Total303 km2 (117 sq mi)
135 m (443 ft)
 • Total335,761
 • Rank134th
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
 • OfficialOdia, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0663
Vehicle registrationOD-15


Sambalpur is the Western Odisha region's administrative, commercial and educational hub. The city contains many famous temples, historic buildings and parks. Sambalpur is famous for premier educational institutes like Sambalpur University, Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (VIMSAR), Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT), Gangadhar Meher University, Indian Institute of Management Sambalpur and Odisha State Open University (OSOU). Hirakud Dam, the longest earthen dam in the world and the largest artificial lake of Asia, is at Hirakud.[1]

After the independence of India, many commercial and government establishments sprung up in and around Sambalpur. Sambalpur is one of the major railway junctions in Odisha with the headquarters of Sambalpur Railway Division under the East Coast Railway Zone of Indian Railways. National Highway 53, National Highway 55 pass through the City and State Highway 10 & 15 originate from the city.[2]

Sambalpur is also the headquarter of Mahanadi Coalfields Limited[3] since 1992, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited.


Maa Samalei, the reigning deity, from which the city of Sambalpur derives its name

Sambalpur derives its name from the Goddess Samalei (Odia: ସମଲେଇ ମାଁ), who is regarded as the reigning deity of the region.[4][5] The region in which Sambalpur city is located was also known as Hirakhanda[6] from ancient times. In history, it has also been known as "Sambalaka". Claudius Ptolemy described the place as "Sambalak".[7]


Sambalpur Fort
Sambalpur in 1825, watercolour of the fort at Sambalpur, by an anonymous artist for the Gilbert Collection, c. British Library[8]

The history of Sambalpur, as depicted by eminent historians, is full of events including the Indian freedom struggle, representing the different sections of society. Sambalpur is one of the ancient places of India, which survived even in the prehistoric age and holds a very important place in the history of Odisha and India.

Statue of Veer Surendra Sai
Statue of Veer Surendra Sai at Jail Chhak

Sambalpur came under the Bhonsle of Nagpur when the Maratha conquered Sambalpur in 1800. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817, the British Government returned Sambalpur to the Chauhan king, Jayant Singh, but his authority over the other princely states was taken out.[9]

In January 1896, Hindi was made official language of Sambalpur, by abolishing Odia language, which after violent protests by people was reinstated again.[10] During the partition of Bengal in 1905 Sambalpur and the adjacent Odia-speaking tracts were amalgamated with the Odisha Division under Bengal Presidency. Bengal's Odisha division became part of the new province of Bihar and Odisha in 1912, and in April 1936 became the separate province of Odisha, with addition of Undivided Ganjam and Koraput districts from Madras Presidency.[11] After Indian Independence on 15 August 1947, Odisha became an Indian state. The rulers of the princely states of Western Odisha acceded to the Government of India in January 1948 and became part of Odisha state.

From 1825 to 1827, Lieutenant Colonel Gilbert (1785–1853), later Lieutenant General Sir Walter Gilbert, 1st Baronet, G.C.B., was the political agent for the South West Frontier with headquarters at Sambalpur. He made a few paintings during his stay at Sambalpur by an unknown artist which are currently with the British Library and Victoria and Albert Museum.[12]

Vajrayana Buddhism

Although it is generally accepted that Tantric Buddhism first developed in the country of Uddiyana or Odra Desha under King Indrabhuti, there is an old and well known scholarly dispute as to whether Uddiyana or Odra was in the Swat valley, Odisha or some other place.

Indrabhuti, the oldest known king of Sambalpur, founded Vajrayana, while his sister, who was married to Yuvaraja Jalendra of Lankapuri (Suvarnapur), founded Sahajayana. These new Tantric cults of Buddhism introduced the mantra, mudra and mandala along with six Tantric Abhicharas (practices) such as Marana, Stambhana, Sammohana, Vidvesan, Uchchatana and Vajikarana. The Tantric Buddhist sects made efforts to raise the dignity of the lowest of the low of the society to a higher plane. It revived primitive beliefs and practices a simpler and less formal approach to the personal god, a liberal and respectful attitude towards women and denial of caste system.[13]

