Salzburg

Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] (listen);[note 1]), literally "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg.

Its historic centre (Altstadt) is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists also visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings.

Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play and film The Sound of Music.

Salzburg
View at Salzburg from Hohensalzburg Fortress
View at Salzburg from Hohensalzburg Fortress
Coat of arms of Salzburg

Coat of arms
Salzburg is located in Austria
Salzburg
Salzburg
Location within Austria
Coordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°ECoordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°E
CountryAustria
StateSalzburg
DistrictStatutory city
Government
 • MayorHarald Preuner (ÖVP)
Area
 • Total65.65 km2 (25.35 sq mi)
Elevation
424 m (1,391 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total153,377
 • Density2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
5020
Area code0662
Vehicle registrationS
Websitewww.stadt-salzburg.at
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Old Town Salzburg across the Salzach river
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference784
Inscription1996 (20th Session)
Area236 ha
Buffer zone467 ha

History

Antiquity to the High Middle Ages

Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC.

Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.[5]

The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He travelled to evangelise among pagans.

The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle" (Latin: Salis Burgium). The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence.[6] It was greatly expanded during the following centuries.

Independence

Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, and the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.[7] It was besieged for three months in 1525.

Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, and Paris Lodron. It was in the 17th century that Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the Baroque style) rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces.[8]

Modern era

Religious conflict

On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia.[9] The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America.

Illuminism

In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism.

Electorate of Salzburg

In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon; he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg.

Austrian annexation of Salzburg

In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry.

Salzburg under Bavarian rule

In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram.

Division of Salzburg and annexation by Austria and Bavaria

After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich (1816), Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz.[10]

In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress[11]

Salzburg vom Mönchsberg aus
Salzburg in 1914

20th century

First Republic

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian territories, became part of the new German Austria. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands. This was replaced by the First Austrian Republic in 1919, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919).

Annexation by the Third Reich

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1988-119-04A, Anschluss Österreich
Young Austrians at celebrations just after the Anschluss

The Anschluss (the occupation and annexation of Austria, including Salzburg, into the Third Reich) took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city.

During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan. It was an Arbeitserziehungslager (work 'education' camp), which provided slave labour to local industry. It also operated as a Zwischenlager (transit camp), holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe.[12]

World War II

Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those around Salzburg railway station. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its Baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, Salzburg is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style. American troops entered the city on 5 May 1945 and it became the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria. Several displaced persons camps were established in Salzburg—among them Riedenburg, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and New Palestine.

Present day

After World War II, Salzburg became the capital city of the Federal State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg). On 27 January 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the occasion. Major celebrations took place throughout the year.

As of 2017 Salzburg had a GDP per capita of €46,100, which was greater than the average for Austria and for most European countries.[13]

Geography

Salzburg is on the banks of the River Salzach, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak, the 1,972‑metre-high Untersberg, is less than 16 kilometres (10 miles) from the city centre. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Hohensalzburg Fortress. This area is flanked by two smaller hills, the Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg, which offer green relief within the city. Salzburg is approximately 150 km (93 mi) east of Munich, 281 km (175 mi) northwest of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and 300 km (186 mi) west of Vienna. Salzburg has about the same latitude of Seattle.

Climate

Salzburg is part of the temperate zone. The Köppen climate classification specifies the climate as a humid continental climate (Dfb), however, with the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm for the coldest month, Salzburg can be classified as having four-season oceanic climate with significant temperature differences between seasons. Due to the location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur.

Population development

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1869 27,858—    
1880 33,241+19.3%
1890 38,081+14.6%
1900 48,945+28.5%
1910 56,423+15.3%
1923 60,026+6.4%
1934 69,447+15.7%
1939 77,170+11.1%
1951 102,927+33.4%
1961 108,114+5.0%
1971 129,919+20.2%
1981 139,426+7.3%
1991 143,978+3.3%
2001 142,662−0.9%
2011 145,367+1.9%
2016 150,887+3.8%
Source: Statistik Austria[15]
Largest groups of foreign residents[16]
Nationality Population (1.1.2019)
 Germany 7,087
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,275
 Serbia 4,751
 Romania 2,543
 Turkey 2,466
 Croatia 2,395
 Syria 1,705
 Afghanistan 1,528
 Hungary 1,479
 Italy 1,069
 Russia 1,000

Salzburg's official population significantly increased in 1935 when the city absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was constructed for American soldiers of the postwar occupation, and could be used for refugees when they left. Around 1950, Salzburg passed the mark of 100,000 citizens, and in 2016, it reached the mark of 150,000 citizens.

