Saint Salonius was a confessor and bishop of the 5th century. He was born about 400, a son of St. Eucherius of Lyon. He was educated at Lérins Abbey, first by St. Hilary of Arles, then by Salvianus and St. Vincent of Lérins. In 440, he was elected bishop of Geneva and, as such, took part in the Synod of Orange (441), the Synod of Vaison (442), and the Synod of Arles (451). He has also been listed as the bishop of Genoa, but it is not clear if this was a later appointment or if the word Geneva was miswritten as Genova. He was an accomplished Latin ecclesiastical writer. Most notably, he composed mystical and allegorical interpretations of the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. His feast day is 28 September.

Saint Salonius
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Feast28 September


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Athleta Christi

"Athleta Christi" (Latin: "Champion of Christ") was a class of Early Christian soldier martyrs, of whom the most familiar example is one such "military saint," Saint Sebastian.

Council of Lyon

The Council of Lyon may refer to a number of synods or councils of the Roman Catholic Church, held in Lyon, France or in nearby Anse.

Previous to 1313, a certain Abbé Martin counted twenty-eight synods or councils held at Lyons

or at Anse.Some of these synods include:

Synod of Lyon (before 523), at which eleven of the members of the Synod of Epaone (517) were present

Synod of Lyon (567), in the presence of Pope John III and during which bishops Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap were condemned

First Council of Lyon (1245; Pope Innocent IV; regarding the Crusades)

Second Council of Lyon (1274; Pope Gregory X; regarding union with the Eastern Orthodox and other matters)

Eucherius of Lyon

Saint Eucherius, bishop of Lyon, (c. 380 – c. 449) was a high-born and high-ranking ecclesiastic in the Christian Church of Gaul. He is remembered for his letters advocating extreme self-abnegation. Henry Wace ranked him "except perhaps St. Irenaeus the most distinguished occupant of that see".As was a common 5th century practice, on the death of his wife Gallia (born c. 390), he withdrew for a time to the monastery of Lérins, founded by Saint Honoratus on the smaller of the two islands off Antibes, with his sons, Veranius and Salonius, to live a severely simple life of study and devote himself to the education of his sons. Soon afterward he withdrew further, to the neighbouring island of Lerona (now Sainte-Marguerite), where he devoted his time to study and mortification of the flesh. With the thought that he might join the anchorites in the deserts of the East, he consulted John Cassian, the famed hermit who had arrived from the East to Marseille; Cassian dedicated the second set of his Collationes (Numbers 11-17) to Eucherius and Honoratus. These Conferences describe the daily lives of the hermits of the Egyptian Thebaid and discuss the important themes of grace, free will, and Scripture. It was at this time (c. 428) that Eucherius wrote his epistolary essay De laude Eremi ("In praise of the desert") addressed to Bishop Hilary of Arles.Though imitating the ascetic lifestyle of the Egyptian hermits, Eucherius kept in touch with men renowned for learning and piety: John Cassian, Hilary of Arles, Saint Honoratus, later bishop of Arles, Claudianus Mamertus, Agroecius (who dedicated a book to him), Sidonius Apollinaris and his kinsman Valerian, to whom he wrote his Epistola paraenetica ad Valerianum cognatum, de contemptu mundi ("Epistle of exhortation to his kinsman Valerian, On the contempt of the world") an expression of the despair for the present and future of the world in its last throes shared by many educated men of Late Antiquity, with hope for a world to come: Erasmus thought so highly of its Latin style that he edited and published it at Basel (1520).

His Liber formularum spiritalis intelligentiae addressed to his son Veranius is a defence of the lawfulness of reading an allegorical sense in Scripture, bringing to bear the metaphors in Psalms and such phrases as "the hand of God." The term anagoge (ἀναγωγὴ) is employed for the application of Scripture to the heavenly Jerusalem to come, and there are other examples of what would become classic Medieval hermeneutics.

The fame of Eucherius was soon so widespread in southeastern Gaul that he was chosen bishop of Lyon. This was probably in 434; it is certain, at least that he attended the first Council of Orange (441) as Metropolitan of Lyon, and that he retained this dignity until his death. He was succeeded in the bishopric by his son Veranius, while his other son, Salonius, became Bishop of Geneva.

Among Eucherius' other letters are his Institutiones ad Salonium addressed to his other son. Many homilies and other writings have been attributed to Eucherius.

Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus

Gaius Saloninus (or Salonius) Matidius Patruinus (died 78) was a Roman Senator who lived in the Roman Empire during the 1st century during the reign of Vespasian (r. 69-79).

International Policy Forum

The International Policy Forum (IPF) is a fully student-run think tank based at Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Emerging from the realization that there was an absence of student perspective in pressing policy issues, participants in the IPF strive to add their voice to public debate. Each year, approximately sixteen students are chosen to develop policy recommendations for a global issue pertinent to Canada. Through involvement with the IPF, members gain practical political experience and contribute to the understanding of public affairs from a new and often innovative perspective.

Since its inception, the IPF has addressed a diverse range of topics. These have included subjects such as Canada-US relations, humanitarian intervention and Arctic transformation. The IPF also operates the Carleton Review of International Affairs (CRIA), an annual publication highlighting the work of undergraduate students relating to any topic of global interest.