From the seventh century A.D. onwards, many popular religious elements of heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism which finally resulted in the origin of Vajrayana, Kalachakrayana and Sahajayana Tantric Buddhism. Tantric Buddhism first developed in Uddiyana, a country which was divided into two kingdoms, Sambhala and Lankapuri. Sambhala has been identified with Sambalpur and Lankapuri with Subarnapura (Sonepur).[14]

Kalki avatar and Sambalpur

Kalachakra tantra was first taught by the Buddha to King Indrabhuti, the first dharmaraja of Shambhala.[15] It is widely believed that the next Hindu avatar known as Kalki will be born at Sambalpur or Shambhala, as this place was known in olden times. There are several mentions of the place Shambhala in different Hindu and Buddhist religious texts as the birthplace of Kalki. The Mahabharatra (Vana Parva, 190.93-97) and Srimad-Bhagavatam Bhag.12.2.18 give reference of Shambhala as the birthplace.[16]

Geography and climate

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [17]
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Sambalpur is located at 21°.27' North Latitude and 83°.58' East Longitude. The average elevation is 150.75 metres (494.6 ft) above the mean sea level. Sambalpur falls under the Zone-3 seismic number, which shows the possibility of an earthquake.[18]

Sambalpur lies on the bank of the river Mahanadi. The river flows to the west of the city and separates Burla from Sambalpur and Hirakud. The Hirakud Dam lies upstream of Sambalpur. Budharaja is a small reserve forest located within the city. Sambalpur experiences an extreme type of climate with hot and dry summers followed by humid monsoons and cold winters. The hot season commences from the first week of March and lasts until the second half of June. In May, the temperature rises to 47 °C (117 °F). In December, the temperature comes down to 5 °C (41 °F).[19] Sambalpur gets rainfall from the south western monsoon. The most pleasant months in Sambalpur are from October to February, during which time the humidity and heat are at their lowest. During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 30 °C (86 °F) and drop to about 20 °C (68 °F) at night. This season is followed by a hot summer, from March to May. The summer gives way to the monsoon season. Since 1982 as per the data available with District Emergency section, Sambalpur, there has not been a single occurrence of cyclone in Sambalpur. There are possibilities of strong winds with the speed of 53 km/h (33 mph) before the onset of monsoon.[18] The relative humidity is high during the rainy season, generally being over 75%. After the rainy season the humidity gradually decreases and the weather becomes dry towards the winter. The best time to visit Sambalpur is between September to March. The heaviest ever recorded rainfall was 581.9 mm (22.91 in) in Sambalpur in 1982, which was the highest ever in Odisha until September 2010.[20] The areas of the Sambalpur town on Mahanadi river sides/low-lying areas are prone to flooding.[18]

Climate data for Sambalpur, Odisha (Normals: 1901-2000, Records: 1889-2009)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
Average high °C (°F) 27.6
Average low °C (°F) 12.6
Record low °C (°F) 3.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.2
Source: India Meteorological Department[21][22]



View from fatak over-bridge towards church
Commuters coming back after office hours, Fatak.

Sambalpur has a well networked transport facility for commercial and public transportation. It is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by national highway - NH 53/Ecconomic Corridor 1 (EC1), which is a part of Asian Highway-AH46 (Mumbai-Kolkata Highway). NH 55 connects with Cuttack and Bhubaneswar, State Highway 15 connects with Sonepur, State Highway 10 (SH10) connects with Jharsuguda and Rourkela and the new Biju Expressway (under construction) will connect Rourkela-Sambalpur-Jagdalpur.[23]


Sambalpur is one of the three railway divisions under East Coast Railway zone of Indian Railways. Sambalpur (SBP) is a major railway station in Odisha and headquarters of Sambalpur railway division.This railway station is the cleanest railway station of East Coast Railway declared by Indian Railway. There are four other railway stations serving Sambalpur, viz. Sambalpur City Railway Station(SBPY), Sambalpur Road Railway Station(SBPD), Hirakud (HKG), across the Mahanadi and Maneswar Railway Station(MANE).


The nearest airports are Jharsuguda Airport, Jharsuguda (62 km, 39 mi) and Swami Vivekananda Airport, Raipur (262 km, 163 mi) and Biju Patnaik International Airport, Bhubaneswar (325 km, 202 mi).


