Salmydessus or Salmydessos (Ancient Greek: Σαιμυδησσός), also Halmydessus or Halmydessos (Ἁλμυδισσὸς), was a coast-town of ancient Thrace, on the Euxine, about 60 miles (97 km) northwest from the entrance of the Bosporus. The eastern offshoots of the Haemus here come very close to the shore, which they divide from the valley of the Hebrus. The people of Salmydessus were thus cut off from communication with the less barbarous portions of Thrace, and became notorious for their savage and inhuman character, which harmonised well with that of their country, the coast of which was extremely dangerous. Aeschylus, who incorrectly places the down in Asia Minor, describes Salmydessus as "the rugged jaw of the sea, hostile to sailors, step-mother of ships;" and Xenophon informs us, that in his time its people carried on the business of wreckers in a very systematic manner, the coast being marked out into portions by means of posts erected along it, and those to whom each portion was assigned having the exclusive right to plunder all vessels and persons cast upon it. This plan, he says, was adopted to prevent the bloodshed which had frequently been occasioned among themselves by their previous practice of indiscriminate plunder. Strabo describes this portion of the coast of the Euxine as "desert, rocky, destitute of harbours, and completely exposed to the north winds;" while Xenophon characterises the sea adjoining it as "full of shoals." The earlier writers appear to speak of Salmydessus as a district only, but in later authors, as Apollodorus, Pliny the Elder, and Pomponius Mela, it is mentioned as a town.
Little is known respecting the history of this place. Herodotus states that its inhabitants, with some neighbouring Thracian tribes, submitted without resistance to Darius I when he was marching through their country towards the Danube. When the remnant of the Greeks who had followed Cyrus the Younger entered the service of Seuthes, one of the expeditions in which they were employed under Xenophon was to reduce the people of Salmydessus to obedience; a task which they seem to have accomplished without much difficulty.
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Cycladic culture
Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.Dardanus (Scythian king)
In Greek mythology, Dardanus (; Greek: Δάρδανος, Dardanos) was a Scythian king, who was the father of Idaea, the second wife of Phineus, the king of Salmydessus in Thrace. After Idaea falsely accused Phineus' sons by his first wife, she was sent back to Dardanus, where he condemned her to death.
The father of Phineus's wife Idaea, has sometimes been confused with, or considered to be the same as the Dardanus who was the son of Zeus and Electra, and ancestor of the Trojans.Europa (Roman province)
Europa was a Roman province within the Diocese of Thrace.Greece in the Roman era
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when Ancient Greece was dominated by the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC), the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 395), and the Byzantine Empire (AD 395 – 1453). The Roman era of Greek history began with the Corinthian defeat in the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. However, before the Achaean War, the Roman Republic had been steadily gaining control of mainland Greece by defeating the Kingdom of Macedon in a series of conflicts known as the Macedonian Wars. The Fourth Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna in 148 BC and defeat of the Macedonian royal pretender Andriscus.
The definitive Roman occupation of the Greek world was established after the Battle of Actium (31 BC), in which Augustus defeated Cleopatra VII, the Greek Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, and the Roman general Mark Antony, and afterwards conquered Alexandria (32 BC), the last great city of Hellenistic Greece. The Roman era of Greek history continued with Emperor Constantine the Great's adoption of Byzantium as Nova Roma, the capital city of the Roman Empire; in AD 330, the city was renamed Constantinople; afterwards, the Byzantine Empire was a generally Greek-speaking polity.Hisarlik
Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.
It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.Kıyıköy
Kıyıköy, formerly Midye, ancient/medieval Medea (Greek: Μήδεια), is a village in the district of Vize in Kırklareli Province at northwestern Turkey. It is situated on the coast of the Black Sea. It is 36 km (22 mi) far from the district center and 95 km (59 mi) away from the province center. The village became a municipality in 1987. The population of Kıyıköy is 2,077 according to the 2010 National Census.Fishing and forestry are the main ways of living in addition to tourism in the summer. The town has a small beach. The area surrounding the town is covered by dense forests of mainly oak. Two streams, Kazandere and Pabuçdere, surround the town in the south and the north respectively. Flowing into the Black Sea, these streams are suitable for fishing, boating and swimming.
The Kasatura Bay Nature Reserve Area is 18 km (11 mi) south of the town along the Black Sea. The site harbors a pristine forest and a beach. The only naturally growing grove of black pine (Pinus nigra) in the European part Rumelia of Turkey is found at this site.
Medea is a Roman Catholic titular seeThe village is scheduled to host the onshore terminal of the Turkish Stream pipeline from Russia.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Paideia
In the culture of ancient Greece and later of the Greco-Roman world at large, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis or state. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.Philia (Thrace)
Philia (Ancient Greek: Φιλία) was a town of ancient Thrace, on the coast of the Euxine, situated on a promontory of the same name. It was situated 310 stadia southeast of Salmydessus.
Its site is located near Karaburun in European Turkey.Phineus
In Greek mythology, Phineus (; Ancient Greek: Φινεύς, Ancient Greek: [pʰiː.neǔs]) was a king of Salmydessus in Thrace and seer who appears in accounts of the Argonauts' voyage. Some accounts, make him a king in Paphlagonia or in Arcadia.Phylakopi I culture
The Phylakopi I culture (Greek: Φυλακωπή) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for the Cycladic culture that flourished during the early Bronze Age in Greece. It spans the period ca. 2300-2000 BC and was named by Colin Renfrew, after the settlement of Phylakopi on the Cycladic island of Milos. Other archaeologists describe this period as the Early Cycladic III (ECIII).Rhodiapolis
Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Thynias
Thynias (Ancient Greek: Θυνίας) was a town of ancient Thrace on the coast of the Pontus Euxinus on a promontory of the same name (modern İğneada Burnu), mentioned by numerous ancient authors. It was located north of Salmydessus, which was probably at one time in the territories of the Thyni, although Strabo speaks of the district as belonging to the people of Apollonia. According to Pliny the Elder, the town was placed a little to the south of the promontory.Its site is located near İğneada in European Turkey.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.