A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines. Natural salt pans are geological formations that are also created by water evaporating and leaving behind salts. Some salt evaporation ponds are only slightly modified from their natural version, such as the ponds on Great Inagua in the Bahamas, or the ponds in Jasiira, a few kilometres south of Mogadishu, where seawater is trapped and left to evaporate in the sun.
The seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested.
The ponds also provide a productive resting and feeding ground for many species of waterbirds, which may include endangered species. The ponds are commonly separated by levees. Salt evaporation ponds may also be called salterns, salt works or salt pans.
Due to variable algal concentrations, vivid colors (from pale green to bright red) are created in the evaporation ponds. The color indicates the salinity of the ponds. Microorganisms change their hues as the salinity of the pond increases. In low- to mid-salinity ponds, green algae such as Dunaliella salina are predominant, although these algae can also take on an orange hue. In middle- to high-salinity ponds, Halobacteria, which is actually a group of halophilic Archaea (sometimes called Haloarchaea), shift the colour to pink, red and orange. Other bacteria such as Stichococcus also contribute tints.
Notable salt ponds include:
Until World War II, salt was extracted from sea water in a unique way in Egypt near Alexandria. Posts were set out on the salt pans and covered with several feet of sea water. In time the sea water evaporated, leaving the salt behind on the post, where it was easier to harvest.
Salt pans are shallow open, often metal, pans used to evaporate brine. They are usually found close to the source of the salt. For example, pans used in the solar evaporation of salt from sea water are usually found on the coast, while those used to extract salt from solution-mined brine will be found near to the brine shaft. In this case, extra heat is often provided by lighting fires underneath.
A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes. In the medieval European era it was typical for monasteries and castles (small, partly self-sufficient communities) to have a fish pond.Idiomarina insulisalsae
Idiomarina insulisalsae is a Gram-negative, aerobic and halophilic bacterium from the genus of Idiomarina which has been isolated from a sea salt evaporation pond from the Island of Sal.Index of solar energy articles
This is a list of solar energy topics.Mining industry of Morocco
The mining industry of Morocco is important to the national economy. Morocco is the world's largest producer of phosphate, and contains about 75% of the world's estimated reserves. Mining contributed up to 35% of exports and 5% of GDP in 2011. Foreign investors have found the investment climate, the infrastructure, fiscal situation, and political stability very favorable to continue business in the country in this sector.Mining industry of Tunisia
The mining industry of Tunisia focuses mainly on phosphate products such as fertilizer, industrial minerals (gypsum, clay, lime), iron ore, and salt. Mine ownership is limited to the Government of Tunisia, although operation by private entities is encouraged.Mistaken Island (Pilbara)
Mistaken Island is an uninhabited island in the Dampier Archipelago, in the Pilbara, Western Australia.
Its area about 10 hectares. It is connected to East Mid Intercourse Island, and thence to the mainland, by a causeway/bridge.The island is adjacent to the Dampier salt evaporation pond and has been used as a salt port by Dampier Salt since 1972. Over 3.5 million tonnes are exported annually, with the bulk of this going to industrial use.Península Valdés Railway
The Península Valdés Railway (in Spanish: Ferrocarril de Península Valdés) was an Argentine narrow gauge railway that joined the city of Puerto Pirámides with the salt evaporation pond known as Salinas Grandes, both in Chubut Province. The railway operated passenger and freight services, with two intermediate stops.
The line (that served from 1901 to 1920) was owned by the salt production private company Ferro y Piaggio.Salirhabdus
Salirhabdus is a genus of bacteria from the family of Bacillaceae.Salt mining
A salt mine is a mine from which salt is extracted. The mined salt is usually in the form of halite (commonly known as rock salt), and extracted from evaporite formations.Salt pan
Salt pans can refer to:
Salt pan (geology), a flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually found in deserts
Sabkha, a phonetic translation of the Arabic word for a salt pan (geology)
Salt evaporation pond, a method of producing salt by evaporating brineOpen-pan salt making is a method of salt production wherein salt is extracted from the brine using vacuum pansSalt pan (geology)
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun. They are found in deserts, and are natural formations (unlike salt evaporation ponds, which are artificial).Saltern
A saltern is an area or installation for making salt. Salterns include modern salt-making works, as well as hypersaline waters that usually contain high concentrations of halophilic microorganisms, primarily haloarchaea but also other halophiles including algae and bacteria.
Salterns usually begin with seawater as the initial source of brine but may also use natural saltwater springs and streams. The water is evaporated, usually over a series of ponds, to the point where sodium chloride and other salts precipitate out of the saturated brine, allowing pure salts to be harvested. Where complete evaporation in this fashion was not routinely achievable due to weather, salt was produced from the concentrated brine by boiling the brine.