Historical population
1891 14,571—    
1901 12,870−11.7%
1941 17,079+32.7%
1950 23,525+37.7%
1961 38,915+65.4%
1971 64,675+66.2%
1981 110,283+70.5%
1991 189,611+71.9%
2001 226,469+19.4%
2011 269,565+19.0%
1891 to 1981 data of Sambalpur Municipality; from 1991 onwards the data presented is of Sambalpur Metropolitan Area


Sambalpur city is governed by a Municipality which comes under Sambalpur Metropolitan Area. As of 2011 India census,[25] Although Sambalpur city has a population of 183,383, its urban / metropolitan population is 269,575, of whom 138,826 are males and 130,749 are females;[26] this includes Burla and Hirakud. Sambalpur has an average literacy rate of 85.69%; which male literacy is 90.30 and female literacy is 80.92 percent. The sex ratio is 942 and the child sex ratio is 882. The total children (0-6) in Sambalpur city were 18,555 as per the Census India report of 2011. There were 9,857 boys while 8,698 were girls.

Sambalpur is very ethnically diverse, with about 14 communities including Brahmin, Teli (oil extractors), Gouda (milkmen), Guria (maker of sweets), Agaria (industrious cultivators), Sunari (goldsmith), Kultas (cultivators), Kewat (boatmen and fisherman), Dhobi (washermen), Bhuliya (weaver), Bhandari (barber), Kamar (blacksmith) Ganda (pipers and drummers) and Muslims, Sikhs and Christians cohabiting together.[27]


A coal laden goods train at Sambalpur Road

The economy of Sambalpur is basically dependent on trade. Most of the residents are either salaried or self-employed. Forest products play an important role in the economy in terms of contribution to revenue and domestic product. Kendu leaf, Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony (Diospyros melanoxylon) also forms part of the local economy, with many bidi manufacturing units functioning in Sambalpur.[28]

Gole Bazaar is the main merchandising area of the city. It is famous for handloom and other textile products.[29][30] Other merchandising areas are Khetrajpur, Fatak, V.S.S. marg, Budharaja and farm road. Jewellery shopping hotspots in Sambalpur include Baidyanath Chowk and Dhanupali where one can find shops like Alankar Jewellers (Dhanupali).[31] and Banka Jewellers.

Mahanadi Coalfields Limited, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited located at Sambalpur, produced 100.28 million tonnes (98.70 million long tons; 110.54 million short tons) of coal and had a profit before tax during 2010–2011 at Rs 4039.30 crore.[32] Hirakud, in the vicinity of Sambalpur, was conceptualized as an industrial town by the erstwhile Chief Minister of Odisha, Biju Patnaik. On completion of the Hirakud Dam, power intensive industries such as aluminium smelters, cable manufacturing, steel re-rolling mills etc. established their presence in Hirakud. In the 1970s, Hirakud was a major industrial centre of Odisha, perhaps next only to Rourkela. At this point in time however, the main functional unit at Hirakud is the aluminium smelter of Hindalco and its associated units. The smelter set up by Indal in 1959 at Hirakud and later acquired by Hindalco, was the country’s second aluminium smelter operating on grid power sourced from the hydro power station of the Hirakud Dam.[1] It was the first in India to adopt clean coal combustion technology that uses a circulating fluidised bed, which is considered environmentally friendly.[1] Currently the smelter has a capacity of 213,000 tonnes per year (210,000 long tons per year; 235,000 short tons per year), and provides employment to around 1700 persons.[1]


Sambalpur univ
Sambalpur University

The pre-collegiate medium of instruction in schools is predominantly English and Odia. The medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation in colleges is English. Other media of instruction also exist in Sambalpur. Schools and colleges in Sambalpur are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Orissa State Board under BSE or CHSE, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE). After completing 10 years of schooling in secondary education, students enroll in higher secondary school, specialising in one of the three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science.

Since the 2000s, there have been a large number of professional institutions established in a variety of fields. The earliest schools established in Sambalpur were the CSB Zilla School (1852) and the Lady Lewis Girls High School (1942).[33] VSS Medical College was established in 1959 and VSSUT in 1956. High School for Blind (1972) and High School for Deaf and Dumb (1972), Burla are Govt. educational institutions imparting education to physically challenged children.[33]

Sambalpur Football Academy
Sambalpur Football Academy

Sambalpur Kala Parishad is the pioneering organisation for the promotion of Sambalpuri dance, and has been responsible for the revolutionary growth of this dance.[27] It imparts education and training on this form of dance.