Architecture

Salzburg - Panorama (nachts)2
View from Mönchsberg

Romanesque and Gothic

The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The Cathedral of Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica north of the Alps. The choir of the Franciscan Church, construction was begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious religious gothic constructions of southern Germany. At the end of the Gothic era the Collegiate church "Nonnberg", Margaret Chapel in St. Peter's Cemetery, the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock" in Hohensalzburg Fortress were constructed.

Renaissance and baroque

Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. Plans for a massive cathedral by Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari rose as the first early Baroque church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as Hellbrunn Palace, the prince archbishop's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed by order of Prince Archbishop Guido von Thun the construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli, by order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan church in the south of the town. The city's redesign was completed with buildings designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, donated by Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun.

After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt, which is the reason why there are no churches built in the Rococo style. Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of "Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square. With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistum Salzburg" (Archbishopric) to Upper Austria, Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol (Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism (Gründerzeit) brought new life into urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era.[17]

Classical modernism and post-war modernism

Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of the old town), the "Lepi" (a public baths in Leopoldskron) (built 1964) and the original 1957 constructed congress center of Salzburg, which was replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous example of architecture of this era is the 1960 opening of the Großes Festspielhaus by Clemens Holzmeister.

Contemporary architecture

Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Nevertheless, some new structures have been added: the Mozarteum at the Baroque Mirabell Garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer),[18] the 2001 Congress House (Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture: Storch Ehlers Partners), the 2001 "Makartsteg" bridge (Architecture: HALLE1), and the "Residential and Studio House" of the architects Christine and Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town (winner of the architecture award of Salzburg 2010).[19][20] Other examples of contemporary architecture lie outside the old town: the Faculty of Science building (Universität Salzburg – Architecture Willhelm Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob architecture of Red Bull Hangar‑7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller[21]) at Salzburg Airport, home to Dietrich Mateschitz's Flying Bulls and the Europark Shopping Centre. (Architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas)

Districts

Salzburger Stadtteile
Districts of Salzburg

Salzburg has twenty-four urban districts and three extra-urban populations. Urban districts (Stadtteile):

  • Aigen
  • Altstadt
  • Elisabeth-Vorstadt
  • Gneis
  • Gneis-Süd
  • Gnigl
  • Itzling
  • Itzling-Nord
  • Kasern
  • Langwied
  • Lehen
  • Leopoldskron-Moos
  • Liefering
  • Maxglan
  • Maxglan-West
  • Morzg
  • Mülln
  • Neustadt
  • Nonntal
  • Parsch
  • Riedenburg
  • Salzburg-Süd
  • Taxham
  • Schallmoos

Extra-urban populations (Landschaftsräume):

Main sights

8 of 10 - Hohensalzburg Castle, AUSTRIA
Gardens in Mirabell Palace, with Hohensalzburg Fortress in the distance
Getreidegasse am Nachmittag, Salzburg
View of shoppers on Getreidegasse, which is one of the oldest streets in Salzburg
Aussenansicht red bull hangar-7 nacht
The Red Bull Hangar-7

Salzburg is a tourist favourite, with the number of tourists outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include:

Old Town

Outside the Old Town

Greater Salzburg area

  • Anif Castle, located south of the city in Anif
  • Shrine of Our Lady of Maria Plain, a late Baroque church on the northern edge of Salzburg
  • Salzburger Freilichtmuseum Großgmain, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses from all over the state assembled in an historic setting
  • Schloss Klessheim, a palace and casino, formerly used by Adolf Hitler
  • Berghof, Hitler's mountain retreat near Berchtesgaden
  • Kehlsteinhaus, the only remnant of Hitler's Berghof
  • Salzkammergut, an area of lakes east of the city
  • Untersberg mountain, next to the city on the Germany-Austria border, with panoramic views of Salzburg and the surrounding Alps
  • Skiing is an attraction during winter. Salzburg itself has no skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to skiing areas to the south. During the winter months its airport receives charter flights from around Europe.
  • Salzburg Zoo, located south of the city in Anif

Education

Salzburg is a centre of education and home to three universities, as well as several professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools).