Earliest examples of pans used in the solution mining of salt date back to prehistoric times and the pans were made of ceramics known as briquetage. Later examples were made from lead and then iron. The change from lead to iron coincided with a change from wood to coal for the purpose of heating the brine. Brine would be pumped into the pans, and concentrated by the heat of the fire burning underneath. As crystals of salt formed these would be raked out and more brine added. In warmer climates no additional heat would be supplied, the sun's heat being sufficient to evaporate off the brine.Santa Pola
Santa Pola (Valencian and Spanish: [ˈsanta ˈpola]) is a coastal town located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó in the Valencian Community, Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. It has an area of 58.6 km2 (23 sq mi) and has a population of 30,000 inhabitants of whom 10,000 are residents of the nearby town of Gran Alacant.
The town has an important salt evaporation pond known as the salines which remains in business, additionally, most of it is recognized as the Natural Park of Salines de Santa Pola, an important RAMSAR site. The town was settled over the ruins of a Roman village called Portus Ilicitanus (literally, Harbour of Elche); after being abandoned for decades, then a castle was constructed in the 16th century which marked the repopulation of Santa Pola. The town has an archeological museum covering these phases.
Santa Pola is, at present, a coastal fishing and tourist town. Population more than doubles during the summer, with people coming mostly from the rest of the Alicante province, and also from the Basque autonomous community, Madrid, France and the UK, just to mention some. The nearby island of Tabarca (part of Alicante) can be visited by ship.
The new town of Gran Alacant, 5 km (3 mi) north of Santa Pola along the Alicante bay, accounts for about one third of the population of the district. Next to it is the Carabasi area, a nature reserve. Gran Alacant lies only a few kilometres from Alicante Airport and a few hundred metres from the town of Los Arenales which is located in the Elche district.
In June 2009, the Valencian Government announced that the Alicante Tram system will be extended southwards via Alicante Airport and El Altet, to stations in Gran Alacant and Santa Pola and then onwards to Guardamar and Torrevieja before terminating in Murcia.Sea salt
Sea salt is salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater. It is used as a seasoning in foods, cooking, cosmetics and for preserving food. It is also called bay salt, solar salt, or salt. Like mined rock salt, production of sea salt has been dated to prehistoric times. There is no scientific evidence that consuming sea salt instead of more refined sodium chloride salts has any health benefit.Sečovlje Saltpans Natural Park
Sečovlje Saltpans Natural Park (Slovene: Krajinski park Sečoveljske soline, Italian: Parco ambientale delle saline di Sicciole) is a natural park in southwestern Slovenia covering the Sečovlje Saltpans near the village of Sečovlje. The salt evaporation pond covers an area of 16.1 hectares (40 acres), while saltworks lie along the mouth of the Dragonja River, covering an area of 650 hectares (1,600 acres).
Visitors provide an important source of income for the park. Due to its specific geographic constraints and other factors, (and especially in order to encourage visitors to leave their vehicles outside the park boundaries) it is hoped that electric 'game watching vehicles' (electric public transport) for visitors can be introduced.Sečovlje Saltworks
The Sečovlje Saltworks (Slovene: Sečoveljske soline) is the largest Slovenian salt evaporation pond. Along with the Strunjan Saltworks, they are the northernmost Mediterranean saltworks and one of the few where salt is still produced in a traditional way, as well as a wetland of international importance and a breeding place for waterbirds. They are part of the Piran Saltworks and are located at Parecag in Slovenian Istria, the southwest of the country, at the Adriatic Sea, along the mouth of the Dragonja River near Sečovlje.The saltworks have been active since the 13th century. Nowadays, the salt production is carried on in order to preserve natural and cultural heritage. The area of the saltworks and the Seča peninsula have been declared the Sečovlje Salina Landscape Park. The Museum of Salt-Making in Sečovlje received the Europa Nostra Prize, bestowed by the European Union to outstanding initiatives for the preservation of cultural heritage in 2003, the first Slovene organisation to be awarded. The salt produced at the saltworks is marketed as Piran Salt (Slovene: Piranska sol) and has Protected designation of origin status in the European Union.In 1993, the saltworks were put on the list of Ramsar wetlands of international importance. The wetland covers 650 hectares (1,600 acres) in the mouth of the Dragonja.Slavery on salt farms in Sinan County
Enslaveries on Sinan County's salt farms relate to two human trafficking cases in Sinan County (신안군), Jeollanam-do (전라남도), South Korea in 2014.Stew pond
A stew pond or stew is a fish pond used to store live fish ready for eating. During the Middle Ages, stews were often attached to monasteries, to supply fish over the winter.