Educational institutions in the city include Gangadhar Meher University,[34] Women's College, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose College, Lala Lajpat Rai Law College, Silicon Institute of Technology, Sambalpur, Delhi Public School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, St. Joseph's Convent Higher Secondary School (SJC-SBP), Gurunanak Public School, Madnawati Public School (MPS), Indian Public School (IPS), St. John's School, Seven Hills Residential School (SHRS), Sri Aurobindo School (SAIIE&R) and DAV Public School. IT education (computer education) facilities are provided by SCAT Corporation and it has multiple branches with named SCAT|Learning.[35] A new Indian Institute of Management, Sambalpur (IIM) has been set up in the city. The Sambalpur chapter of the Institute of Cost Accountants of India[36] was set up from 2010 at Deheripali, near Fatak, Sambalpur, Odisha.[37]


Sambalpur Lok Mahotsav

Lok Mahostav
Sambalpur Lok Mahostav

A cultural manifestation of the hidden age-old traditional performing art of a vast geographical area is possible through this annual celebration of the festival called Lok Mahotsav. This festival is a reflection of the socio- anthropological evolution of the people of India. Lok Mahotsav shows the integrity and unison of the heritage, culture, music and lifestyle of Western Odisha. Live performances of folk music and dance from all parts of India are shown under one splendid stage.[38]

Sitalsasthi Carnival

This is the marriage ceremony of the god Siva and goddess Parvati. Sitalsasthi is a carnival of folk dance and music along with decorated stands of gods and goddesses. People from all walks of life participate in large numbers in the carnival. Artists from different states of India take part in the carnival making it a colourful extravaganza.[39]


The Pataneswari temple of Sambalpur was built by Balaram Dev, the first Chauhan ruler of Sambalpur in the last part of the 16th century. It consists of a sanctum with an enclosed circular count. The Pataneswari Deity is the temple of the goddess Kali.[40]

The Samaleswari temple in the town represents the finest Chauhan style of circumvallation around the sanctum.[41] The image of Samalei is a unique sculpture and appears to be a primitive deity worshipped by the local people. However, Samalei or Samaleswari is the tutelary deity of Chauhan dynasty of this area (Pasayat, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2008).


The world-famous Hirakud Dam, built in 1956 across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km (9.3 mi) from Sambalpur, is a major tourist attraction. It is one of the longest dams in the world, about 26 km (16 mi) in length. It also forms the biggest artificial lake in Asia, with a reservoir covering 743 km2 (287 sq mi) at full capacity with a shoreline of over 640 km (400 mi).[42] It also attracts a large number of migratory birds in winter.

The Leaning Temple of Huma, located about 25 km (16 mi) from Sambalpur, built in the 17th century, leans at an angle of approximately 47 degrees to the west. (Pasayat, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008).[43] It is one of a kind in India.

Samaleswari Temple is the main temple of the goddess Samaleswari, located on the banks of river the Mahanadi. Sambalpur owes its name to her.[44]

Chiplima[45] (Chipilima Hydro Electric Project (CHEP)) located about 37 km (23 mi) from Sambalpur, is known for a natural fall (24.38 m (80.0 ft) in height) harnessed for generating electricity. It is an ideal picnic spot and famous for Ghanteswari Temple, the presiding deity of the place. This temple played an important role for river navigation in the past.[45]

Lost temples of Hirakud Dam

These are remnants of temples submerged after the dam was completed in 1957. In summer, due to the receding water of the dam, the structures become visible. These hidden treasures have finally caught the attention of historians and steps are being taken to understand the historical significance of these temples which periodically go under water, only to resurface again. Many temples have been destroyed after 58 years of underwater existence. However, some remain intact.[46][47]

Interest in these lost temples has been rekindled after two stones, etched with writing ('Shila Lekha'), were recovered from what is believed to be the Padmaseni temple of the submerged Padmapur village.[48] The temples located inside the reservoir area were part of the then Padmapur, one of the oldest and most populous villages in the region prior to the dam construction.[46] More than 200 temples were submerged by the dam; nearly 150 temples have either perished or are underwater and about 50 are visible during summer. These lost temples present excellent opportunities for scuba diving enthusiasts to explore under the Hirakud Dam. These temple are visible to visitors on boats only during the summer months of May and June.