Universities and higher education institutions

Notable citizens

Wolfgang-amadeus-mozart 1
Mozart was born in Salzburg, capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a former ecclesiastical principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation

Events

  • The Salzburg Festival is a famous music festival that attracts visitors during the months of July and August each year. A smaller Salzburg Easter Festival is held around Easter each year.
  • The Europrix multimedia award takes place in Salzburg.

Transport

The city is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east–west trains serving Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich, including daily high-speed ICE services. The city acts as a hub for south-bound trains through the Alps into Italy.

Salzburg Airport has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels, Düsseldorf, and Zürich, as well as Hamburg, Edinburgh and Dublin. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.

In the main city, there is the Salzburg trolleybus system and bus system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg has an S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are part of the ÖBB network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes.

Popular culture

In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music used some locations in and around Salzburg and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, who took up with an aristocratic family and fled the German Anschluss. The town draws many visitors who wish to visit the filming locations, alone or on tours.

Salzburg is the setting for the Austrian crime series Stockinger.

In the 2010 film Knight & Day, Salzburg serves as the backdrop for a large portion of the film.

Language

Austrian German is widely written. Austro-Bavarian is the German dialect of this territory and widely spoken.

Sports

Football

The former SV Austria Salzburg reached the UEFA Cup final in 1994. On 6 April 2005 Red Bull bought the club and changed its name into FC Red Bull Salzburg. The home stadium of Red Bull Salzburg is the Wals Siezenheim Stadium in a suburb in the agglomeration of Salzburg and was one of the venues for the 2008 European Football Championship. The FC Red Bull Salzburg plays in the Austrian Bundesliga.

After Red Bull had bought the SV Austria Salzburg and changed its name and team colors, some supporters of the club decided to leave and form a new club with the old name and old colors, wanting to preserve the traditions of their club. The reformed SV Austria Salzburg was founded in 2005 and currently plays in the Erste Liga, only one tier below the Bundesliga.

Ice hockey

Red Bull also sponsors the local ice hockey team, the EC Salzburg Red Bulls. The team plays in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, an Austria-headquartered crossborder league featuring the best teams from Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia and Italy, as well as one Czech team.

Other sports

Salzburg was a candidate city for the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost to Vancouver and Sochi respectively.

International relations

Twin towns—sister cities

Salzburg is twinned with:[25]

Gallery

Mozart (5)

Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9

Fountain Mirabell

The famous fountain in Mirabell Gardens (seen in the "Do-Re-Mi" song from The Sound of Music)

Salzburg Sunset by Horst Michael Lechner

The Sunset at the Staatsbrücke

Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse1

Sigmund Haffner Gasse – Rathaus

Wohn&Atelierhaus Lechner Gartengeschoß1

Residential and studio house Lechner in the old town

Untersberg (16)

The Salzburg basin

Salzburg (16)

The fortress (background), Salzburg Cathedral (middle), the Salzach (foreground)

Feb20532

ÖBB rail connection to Salzburg in Innsbruck

Feb20516

Mozart monument

SalzburgerAltstadt02

View of the old town and fortress, seen from Kapuzinerberg

A night time long exposure of Salzburg
A night time long exposure of Salzburg
Salzburg old town with a typical narrow alleyway
Salzburg old town with a typical narrow alleyway
Salzburg Altstadt Panorama
Salzburg Altstadt Panorama
Salzburg panorama as seen from Hohensalzburg Fortress
Salzburg panorama as seen from Hohensalzburg Fortress

See also

Notes

  1. ^ English: /ˈsæltsbɜːrɡ, ˈsɔːlts-, ˈsɔːlz-, ˈsælz-, ˈzæltsbʊərk/[3][4]

