Salta (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsalta]) is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile.
Coat of arms
La Linda (The beautiful)
Location of Salta Province within Argentina
|• Governor||Juan Manuel Urtubey (FPV)|
|• Total||155,488 km2 (60,034 sq mi)|
|• Density||7.8/km2 (20/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−3 (ART)|
|ISO 3166 code||AR-A|
|HDI (2016)||0.830 Very High (19th)|
Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples (now called Diaguitas and Calchaquíes) lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; they formed many different tribes, the Quilmes and Humahuacas among them, which all shared the Cacán language. The Atacamas lived in the Puna, and the Wichís (Matacos), in the Chaco region.
The first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535; he was followed by Diego de Rojas. Hernando de Lerma founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa; the name of the city was soon changed to "San Felipe de Salta". By 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants.
An intendency of "Salta del Tucumán" was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Salta and Tarija (Tarija was added to the intendency later, in 1807). In 1783, in recognition of the growing importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán was moved from San Miguel de Tucumán to Salta.
The battle of Salta in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, but occasional attacks were mounted from the Viceroyalty of Peru as late as 1826. Gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta, Jujuy, and parts of southern Bolivia and northern Chile.
Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Bolivia annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834, Jujuy withdrew from Salta and became a separate province. The borders of Salta were further reduced in 1900, with the loss of Yacuiba to Bolivia.
The total land area of the province is 155,488 km2 (60,034 sq mi), making it the sixth largest province by area in Argentina.:14-15 The main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo, Bermejo, and the Juramento, which later becomes the Salado River.:15 Salta Province is located at a geologically active region, and suffers from occasional earthquakes. There have been four earthquakes of note in the province:
The 1692 earthquake was the inspiration for Salta's annual citywide festival, held on 16 September, in honor of El Señor y la Virgen del Milagro.
The province is located in the tropical zone and has a warm climate in general, though it has marked variation in climate types owing to the variation in altitudes. The orientation of the Andes influences the distribution of precipitation within the province.
The easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season. The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 20 °C (68.0 °F) and 500 millimetres (19.7 in). Temperatures can reach up to 47 °C (116.6 °F) during summers, while they can fall down to −5 °C (23.0 °F) during winters.
The first slopes of the Andes force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking very high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain. The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm (39 to 59 in) of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm (98 in) of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer, with winters being dry. The high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity. At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous and pine trees.
Between the high altitudes to the west and the low plains to the east lie the valleys. The climate of these valleys is temperate, allowing for human settlement and agricultural activities. Mean annual precipitation is around 1,000 mm (39 in), most of it during summer. Mean temperatures exceed 20 °C (68.0 °F) during the summer, while during winter, they are below 14 °C (57.2 °F).
Further west, the Altiplano is a plateau at 3,000 m to 4,000 m above sea level. The climate is arid and cold: high temperatures vary little (since the warmer season is cloudy, and the coolest is sunny), ranging from 14 °C to 21 °C (57F to 70F); night temperatures go from 6 °C (43F) in midsummer, to -8 °C (18F) in midwinter, and extremes under -15 °C (5F) might be recorded. All rain falls exclusively in the summer, with values between 200 mm and 400 mm in total. Several salt flats exist in this area.
Salta's economy is relatively underdeveloped, yet diverse. Its economy in 2006 was estimated at US$5.141 billion or, US$4,764 per capita, 45% below the national average. In 2012, its economy was estimated at $30.613 billon pesos (about US$6.743 billion) or $23,971 pesos (about US$5,280) per capita.
Manufacturing plays a significant role in Salta, adding 20% to the economy. Gas and petroleum from the Tartagal, Aguas Blancas, Madrejones and Campo Durán centres is transported to Buenos Aires and Rosario by pipes. There is also an oil refinery located at Campo Durán. Mining includes uranium at Iruya, La Poma and San Carlos.