Sambalpur is part of Sambalpur (Lok Sabha constituency).[49] Sitting MP from Sambalpur is Mr Nagendra Kumar Pradhan.[50] The current MLA from Sambalpur Assembly Constituency is Dr Raseswari Panigrahi of BJD. She is the sister of Late Sriballav Panigrahi who was a former Minister, Parliamentarian and legislator from Western Odisha. Previous MLAs from this seat were Jayanarayan Mishra; Durgashankar Pattanaik of INC, who won this seat in 1995 and 1990; Sraddhakar Supakar of INC in 1985; Ashwini Kumar Guru of INC (I) in 1980; and Late Dr. Jhasaketan Sahu of JNP in 1977. Sriballav Panigrahi of Indian National Congress represented Sambalpur in the Odisha Lesgislative Assembly in 1971 and 1973.[51]

Demand for a separate Kosal State

The demand for a separate State of Kosal is more than two decades old.[52] A regional political party, Kosal Kranti Dal, has been very active with this demand of a separate state and is the only political party to date supporting this demand.[53]

See also


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  2. ^ "Chapter-III: Coal Companies". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  3. ^ "(dead link)". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  4. ^ "Maa Samaleswari Temple". Kosal. Archived from the original on 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  5. ^ "Sambalpur – Jharsuguda, a new destination for industrial development in Odisha. | Sambalpur News". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  6. ^ Hotel The Grand SIBA, Sambalpur Archived 5 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  8. ^ Sambalpur Archived 2011-02-26 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  9. ^ Untitled-13. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  11. ^ "Prints & drawings collection summary". India Office Select Materials. Archived from the original on 3 September 2008.
  12. ^ Bargarh District Archived 2011-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  14. ^ Shambhala Times Community News Magazine » Recapping the Rinchen Terdzo in Odisha, India. (2009-03-23). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  15. ^ Kalki The Next Avatar of God. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
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  17. ^ a b c Microsoft Word – final report sambalpur 8 Dec.doc. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  18. ^ "District Rainfall (mm.) For Last Five Years". Hydromet Division, India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010.
  19. ^ Microsoft Word – envis-newsletter-2005.doc Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  20. ^ "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall upto 2010" (PDF). Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
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  26. ^ a b Prafulla Kumar Mohapatra (2011-05-21). "Dancing the Sambalpuri way". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  27. ^ Kendu Leaf Trade: An Eco-Friendlyway of Sustenance Archived 20 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  28. ^ "Sambalpur Shopping - Shopping in Sambalpur, Shopping in Sambhalpur Orissa". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  29. ^ "Sambalpur Tourist Attractions | PlanetWare". Archived from the original on 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  30. ^ Alankar Jewellers
  31. ^ "Annual Report & Accounts 2010–2011 Mahanadi Coalfields Limited" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  32. ^ a b "Welcome To Our Website : RTI Central Monitoring Mechanism by Govt. of Orissa [RTI CMM v2.1]". Archived from the original on 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-29. Retrieved 2009-10-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-05. Retrieved 2014-08-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  37. ^ "Lok Mahotasav - 2012". Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
  38. ^ "The Famous Sital Sasthi Yatra". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
  39. ^ Indira Gandhi National Centre For The Arts Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
  40. ^ Indira Gandhi National Centre For The Arts Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  42. ^ Orissa Tourism – Huma, The Leaning Temple Of Lord Shiva Archived 10 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  45. ^ a b "Temples resurface in Hirakud bed". The Times of India. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  46. ^ "Hirakud | Kosal Discussion and Development Forum". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  47. ^ "Ancient rock edicts discovered in Odisha -". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  48. ^ "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies of Odisha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
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  50. ^ "State Elections 2004 – Partywise Comparison for 128-Sambalpur Constituency of Odisha". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
  51. ^ Odisha's turn: Thousands stage rally for Kosal state – India News – IBNLive. (2010-02-03). Retrieved on 2011-01-20.
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  • Panda, S. S. and C. Pasayat (Eds.) (2009), Veer Surendra Sai, Sambalpur: Anusheelan.
  • Pasayat, C. and P. K. Singh (Eds.) (2009), Veer Surendra Sai, Bhubaneswar: Paschim Odisha Agrani Sangathan.
  • Pasayat, C. (Ed.) (2008), Paschim Odisara Lokageeta (in Oriya), Bhubaneswar: Folklore Foundation.
  • Pasayat, C. (2008), Oral Tradition, Society and History, New Delhi: Mohit Publications
  • Pasayat, C. (2007), Tribe, Caste and Society, New Delhi: Mohit Publications.
  • Pasayat, C. (2007), History of Tribal Society and Culture, New Delhi: Zenith Books International.
  • Pasayat, C. (Ed.) (2007), Adivasi Moukhika Sahitya Parampara (in Oriya), Kolkata: Sahitya Akademi.
  • Pasayat, C. (2007), "State Formation and Culture Assimilation in Medieval Odisha: The Case of a Tribal Deity in Sambalpur" in Utkal Historical Research Journal, Vol. XX, pp. 71–83.
  • Pasayat, C. (2005), "Oral Narrative and Hindu Method of Assimilation: A Case of Marjarakesari in Narsinghnath" in The Odisha Historical Research Journal, Vol. XLVIII, No.1, pp. 12–25.
  • Pasayat, C. (2004), "Oral Tradition of Huma and Legitimisation of Chauhan Rule", The Odisha Historical Research Journal, Vol. XLVII, No.2, pp. 90–96.
  • Pasayat, C. (2004), "The Hindu Mode of Tribal Absorption and the State Formation during Medieval Period in Sambalpur", The Odisha Historical Research Journal, Vol. XLVII, No.3, pp. 83–89.
  • Pasayat, C. (2003), Glimpses of Tribal and Folkculture, New Delhi: Anmol Pub. Pvt. Ltd.