Currently, the Directors of the IPF are Sayan Basu Ray and Patrick Salonius. The IPF is funded by the UN Society, a student organization at Carleton University.

Marcia (mother of Trajan)

Marcia (c. 29-before 100) was an ancient Roman noblewoman and the mother of the emperor Trajan.

Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus

Marcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato Salonianus (born c. 154 BC) was the younger son of Cato the Elder, and grandfather of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, also known as "Cato the Younger".

Salonianus' father was Marcus Porcius Cato, consul in 195 BC, and censor in 184. Celebrated for his courage, austerity, and strict moral code, the elder Cato, who already had a grown son by his first wife, Licinia, took a second wife at an advanced age, choosing the daughter of his client and scribe, Salonius. He was eighty years old when his younger son was born, and since both sons bore the praenomen Marcus, they later came to be referred to as Cato Licinianus and Cato Salonianus, after their mothers.Licinianus died soon after the birth of his younger brother, and Cato the Elder died in 149, when Salonianus was five years old. The younger Cato lived to attain the praetorship, but died during his year of office, leaving two sons, Marcus and Lucius. Both would pursue public careers, like their father and grandfather, and also like Saloninus and his brother, neither were long-lived. Marcus was tribune of the plebs, and a candidate for the praetorship at the time of his death, some time before the outbreak of the Social War, in 91 BC, while Lucius would achieve the consulship in 89 BC, only to fall in the course of the war.By his son Marcus, Salonianus was the grandfather of Cato the Younger, a notable adherent of Stoicism, whose lifestyle emulated that of Cato the Elder. Famed for his conservative views, austerity, and stubbornness, the younger Cato served as praetor, and became a staunch supporter of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus during the Civil War, choosing to take his own life rather than be captured by Caesar, even though he would almost certainly have been pardoned.

Papyrus 11

Papyrus 11 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), signed by 11, is a copy of a part of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. It contains fragments 1 Corinthians 1:17-22; 2:9-12.14; 3:1-3,5-6; 4:3; 5:5-5.7-8; 6:5-9.11-18; 7:3-6.10-11.12-14. Only some portions of the codex can be read.

The manuscript palaeographically had been assigned to the 7th century.

The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Aland placed it in Category II.

In 1 Corinthians 7:5 it reads τη προσευχη (prayer) – along with P {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {P}}} 46, א*, A, B, C, D, F, G, P, Ψ, 6, 33, 81, 104, 181, 629, 630, 1739, 1877, 1881, 1962, it vg, cop, arm, eth; other manuscripts have reading τη νηστεια και τη προσευχη (fasting and prayer) or τη προσευχη και νηστεια (prayer and fasting).

The manuscript was discovered by Tischendorf in 1862.

It is currently housed at the Russian National Library (Gr. 258A) in Saint-Petersburg.

Papyrus 8

Papyrus 8 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), signed by 8 or α 8 (von Soden), is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Acts of the Apostles, it contains Acts 4:31-37; 5:2-9; 6:1-6.8-15. The manuscript paleographically has been assigned to the 4th century.

The text is written in two columns per page, 25 lines per page.

The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Aland placed it in Category II.

The text of the codex was published by Salonius in 1927.

It is currently housed at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (Inv. no. 8683) in Berlin.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Geneva

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Geneva was a Latin Catholic diocese in part of Switzerland and Savoy from 400 to 1801 when it merged with the Diocese of Chambéry. The merged diocese later lost Swiss territory to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg.


Salonia was a Roman slave, and later freedwoman who lived during the mid-2nd century BC, and who was the second wife of Cato the Elder. She was the young daughter of the slave Salonius who was an under-secretary to Cato the Elder. Following the death of his first wife, Cato began taking solace with a slave girl who secretly visited his bed.However, his son Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus and his son's wife disapproved of the relationship, so Cato decided to marry Salonia in order to solve the problem. However, when Licinianus found out about it he complained that now his problem was with his father's marriage to Salonia. Cato replied that he loved his son, and for that reason, wished to have more sons like him.In 154 BC, Salonia gave birth to Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus who was only five when his father died. Through her son, Salonia was grandmother of Lucius Porcius Cato and Marcus Porcius Cato, the great-grandmother of Cato the Younger, and the great-great-grandmother of Marcus Porcius Cato, who died at the Battle of Philippi and Porcia Catonis, who was married to Marcus Junius Brutus.

Salonia Matidia

Salonia Matidia (4 July 68 CE – 23 December 119 CE) was the daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus. Her maternal uncle was the Roman emperor Trajan. Trajan had no children and treated her like his daughter. Her father died in 78 CE and Matidia went with her mother to live with Trajan and his wife, Pompeia Plotina.

Between 81 and 82, Matidia married a suffect consul and former proconsul Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Sabinus died in 83 or 84. Matidia bore Sabinus a daughter called Vibia Sabina, who would marry the future Roman Emperor Hadrian. Matidia was very fond of her second cousin Hadrian and allowed him to marry Vibia Sabina.