References

  1. ^ "Dauersiedlungsraum der Gemeinden Politischen Bezirke und Bundesländer - Gebietsstand 1.1.2018". Statistics Austria. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Einwohnerzahl 1.1.2018 nach Gemeinden mit Status, Gebietsstand 1.1.2018". Statistics Austria. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Saltsburg" in the American Heritage Dictionary Archived September 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Salzburg - Definition of Salzburg in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  5. ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
  6. ^ de Fabianis, p. 167.
  7. ^ de Fabianis, p. 167
  8. ^ Visit Salzburg, Salzburg's History: Coming a Long Way.
  9. ^ Frank L. Perry, Jr., Catholics Cleanse Salzburg of Protestants Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, The Georgia Salzburger Society.
  10. ^ Times Atlas of European History, 3rd Ed., 2002
  11. ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
  12. ^ "AEIOU Österreich-Lexikon – Konzentrationslager, KZ". Austria-Forum.org. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  13. ^ E.B. (26 September 2017). "The Salzburg Festival is a boon to the local economy". The Economist.
  14. ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971 – 2000 – Salzburg-Flughafen". Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  15. ^ "Bevölkerung zu Jahres-/Quartalsanfang". Statistik.at. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  16. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Salzburg" (PDF). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
  17. ^ "Architecture : Salzburg Sights by Period". Visit-salzburg.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  18. ^ [1] Archived May 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Preisträger Salzburg Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "flow – der VERBUND Blog". Verbund.com. 2012-10-15. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  21. ^ "Red Bull′s Hangar-7 at Salzburg Airport". Visit Salzburg. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  22. ^ "fh-salzburg". Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  23. ^ "Joseph Mohr (1792 – 1848) Priest and author of Silent Night". www.stillenacht.com. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  24. ^ "Theodor Herzl (1860–1904)". Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08. He received a doctorate in law in 1884 and worked for a short while in courts in Vienna and Salzburg.
  25. ^ "Salzburger Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  26. ^ "Dresden — Partner Cities". © 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-29.

External links

Information-related
Culture-related
Olympic-related
Tourism-related
Austrian Football Bundesliga

The Austrian Football Bundesliga (German: Österreichische Fußball-Bundesliga [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯çɪʃə ˈfuːsbal ˈbʊndəsliːɡa], Austrian Football Federal League) is the highest-ranking national league club competition in Austrian football. It is the competition which decides the Austrian national football champions, as well the country's entrants for the various European cups run by UEFA. Since Austria stayed in sixteenth place in the UEFA association coefficient rankings at the end of the 2015–16 season, the league gained its first spot for the UEFA Champions League.

The Austrian Bundesliga, which began in the 1974–75 season, has been a separate registered association since 1 December 1991. It has been most won by the two Viennese giants Austria Wien, who were national champions 21 times, and Rapid Wien, who won the national title 32 times. Rapid’s Last title was in the 2007-08 Season. The current champions are Red Bull Salzburg. Hans Rinner is president of the Austrian Bundesliga.

The Austrian Football Bundesliga is currently known as tipico Bundesliga for sponsorship reasons.

EC Red Bull Salzburg

EC Red Bull Salzburg is a professional ice hockey team based in Salzburg, Austria, that currently plays in the Austrian Hockey League. The club play their home games at the Eisarena Salzburg.

FC Red Bull Salzburg

FC Red Bull Salzburg is an Austrian football club in Wals-Siezenheim. Their home ground is the Red Bull Arena. Due to sponsorship restrictions, the club is known as FC Salzburg and wears a modified crest when playing in UEFA competitions.

The club was known as SV Austria Salzburg, and had several sponsored names, before being bought by Red Bull GmbH in 2005 who renamed the club and changed its colours from its traditional violet and white to red and white. The change resulted in some of the team's fans forming a new club, SV Austria Salzburg.

Founded in 1933, and refounded in 2005 as Red Bull Salzburg, the club won its first Bundesliga title in 1994, which was the first of three in the span of four seasons which also saw them reach the 1994 UEFA Cup final. The club has won twelve league titles and five Austrian Cups, all five of which came as doubles.

Köchel catalogue

The Köchel catalogue (German: Köchel-Verzeichnis) is a chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, originally created by Ludwig von Köchel, in which the entries are abbreviated K. and KV. The numbers of the Köchel catalogue reflect the continuing establishment of a complete chronology of Mozart's works, and provide a shorthand reference to the compositions.

According to Köchel's counting, Requiem in D minor is the 626th piece Mozart composed, thus is designated either K. 626 or KV 626; however, his original catalogue (1862) of Mozart has been twice revised, and some works have had three KV. numbers, e.g. Mozart's Horn Concerto No. 1, K. (412+514)/386b.

Leopold Mozart

Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist. Mozart is best known today as the father and teacher of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and for his violin textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.

List of cities and towns in Austria

The following is a list of cities and towns in Austria with population of over 10,000 inhabitants. State capitals are shown in bold type.

List of postal codes in Austria

Postal codes in Austria consist of four digits. They were introduced on 1 January 1966. Each code denotes a post office of the Österreichische Post company.

The first digit identifies a geographic delivery area within Austria. The second identifies a routing area. The third defines the route the mail takes either with the car/truck or with the train. The fourth stands for the post office outlet in the routing city.