External links

Burla, India

Burla is a locality in Sambalpur city in the state of Odisha, India. It earlier had a Notified Area Council (NAC) until 2014 after which it was included in Sambalpur city under Sambalpur Municipal Corporation (SMC). It was earlier a small town on the banks of Mahanadi. One can reach this place by road with National Highway 6 which is one of the busiest trunk routes in India as it connects Hazira to Kolkata. Hirakud Railway Station is at one end of the town and a walking distance from the Mahanadi Coal Limited (MCL).

City Centre Mall, Sambalpur

City Centre Mall is a five-storied shopping mall complex located at Sambalpur in the state of Odisha, India. The shopping destination is spread over a floor area of a hundred thousand square feet. Publicly opened in 2012, the mall is the largest mall in Sambalpur and Western Odisha. The mall is developed and maintained by the Sambalpur Municipal Corporation.

It contains approximately fifty outlets, including cafeterias, food courts, restaurants, multiplex, parking space and a hypermarket.

Gangadhar Meher University

Gangadhar Meher University, formerly Sambalpur College and Gangadhar Meher College, is a state university situated in Sambalpur, Odisha, India. It is named after the illustrious Odia poet, Gangadhar Meher.

Ghanteswari Temple

Maa Ghanteshwari temple is a temple located in Chiplima which is 30 km from Sambalpur city via NH 6 in Orissa, India as of now. A bridge is under construction at Mundoghat a strategically important place between Sambalpur and Chiplima expected to fully functional till the last of 2018. It will reduce the distance between Maa Ghanteswari Temple and Sambalpur to half. As the name suggests there are bells everywhere. People offer bells to goddess Ghanteswari or the Deity of Bells, after fulfillment of their wishes. A large number of pilgrims from across the state visit the temple. It is known as the 'lighthouse without light', built by the early sailors, for whom the bells served as warning against heavy winds. The special significance of this place lies in the great number of small bells hanging all around.

Maa Ghanteshwari Temple is situated 33 kilometres (21 mi) southwest of the district capital Sambalpur on the bank of Mahanadi River. The Chipilima Hydro Powerplant (CHEP) is located near the temple on the same river bank.

Hirakud Airstrip

Sambalpur Airport (IATA: VEHK) , is located 12 kilometres north of Sambalpur in western Odisha, India.

Hirakud Dam

Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Sambalpur in the state of Odisha in India. Behind the dam extends a lake, Hirakud Reservoir, 55 km (34 mi) long. It is one of the first major multipurpose river valley projects started after India's independence.