Agriculture and its derived industries are still an important activity in the province, adding over 10% to output. Tobacco, sugar cane and viticulture are the most important and produce most of the exports from the area. Other crops mostly for local consumption are maize, beans, citrus, bananas, and tomatoes. The sugar cane is processed in plants in Salta before it is sent to the rest of Argentina and other countries. The plant in San Martín de Tabacal is the most important of them. The famous wines of the Valles Calchaquíes region (mainly Torrontés, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon) near Cafayate are produced in numerous vineyards of diverse sizes. American breeds of cattle are raised only on the humid subtropical east, along with some sheep and goats.
The Salta province is home to a number of natural, social and historic attractions.
The city La Linda ("The beautiful") is both an important tourist destination, and the centre point for visiting the rest of the province. The city holds different attractions; among them are its colonial houses and cathedral, and the Museo de Arqueología de Alta Montaña de Salta that holds the three frozen Inca mummies found at the Llullaillaco volcano and known as the Children of Llullaillaco .
The Tren a las Nubes ("Train to the Clouds") crosses canyons and cliffs before arriving at the 3,775 metres altitude (12,500 feet) of San Antonio de los Cobres. The red-rock formations of the Valles Calchaquíes and the wine-town of Cafayate are the second most visited place in the province. Many visit the Cachi mountains and the villages (such as Payogasta) around it.
According to the results from the 2010 census [INDEC], the province has a population of 1,214,441. It constitutes 3.0% of the total population in Argentina.:63 This represented a 12.5% increase in the population compared to 2001 census [INDEC] which had 1,079,051 inhabitants. 6.5% of the population or 79,204 persons declared themselves as having Indigenous background,:69 making it one of the provinces that has a high percentage of indigenous people, being ranked 5th behind Chubut, Neuquén, Jujuy and Río Negro.:278 The most populous indigenous groups in the province are the Wichí, which make up 24.9% of the total indigenous population followed by the Kolla (21.6%), and the Guaraní (13.7%).:69 As well, 4,189 persons declared themselves to be Afro-Argentine.
The province is divided in 23 departments (Spanish: departamentos), containing 59 municipalities (Spanish: municipios). The capital of the province is the city of Salta, which is where the provincial government is located at.
|Map||Departament||Area:31-33||Population (2010 Census)||Towns and municipalities (in bold: department capital):31-33|
|Anta||21,945 km2 (8,473 sq mi)||57,411||Apolinario Saravia |
Joaquín Víctor González
|Cachi||2,925 km2 (1,129 sq mi)||7,315||Cachi |
|Cafayate||1,570 km2 (610 sq mi)||14,850||Cafayate|
|Capital||1,722 km2 (665 sq mi)||536,113||Salta |
Villa San Lorenzo
|de Cerrillos||640 km2 (250 sq mi)||35,789||Cerrillos |
|Chicoana||910 km2 (350 sq mi)||20,710||Chicoana |
|General Güemes||2,365 km2 (913 sq mi)||47,226||Campo Santo |
|General San Martín||16,257 km2 (6,277 sq mi)||156,910||Aguaray |
|Guachipas||2,785 km2 (1,075 sq mi)||3,187||Guachipas|
|Iruya||3,515 km2 (1,357 sq mi)||5,987||Iruya |
Isla de Cañas
|La Caldera||867 km2 (335 sq mi)||7,763||La Caldera |
|La Candelaria||1,525 km2 (589 sq mi)||5,704||El Jardín |
|La Poma||4,447 km2 (1,717 sq mi)||1,738||La Poma|
|La Viña||2,152 km2 (831 sq mi)||7,435||Coronel Moldes |
|Los Andes||25,951 km2 (10,020 sq mi)||6,050||San Antonio de los Cobres |
|Metán||5,235 km2 (2,021 sq mi)||40,351||El Galpón |
San José de Metán
|Molinos||3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi)||5,652||Molinos |
|Orán||11,892 km2 (4,592 sq mi)||138,838||Colonia Santa Rosa |
San Ramón de la Nueva Orán
|Rivadavia||25,951 km2 (10,020 sq mi)||30,357||Rivadavia Banda Norte |
Rivadavia Banda Sur
Santa Victoria Este
|Rosario de la Frontera||5,402 km2 (2,086 sq mi)||28,993||El Potrero |
Rosario de la Frontera
|Rosario de Lerma||5,110 km2 (1,970 sq mi)||38,702||Campo Quijano |
Rosario de Lerma
|San Carlos||5,125 km2 (1,979 sq mi)||7,016||Angastaco |
|Santa Victoria||3,912 km2 (1,510 sq mi)||10,344||Los Toldos |
Santa Victoria Oeste
The Baritú National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Baritú) is a national park in Argentina, located in the Santa Victoria Department, in the north of the province of Salta, in the Argentine Northwest. The park borders Bolivia (Tarija province), and its only road access is through that country. It has an area of 720 square kilometres (72,000 ha) and it is the only tropical park in Argentina.
