Salmydessus or Salmydessos (Ancient Greek: Σαιμυδησσός), also Halmydessus or Halmydessos (Ἁλμυδισσὸς),[1][2][3] was a coast-town of ancient Thrace, on the Euxine, about 60 miles (97 km) northwest from the entrance of the Bosporus. The eastern offshoots of the Haemus here come very close to the shore, which they divide from the valley of the Hebrus. The people of Salmydessus were thus cut off from communication with the less barbarous portions of Thrace, and became notorious for their savage and inhuman character, which harmonised well with that of their country, the coast of which was extremely dangerous. Aeschylus, who incorrectly places the down in Asia Minor, describes Salmydessus as "the rugged jaw of the sea, hostile to sailors, step-mother of ships;"[4] and Xenophon informs us, that in his time its people carried on the business of wreckers in a very systematic manner, the coast being marked out into portions by means of posts erected along it, and those to whom each portion was assigned having the exclusive right to plunder all vessels and persons cast upon it.[5] This plan, he says, was adopted to prevent the bloodshed which had frequently been occasioned among themselves by their previous practice of indiscriminate plunder.[5] Strabo describes this portion of the coast of the Euxine as "desert, rocky, destitute of harbours, and completely exposed to the north winds;"[6] while Xenophon characterises the sea adjoining it as "full of shoals."[5] The earlier writers appear to speak of Salmydessus as a district only, but in later authors, as Apollodorus, Pliny the Elder, and Pomponius Mela, it is mentioned as a town.

Little is known respecting the history of this place. Herodotus states that its inhabitants, with some neighbouring Thracian tribes, submitted without resistance to Darius I when he was marching through their country towards the Danube.[7] When the remnant of the Greeks who had followed Cyrus the Younger entered the service of Seuthes, one of the expeditions in which they were employed under Xenophon was to reduce the people of Salmydessus to obedience; a task which they seem to have accomplished without much difficulty.[5]

Its site is located near Midye in European Turkey.[8][9]


  1. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 3.11.4.
  2. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 4.11.18.
  3. ^ Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 2.2.5.
  4. ^ Aeschylus, Prom. 726.
  5. ^ a b c d Xenophon. Anabasis. 7.5.12. et. seq.
  6. ^ Strabo. Geographica. vii. p. 319. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  7. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 4.93.
  8. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 52, and directory notes accompanying.
  9. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Salmydessus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 41°38′14″N 28°05′28″E / 41.637244°N 28.091144°E


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Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.

Dardanus (Scythian king)

In Greek mythology, Dardanus (; Greek: Δάρδανος, Dardanos) was a Scythian king, who was the father of Idaea, the second wife of Phineus, the king of Salmydessus in Thrace. After Idaea falsely accused Phineus' sons by his first wife, she was sent back to Dardanus, where he condemned her to death.

The father of Phineus's wife Idaea, has sometimes been confused with, or considered to be the same as the Dardanus who was the son of Zeus and Electra, and ancestor of the Trojans.

Europa (Roman province)

Europa was a Roman province within the Diocese of Thrace.

Greece in the Roman era

Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when Ancient Greece was dominated by the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC), the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 395), and the Byzantine Empire (AD 395 – 1453). The Roman era of Greek history began with the Corinthian defeat in the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. However, before the Achaean War, the Roman Republic had been steadily gaining control of mainland Greece by defeating the Kingdom of Macedon in a series of conflicts known as the Macedonian Wars. The Fourth Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna in 148 BC and defeat of the Macedonian royal pretender Andriscus.

The definitive Roman occupation of the Greek world was established after the Battle of Actium (31 BC), in which Augustus defeated Cleopatra VII, the Greek Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, and the Roman general Mark Antony, and afterwards conquered Alexandria (32 BC), the last great city of Hellenistic Greece. The Roman era of Greek history continued with Emperor Constantine the Great's adoption of Byzantium as Nova Roma, the capital city of the Roman Empire; in AD 330, the city was renamed Constantinople; afterwards, the Byzantine Empire was a generally Greek-speaking polity.


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Philia (Thrace)

Philia (Ancient Greek: Φιλία) was a town of ancient Thrace, on the coast of the Euxine, situated on a promontory of the same name. It was situated 310 stadia southeast of Salmydessus.

Its site is located near Karaburun in European Turkey.


In Greek mythology, Phineus (; Ancient Greek: Φινεύς, Ancient Greek: [pʰiː.neǔs]) was a king of Salmydessus in Thrace and seer who appears in accounts of the Argonauts' voyage. Some accounts, make him a king in Paphlagonia or in Arcadia.

Phylakopi I culture

The Phylakopi I culture (Greek: Φυλακωπή) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for the Cycladic culture that flourished during the early Bronze Age in Greece. It spans the period ca. 2300-2000 BC and was named by Colin Renfrew, after the settlement of Phylakopi on the Cycladic island of Milos. Other archaeologists describe this period as the Early Cycladic III (ECIII).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


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Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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