Indian Institute of Management Sambalpur

Indian Institute of Management Sambalpur (IIM-SBP) is a public management School located in Sambalpur, Odisha, India.

Jharsuguda–Vizianagaram line

The Jharsuguda–Vizianagaram line is a railway line in eastern India. It connects Jharsuguda, on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line, and Titlagarh, which in turn is connected with Vizianagaram, on the Howrah-Chennai main line, and Raipur, on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line. There are several branch lines, like the one connecting Rayagada with Koraput on the Kothavalasa-Kirandul line. The line traverses western Odisha and connects the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line with the Howrah-Chennai main line. It covers small portions of Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.


Kuchinda is a town and a notified area council in Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is located about 80 kilometres from the district headquarters of Sambalpur and about 48 km away from Jharsuguda.

Leaning Temple of Huma

The Leaning Temple of Huma in India is one of only two leaning temples in the world. It is located in Huma, a village situated on the bank of the Mahanadi, 23 km south of Sambalpur in the Indian state of Odisha. The temple is dedicated to the Hindu god Lord Bimaleshwar.

It is not known if this structure is leaning by design or from another reason. While the edifice leans, the pinnacle of the temple is perpendicular to the ground.

List of districts of Odisha

Odisha, a state on the eastern coast of India, is divided into 30 administrative geographical units called districts. These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are Central, North and South with their headquarters at Cuttack (Central Division), Sambalpur (Northern Division), Berhampur (Southern Division) respectively. Each division consists of 10 districts, and has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner (RDC), a senior rank officer of Indian Administrative Service. The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is that between that of the district administration and the state secretariat. Each District is governed by a Collector & District Magistrate, who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service. The Collector & District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector & Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The Sub-Divisions are further divided into Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar. Odisha has 03 Divisions, 30 Districts, 58 Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks.

National Highway 55 (India)

National Highway 55 (Previously NH42) is a National Highway in India connecting Sambalpur and Cuttack in Indian state of Odisha.Starting from NH 53 in Sambalpur, it terminates at Naugaon, in Jagatsinghpur District. it is also known as Cuttack - Sambalpur Highway

National Highway 6 (India, old numbering)

National Highway 6 & Ecconomic Corridor 1 (EC1) (commonly referred to as NH6), was a National Highway in India that has been separately designated under the new national highway numbering system. It was officially listed as running over 1,949 km (1,211 mi)from Surat to Kolkata. The route was also known as Asian Highway 46 (AH46) & Mumbai - Kolkata Highway , and Great Eastern Highway.

NH6 ran through Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand and West Bengal state in India. The highway passed through the cities of Surat, Dhule, Jalgaon, Bhusaval, Akola, Amravati, Nagpur, Bhandara, Rajnandgaon, Durg, Raipur, Mahasamund, Sambalpur, Kharagpur, Kolkata.

Samaleswari Temple

Samaleswari Temple is a Hindu temple in Sambalpur, Western Odisha, India dedicated to the goddess known as 'Maa', also known among the natives as samalei maa, meaning MotherSamaleswari. Shree Shree Samaleswari, the presiding deity of Sambalpur, is a strong religious force in western part of Odisha and Chhattisgarh state of India. On the bank of the river Mahanadi the mother goddess Samaleswari is worshipped from ancient times as Jagatjanani, Adishakti, Mahalaxmi and Mahasaraswati. The region in which the temple is situated has a rich cultural heritage. Sambalpur region is popularly known as Hirakhanda from ancient times. Ptolemy has described the place as Sambalak, according to Tavernir, the French traveller, and Edward Gibbon, the English historian, diamonds were exported to Rome from Sambalpur.