Mozarteum University Salzburg

The Mozarteum University Salzburg (German: Universität Mozarteum Salzburg), also known simply as Mozarteum Salzburg, is a university in Salzburg municipality, Austria, which specializes in music and the dramatic arts. It was named after Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Naby Keïta

Naby Laye Keïta (born 10 February 1995) is a Guinean professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Premier League club Liverpool and captains the Guinea national team.Keïta began his professional career with Ligue 2 club FC Istres in 2013, and a year later he moved to Red Bull Salzburg, where he won the Austrian Football Bundesliga and Austrian Cup double in both of his seasons. He then moved to RB Leipzig in 2016, making the Bundesliga team of the season in his first year and the UEFA Europa League squad of the season in his second.

Keïta made his senior international debut for Guinea in 2013. He has earned over 30 caps and was part of their squad at the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations.

Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg

The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (German: Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the secular territory ruled by the archbishops of Salzburg, as distinguished from the much larger Catholic diocese founded in 739 by Saint Boniface in the German stem duchy of Bavaria. The capital of the archbishopric was Salzburg, the former Roman city of Iuvavum.

From the late 13th century onwards, the archbishops gradually reached the status of Imperial immediacy and independence from the Bavarian dukes. Salzburg remained an ecclesiastical principality until its secularisation to the short-lived Electorate of Salzburg (later Duchy of Salzburg) in 1803. Members of the Bavarian Circle from 1500, the prince-archbishops bore the title of Primas Germaniae, though they never obtained electoral dignity; actually of the six German prince-archbishoprics (with Mainz, Cologne and Trier), Magdeburg, Bremen and Salzburg got nothing from the Golden Bull of 1356. The last prince-archbishop exercising secular authority was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

SV Austria Salzburg

SV Austria Salzburg is an Austrian association football club, based in the city of Salzburg. The club was formed in 2005 by some supporters of the original SV (Austria) Salzburg after it was renamed FC Red Bull Salzburg by its new owners, who also changed the club's colours from its traditional violet and white to red and white. The club commenced participation in the seventh tier of Austria's national league system in 2006, then rose through four successive championships to the third tier, Regionalliga West, in 2010. In 2015, the club gained promotion to the Erste Liga, one tier below the Austrian Bundesliga, only to be relegated a year later.

Sadio Mané

Sadio Mané (born 10 April 1992) is a Senegalese professional footballer who plays as a winger for Premier League club Liverpool and the Senegal national team.

Having begun his career with Metz in France, he transferred to Red Bull Salzburg in 2012. After winning the Austrian Bundesliga and Austrian Cup in 2014, he was signed by Southampton. In 2015, Mané set a new Premier League record for the fastest hat-trick when he scored three times in 176 seconds during a 6–1 win over Aston Villa. He transferred to Liverpool in 2016 for a fee of £34 million, making him the most expensive African player in history at that time. Since joining Liverpool, Mané among other achievements scored in the 2018 UEFA Champions League Final.

Mané has earned 60 caps for Senegal since his debut in 2012, and represented the national team at the 2012 Olympics, 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, 2017 Africa Cup of Nations and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Salzburg (state)

Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] (listen); literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria. It is officially named Land Salzburg, colloquially Salzburgerland, to distinguish it from its eponymous capital Salzburg city and as such is the only state to be named after its capital. By its centuries-long history as an independent Prince-Bishopric, Salzburg's tradition differs from the other Austrian lands.

Salzburg Festival

The Salzburg Festival (German: Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama established in 1920. It is held each summer (for five weeks starting in late July) in the Austrian town of Salzburg, the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One highlight is the annual performance of the play Jedermann (Everyman) by Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

Since 1967, an annual Salzburg Easter Festival has also been held, organized by a separate organization.

Salzburgring

The Salzburgring is a 4.225 kilometres (2.63 mi) motorsport race track located in Koppl, east of Salzburg.

Stadion Wals-Siezenheim

Red Bull Arena (German pronunciation: [ʁɛd ˈbʊl aˌʁeːnaː]; known for UEFA Euro 2008 as the EM-Stadion Wals-Siezenheim [eːˈɛmˌʃtaːdi̯ɔn ˌvalsˈsiːtsn̩haɪm] and during UEFA club football events as Stadion Salzburg) is a football stadium in Wals-Siezenheim, a municipality in the suburbs of Salzburg, Austria. It was officially opened in March 2003 and is the home ground of FC Red Bull Salzburg. Previously, the club played at Stadion Lehen.