The park was created in 1974. It is bordered by mountains. The protected area belongs to the Southern Andean Yungas ecoregion, which is located in the Sub-Andean mountain range, with heights averaging 1,500–2,500 m (4,900–8,200 ft). The climate is wet and hot, with summer rainfall that goes from 900–1,300 mm (35–51 in).
The fauna of the park includes several endangered species, such as the jaguar and the onza.
The cedro salteño trees ("Salta cedrelas") reach huge sizes in this region. Their wood is considered extremely valuable.Cachi Department
Cachi is a department in the east of Salta Province, Argentina. Its capital is the town of Cachi.Central Norte
Club Atlético Central Norte is an Argentine football club from the city of Salta, from the Salta Province. The team currently plays in the Torneo Argentino A, the regionalised third division of the Argentine football league system.
Central Norte was founded in Salta on 9 March 1921, and took its name from the state-owned Ferrocarril Central Norte whose railway line crossed the Salta Province.Cerrillos Department
Cerrillos is a department of Salta Province, Argentina, located near Salta city. Its capital is the town of Cerrillos.Dino Saluzzi
Timoteo "Dino" Saluzzi (born May 20, 1935 Campo Santo, Salta Province, Argentina) is an Argentinian bandoneon player. He is the son of Cayetano Saluzzi and the father of guitarist José Maria Saluzzi.El Rey National Park
The El Rey National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional El Rey) is a national park of Argentina, located in the Anta Department, province of Salta, in the Argentine Northwest, 80 km from the provincial capital. It has an area of 441.62 km².
The park was created in order to preserve a representative sample of the Southern Andean Yungas ecoregion and transition environments. The climate is warm, and annual rainfall oscillates between 500 and 700 mm. The flora is varied, showing different species in five levels according to height (from 750 to 2,000 m). The fauna includes tapirs, anteaters and peccaries, as well as fish in the rivers, brooks and lakes. The tapir or anta, which eats aquatic plants, is the largest South American mammal, weighing up to 300 kg.
The protected area was inhabited by farmer indigenous groups, the oldest inhabitants of the Yungas, and includes archaeological sites.Estadio Padre Ernesto Martearena
Estadio Padre Ernesto Martearena is a multi-use stadium in Salta, Argentina. The stadium, built for the 2001 FIFA World Youth Championship, holds 20,408 people and was opened in January 2001. It is now the home ground of football clubs Juventud Antoniana and Central Norte, both playing currently in the country's third level.
While it is mainly used for football, the Argentina national rugby union team has also played at the stadium.Gimnasia y Tiro
Club de Gimnasia y Tiro is an Argentine football club, based in the city of Salta. The team currently plays in Torneo Argentino A, the regionalised third division of the Argentine football league system.