The temple is of Sandhara order( These types of the temples have a square sanctum enclosed by a gallery of pillars meant for Pradakshina). Thus, the Sandhara temples have a Pradakshinapatha is built of a kind of stone durable as granite, cemented with lime mortar, the whole building is plastered, but in the course of time the surface has become mouldy. The temple comprises two separate structures. The square sanctum sanctorum enshrining the deity is four step below the 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) covered circumambulation, which is supported by 12 stone pillars. Eleven parswa devis (side Goddess), are embedded on the outer wall of the sanctum, so that the devotees can worship those deities during parikarma through the vaulted circumambulation. The Idol of Shree Shree Samalai Devi consists of a large block of Granite rock with an inverted, trunk like projection at the bottom. A shallow cut on her "Baraha" like face symbolises her mouth. Traditional Sambalpuri nose ornament of pure gold hangs down from her imaginary nose Beaten gold leave fixed on two disproportionate golden eye like depression on the face acts as substitute for her eyes in an attempt to define the face of the mother deity on a mass of self shaped rock, the devi’s idol inspires sublime sentiments of awe, fear, reverence, devotion, love and affection towards all-pervading motherhood.

She is worshiped with a great care and devotion by the natives in her temple, famously known as the samaleswari temple. Among the varieties of festivals observed before the goddess throughout the year three festivals are observed prominently. The first two are navaratra puja during the months of March and April and during the months of September and October. Among these two navaratra pujas (nine days continuous worship of the goddess) the second one is observed with a great splendour and devotion. The third festival which is said to be the chief festival of the whole western Orissa (sambalpur ) region is nuakhai. In this festival the farmers offer the first produce from their lands to the goddess before using it for his personal use.

Sambalpur Junction railway station

Sambalpur Railway Station serves Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is a major railway junction in Odisha and headquarters of Sambalpur railway division.This railway station is the cleanest railway station of East Coast Railway declared by Indian Railway . There are four other railway stations serving Sambalpur, viz. Sambalpur Road Railway Station(SBPD), Sambalpur City Railway Station(SBPY), Hirakud (HKG), across the Mahanadi and Maneswar Railway Station(MANE). Locally this station is called Khetrajpur Railway Station since it is located in that area of the city.

Sambalpur University

Sambalpur University is located at Sambalpur, India, in the Indian state of Odisha. Popularly known as Jyoti Vihar. It offers courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Governor of Odisha is the Chancellor of the university. The campus is located 15 km away from Sambalpur in Burla.

Sambalpur district

Sambalpur District is a district in the western part of state of Odisha, India. The historic city of Sambalpur is the district headquarters.

The district is located in the Mahanadi River basin. It has a total area of 6,702 km2 (2,588 sq mi), of which almost 60% of the district is covered in dense forest. The district is bounded by Deogarh District to the east, Bargarh and Jharsuguda districts to the west, Sundergarh District to the north, and Subarnapur and Angul districts in the south.

Sambalpur City is the connecting city between Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Whereas it used to be known for its importance as a diamond trading centre, nowadays it is mainly known for its textiles, especially the Sambalpuri Saree.

Sambalpuri language

Sambalpuri is an Indo-Aryan language variety spoken in western Odisha, India. It is alternatively known as Western Odia, or as Kosali (with variants Kosli, Koshal and Koshali), a recently popularised but controversial term, which draws on an association with the ancient Kosala Kingdom, whose vast territories also included the present-day Sambalpur region.Its speakers usually perceive it as a separate language, while outsiders have seen it as a dialect of Odia, and standard Odia is used by Sambalpuri speakers for formal communication. A 2006 survey of the varieties spoken in four villages found out that they share three-quarters of their basic vocabulary with Standard Odia.Sambalpuri is spoken in the following districts of Odisha: Sambalpur (with the city of Sambalpur, the chief cultural and commercial centre of the region), Deogarh, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Bargarh, Subarnapur, Balangir, Nuapada, Kalahandi, Boudh, the Athmallik subdivision of Angul district. Sambalpuri speakers are also found in neighbouring areas of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.

Western Odisha

Western Odisha is a territory in western part of Odisha, India, extending from the Kalahandi district in the south to the Sundargarh district in the northwest. Western Odisha includes the districts of Sambalpur, Bargarh, Nuapada, Balangir, Sonepur

It is a vast geographical area, exhibiting a great degree of cultural uniformity in terms of demography and life-style.

This geographical area is also recognised by state government of Odisha as the area under Western Odisha Development Council (WODC). The Sonepur, Balangir, Nuapada, and Kalahandi districts of this region are also part of the Kalahandi Balangir Koraput or "KBK" area, noted for its high death rate from starvation and poverty.

2 February is observed as the Western Odisha day.

1 August is observing as "Sambalpuri Din"/"Sambalpuri Day".

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