The Sound of Music (film)

The Sound of Music is a 1965 American musical drama film produced and directed by Robert Wise, and starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, with Richard Haydn and Eleanor Parker. The film is an adaptation of the 1959 stage musical of the same name, composed by Richard Rodgers with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. The film's screenplay was written by Ernest Lehman, adapted from the stage musical's book by Lindsay and Crouse. Based on the memoir The Story of the Trapp Family Singers by Maria von Trapp, the film is about a young Austrian woman studying to become a nun in Salzburg, Austria in 1938 who is sent to the villa of a retired naval officer and widower to be governess to his seven children. After bringing and teaching love and music into the lives of the family through kindness and patience, she marries the officer and together with the children they find a way to survive the loss of their homeland through courage and faith.

The film was released on March 2, 1965 in the United States, initially as a limited roadshow theatrical release. Although critical response to the film was widely mixed, the film was a major commercial success, becoming the number one box office movie after four weeks, and the highest-grossing film of 1965. By November 1966, The Sound of Music had become the highest-grossing film of all-time—surpassing Gone with the Wind—and held that distinction for five years. The film was just as popular throughout the world, breaking previous box-office records in twenty-nine countries. Following an initial theatrical release that lasted four and a half years, and two successful re-releases, the film sold 283 million admissions worldwide and earned a total worldwide gross of $286,000,000.

The Sound of Music received five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. The film also received two Golden Globe Awards, for Best Motion Picture and Best Actress, the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement, and the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Written American Musical. In 1998, the American Film Institute (AFI) listed The Sound of Music as the fifty-fifth greatest American movie of all time, and the fourth greatest movie musical. In 2001, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

University of Salzburg

The University of Salzburg, also known as the Paris Lodron University of Salzburg (German: Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg, PLUS), named after its founder, Prince-Archbishop Paris Lodron, is a public university in Salzburg municipality, Salzburg state, Austria. It is divided into four faculties:

Catholic Theology

Law

Cultural and Social Sciences

Natural SciencesEstablished in 1622, the university was closed in 1810 and re-established in 1962. Today, it has around 18,000 students and 2,800 employees and is the largest educational institution in Salzburg state.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35. The circumstances of his death have been much mythologized.

He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music. Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years".

Climate data for Salzburg-Flughafen (LOWS)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
27.9
(82.2)
32.2
(90.0)
35.6
(96.1)
38.6
(101.5)
35.6
(96.1)
32.1
(89.8)
28.2
(82.8)
23.5
(74.3)
18.6
(65.5)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
5.6
(42.1)
10.4
(50.7)
14.3
(57.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.2
(72.0)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
20.1
(68.2)
14.8
(58.6)
7.8
(46.0)
4.0
(39.2)
14.2
(57.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
0.7
(33.3)
4.8
(40.6)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
16.5
(61.7)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
14.3
(57.7)
9.3
(48.7)
3.6
(38.5)
0.4
(32.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−2.9
(26.8)
0.7
(33.3)
3.8
(38.8)
8.4
(47.1)
11.5
(52.7)
13.5
(56.3)
13.5
(56.3)
10.1
(50.2)
5.5
(41.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−3.9
(25.0)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.0
(35.6)
3.7
(38.7)
4.3
(39.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8
(18)
−17.8
(0.0)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−26.8
(−16.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.9
(2.36)
54.7
(2.15)
78.7
(3.10)
83.1
(3.27)
114.5
(4.51)
154.8
(6.09)
157.5
(6.20)
151.3
(5.96)
101.3
(3.99)
72.6
(2.86)
83.0
(3.27)
72.8
(2.87)
1,184.2
(46.62)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 24.0
(9.4)
23.9
(9.4)
21.7
(8.5)
2.9
(1.1)
0.1
(0.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
12.1
(4.8)
27.8
(10.9)
112.5
(44.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.1 9.5 11.9 11.8 12.1 15.0 14.4 13.2 10.8 9.3 10.8 11.8 140.7
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 15.4 11.7 6.1 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 5.1 13.1 52.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.0 91.9 130.0 152.6 196.4 193.9 221.1 202.8 167.7 129.7 81.2 62.8 1,697.1
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[14]
Salzburg (state) Cities and districts (Bezirke) of the state of Salzburg
Cities
Districts
Administrative seats of Austrian states

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