In 84, Matidia married for a second time to an otherwise unattested Roman aristocrat called Lucius Mindius. Matidia bore Mindius a daughter called Mindia Matidia, commonly known as Matidia Minor. Mindius died in 85.

Matidia later married Lucius Scribonius Libo Rupilius Frugi Bonus, who was suffect consul in 88. Matidia bore Frugi a daughter called Rupilia Faustina. Faustina would go on to marry the Roman Senator Marcus Annius Verus, to whom she bore one daughter and two sons. Through her children, Faustina would become the grandmother of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina the Younger, as well as Marcus's sister Annia Cornificia Faustina.

Matidia often traveled with her uncle and assisted him with decision-making. Like her mother, Matidia was honored with monuments and inscriptions in her name throughout the Roman Empire. On August 29, 112, she received the title of Augusta upon the death and divinization of Marciana.

When Trajan died in 117, Matidia and Plotina brought the emperor's ashes back to Rome. In 119 Matidia died, whereupon the Roman Emperor Hadrian delivered her funeral oration, deified her, and granted her a temple and altar in Rome itself. She thus became the first divinized Roman woman to be dedicated a full-scale temple of her own, as opposed to one shared with her husband or a smaller shrine.

== Nerva–Antonine family tree ==

Salonia gens

The gens Salonia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned as early as the fourth century BC, but few of them attained any of the higher offices of the Roman state, until the latter part of the first century AD, when they married into the imperial family.

Salonius of Embrun

Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap were two bishops who had been condemned at the Council of Lyon (c. 567). They succeeded, however, in persuading Guntram, King of Burgundy, that they had been condemned unjustly, and appealed to the pope. Influenced by the king's letters, Pope John III decided that they must be restored to their sees.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Ulpia Marciana

Ulpia Marciana (August 48 – 112) was the beloved elder sister of Roman Emperor Trajan. She was the eldest child born to Roman woman Marcia and the Spanish Roman senator Marcus Ulpius Traianus. Her second name Marciana she inherited from her mother’s paternal ancestors. Her birthplace is unknown.

Marciana married Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus. Patruinus was a wealthy man, who served as a praetor and later became a senator. He originally came from Vicetia (modern Vicenza in northern Italy). She bore Patruinus a daughter and only child Salonina Matidia, who was born on July 4, 68. Patruinus died in 78 and Marciana never remarried. After Patruinus’ death, Marciana and Matidia went to live with Trajan and his wife.

After 105, her brother awarded her with the title of Augusta. She was the first sister of a Roman Emperor to receive this title. Marciana did not accept this at first, but her sister-in-law, the Empress Pompeia Plotina, insisted that she take the title. She thus became part of the official imperial iconography and her statue was placed together with Trajan's and Plotina's over the Arches of Trajan in Ancona. Marciana was very close to Trajan and Plotina.

Marciana would often travel with her brother and assist him in decision making. Throughout the Roman Empire, Marciana was honored with monuments and inscriptions in her name. There are two towns that Trajan founded in her honor in the Roman Empire. The first town was called Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi (modern Timgad, Algeria) and was founded around 100. This town was also named after the late parents of Marciana and Trajan. The other town was founded in 106 and was called Marcianopolis (which is now a part of modern Devnya, Bulgaria). Marciana died between 112 and 114 and was deified by the Senate at Trajan's behest.Through her daughter Salonina Matidia's third marriage, Marciana was the great-great-great grandmother of future emperor Marcus Aurelius.

Ulrika Fredrika Bremer

Ulrika Fredrika Bremer, née Salonius (24 April 1746 Åbo – 1 April 1798), was a ship owner and merchant in Swedish Finland. She was the paternal grandmother of Fredrika Bremer. After the death of her husband Jacob Bremer in 1785, at the age of 39, she took over his businesses and ships in Åbo (now Turku, Finland). She successfully managed his business empire over 13 years and was one of the richest Finnish women of her time.

Uncial 0189

Uncial 0189 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), is the oldest parchment manuscript of the New Testament.

Uncial 060

Uncial 060 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 13 (Soden), is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 6th century.

Veranus of Vence

Veranus was the fourth Bishop of Vence, Gaul, after a period as a monk.Veranus was the son of Saint Eucherius of Lyon and his wife Galla. Both he and his brother Salonius were educated at Lérins Abbey, first by Hilary of Arles, then by Salvianus and Vincent of Lérins. His father's Liber formularum spiritalis intelligentiae is addressed to Veranius and is a defence of the lawfulness of reading an allegorical sense in Scripture, bringing to bear the metaphors in Psalms.

Veranus became Bishop of Vence around 442 and served at least until 465. In February 464, Pope Hilarius commissioned Bishop Veranus to warn Mamertus of Vienne that, if in the future he did not refrain from irregular ordinations, (that is, of bishops outside of his diocese) his faculties would be withdrawn. This was to uphold the primatial privileges of the See of Arles as definded by Pope Leo I.The bishop's date of death is uncertain. His remains lie in a carved sarcophagus in La Cathedrale Notre-Dame de la Nativite de Vence.

The Morgan Library has a Book of Hours from Rouen from about 1525 illuminated with a miniature depicting Bishop Veranus.

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