Gimnasia y Tiro has played four seasons at the highest level of Argentine football. First came in 1979 and 1981 Nacional championships. Gimnasia finished bottom of their group in 1979 and 6th of 7 teams in 1981. The third season was in 1993/1994. The fourth season was in 1997/98 when the squad promoted to the Argentine Primera División but after finishing 20th (last) in the Apertura and 17th in the Clausura tournaments respectively, Gimnasia was relegated at the end of the season.Governor of Salta Province
The Governor of Salta is a citizen of the Salta Province, in Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor. Currently the governor of Salta is Juan Manuel Urtubey.Juventud Antoniana
Centro Juventud Antoniana is an Argentine football club from the city of Salta. The team currently plays in Torneo Argentino A, the regionalised third division of the Argentine football league system.
Juventud Antoniana played in Primera División 6 times: 1971, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1983 and 1985. Its best performance came in 1983, when the squad progressed to the 2nd round.Los Cardones National Park
The Los Cardones National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Los Cardones) is a national park of Argentina, located in the center-west of the province of Salta, within the San Carlos and Cachi Departments, in the Argentine Northwest.Martín Miguel de Güemes
Martín Miguel de Güemes (8 February 1785 – 17 June 1821) was a military leader and popular caudillo who defended northwestern Argentina from the Spanish during the Argentine War of Independence.Martín Miguel de Güemes International Airport
Martín Miguel de Güemes International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional de Salta "Martín Miguel de Güemes", also known as El Aybal Airport) (IATA: SLA, ICAO: SASA) is located 7 km (4.3 mi) southwest of the center of Salta, capital city of Salta Province, in Argentina. The airport covers an area of 208 hectares (513 acres) and is operated by Aeropuertos Argentina 2000
It is the main hub of the Argentine Andes, served by Aerolíneas Argentinas, LATAM Argentina and Andes Líneas Aéreas. In 2012 it handled 690,712 passengers, making it the most used airport in Northern Argentina. The new terminal was built in 2000 by Aeropuertos Argentina 2000.
In late 2013, Boliviana de Aviacion planned to return to Salta Airport, restarting its route to Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Viru Viru. This is an important connection to international destinations, such as São Paulo-Guarulhos, Madrid-Barajas and Lima.National University of Salta
The National University of Salta (Spanish: Universidad Nacional de Salta, or UNSa) is an Argentine public national university in Salta. It was founded on 11 May 1972 as a part of the Plan Taquini, a reorganization plan for education. It has around 20,000 students.Puna de Atacama
The Puna de Atacama or Atacama Plateau is an arid high plateau, in the Andes of northern Chile (15%) and Argentina (85%). Geomorphologist Walther Penck based his Grossfalt landform association on Puna de Atacama.Salta
Salta (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsalta]) is a city located in the Lerma Valley, at 1,152 metres (3780 feet) above sea level in the northwest part of Argentina. It is also the name for the capital city of Salta Province. Along with its metropolitan area, it has a population of 619,000 inhabitants, which makes it the second most populated city in the northwest of the country.Salta Basin
Salta Basin or Salta Rift Basin is a sedimentary basin located in the Argentine Northwest. The basin started to accumulate sediments in the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) and at present it has sedimentary deposits reaching thicknesses of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft). The basin contains seven sub-basins: Tres Cruces, Lomas de Olmedo, Metán, Alemanía, Salfity, El Rey, Sey and Brealito. The basin environment has variously been described as a "foreland rift" and an "intra-continental rift". The basin developed under conditions of extensional tectonics and rift-associated volcanism.San Antonio de los Cobres
San Antonio de los Cobres is a small town of population 5,482 (per the 2001 INDEC census) in northwestern Argentina. It is the capital of the Los Andes Department of the Salta Province.Tren a las Nubes
The Tren a las Nubes (English: Train to the Clouds) is a tourist train service in Salta Province, Argentina. The service runs along the eastern part of the Salta–Antofagasta railway line of the Belgrano Railway (also known as the "C-14" line) that connects the Argentine Northwest with the Chilean border in the Andes mountain range, over 4,220 metres (13,850 ft) above mean sea level, the fifth highest railway in the world. Originally built for economic and social reasons, it is now primarily of interest to tourists as a heritage railway, though cheaper tickets are also available for locals to use the train as transport.
Departments of Salta Province