Saleh

Saleh (/ˈsɑːlə/) or Salih (/ˈsɑːli/; Arabic: صَالِح‎, translit. Ṣāliḥ, lit. 'Pious') is a Prophet mentioned in the Quran and Bahá'í books[1][2] who prophesied to the tribe of Thamud[3][4][5] in ancient Arabia, before the lifetime of Muhammad. The story of Saleh is linked to the story of the She-Camel of God, which was the gift given by God to the people of Thamud when they desired a miracle to confirm that Saleh was truly a prophet.


Saleh
Salih and the she camel
Salih inviting his people to see the She-Camel
Illuminated collection of Stories of the Prophets
Native name
صَالِح
PronunciationṢāliḥ
RelativesThamud

Historical context

The Thamud were a tribal confederation in the northwestern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mentioned in Assyrian sources in the time of Sargon II. The tribe's name continues to appear in documents into the fourth century AD, but by the sixth century they were regarded as a group that had vanished long ago.[6]:81

According to the Quran, the city that Saleh was sent to was called al-Hijr,[7] which corresponds to the Nabataean city of Hegra.[8] The city rose to prominence around the first century AD as an important site in the regional caravan trade.[9] Adjacent to the city were large, decorated rock-cut tombs used by members of various religious groups.[6]:146 At an unknown point in ancient times, the site was abandoned and possibly functionally replaced by al-`Ula.[10] The site has been referred to as Mada'in Salih since the era of Muhammad, named after the Salih.[11]

Outside of the Islamic and Baha'i Faiths, Saleh is not mentioned in any other Abrahamic scripture or contemporary historical text, but the account of Thamud's destruction may have been well known in ancient Arabia. The tribe's name is used in ancient Arabian poetry as a metaphor for "the transience of all things".[6]:223-24

In Islam

Qur'an

Saleh's life in his community had been so righteous that the people of Thamud virtually relied upon him for support.[12] He was chosen by God as a Messenger and sent preach against the selfishness of the wealthy and to condemn the practice of Shirk (Idolatry or Polytheism). Although Saleh preached the message for a sustained period of time, the people for Thamud refused to hear his warning and instead began to ask Saleh to perform a miracle for them. They said: "O Salih! Thou hast been of us! A centre of our hopes hitherto! Dost thou forbid us the worship of what our fathers worshiped? But we are really in suspicious (disquieting) doubt as to that to which thou invitest us."

Saleh reminded his people of the countless castles and palaces they built out of stone,[13] and of their technological superiority over neighboring communities. Furthermore, he told them about their ancestors, the ʿĀd tribe, and how they too were destroyed for their sins. Some of the people of Thamud believed Saleh's words, but the tribal leaders refused to listen to him and continued to demand that he demonstrate a miracle to prove his prophethood.[14]

In response, God gave the Thamud a blessed she-camel, as both a means of sustenance and a test. The tribe was told to allow the camel to graze peacefully and avoid harming her.[15] But in defiance of Saleh's warning, the people of the tribe hamstrung the camel.[16] Saleh informed them that they had only three more days to live before the wrath of God descended upon them.[17] The people of the city were remorseful,[18] but their crime could not be undone, and all the disbelieving people in the city were killed in an earthquake. Al-Hijr was rendered uninhabited and remained in ruins for all time thereafter.[19] Saleh himself and the few believers who followed him survived.[20]

In the version of the story told in Sūrat an-Naml, the she-camel is not mentioned. Instead, it states that nine men plotted to kill Saleh himself,[21][22] a crime for which they were struck down by God.

Muslim tradition

Muslim writers have elaborated upon the story of Saleh and the she-camel. Early Islamic tradition often involved a motif of the camel miraculously emerging from stone, often accompanied by a calf, and the production of milk from the camel. Al-Tabari states that Saleh summoned his people to a mountain, where they witnessed the rock miraculously split open, revealing the camel. The she-camel had a young calf. Saleh informed the Thamud that the older camel was to drink from their water source on one day, and they were to drink from it the next day. On days when they were not allowed to drink water, the camel provided them with milk. But God informed Saleh that a boy who would hamstring the camel would soon be born to the tribe, and that child was evil and grew unnaturally fast. The camel was indeed killed, and its calf cried out three times, signaling that the Thamud would be destroyed in three days. Their faces turned yellow, then red, then black, and they died on the third day as predicted.[23]

A similar tradition is related in an eighth-century commentary on Islam by John of Damascus[24][25] and is also mentioned in the works of Ibn Kathir.[26]

In the Bahá'í Faith

The founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, briefly mentioned the story of the hamstrung she-camel in the Lawh-i-Burhán,[1] and commented also upon Saleh's ministry in the Kitáb-i-Íqán.

In the Kitáb-i-Íqán, Saleh is referred to as "the holy person of Sálih, Who again summoned the people to the river of everlasting life." Like other Prophets of God, the people of the time turned away from Him: "His admonitions, however, yielded no fruit, and His pleading proved of no avail....All this, although that eternal Beauty was summoning the people to no other than the city of God."[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "LAWḤ-I-BURHÁN (Tablet of the Proof)". Baha'i Reference Library. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude)". Baha'i Reference Library. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  3. ^ Quran 7:73–79
  4. ^ Quran 11:61–69
  5. ^ Quran 26:141–158
  6. ^ a b c Hoyland, Robert. Arabia and the Arabs. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415195355.
  7. ^ Quran 15:80–84
  8. ^ Can Aksoy, Omer (2009). "Framing the Primordial: Islamic Heritage and Saudi Arabia". In Rico, Trinidad (ed.). The Making of Islamic Heritage: Muslim Pasts and Heritage Presents. p. 69. ISBN 978-981-10-4070-2.
  9. ^ Fiema, Zbigniew T. (2003). "Roman Petra (A.D. 106–363): A Neglected Subject". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (1953-). 119 (1): 38–58.
  10. ^ Nehme, Leila. "Ancient Hegra, a Nabataean Site in a Semi-arid Environment. The Urban Space and Preliminary Results from the First Excavation Season" (PDF). Bollettino di Archeologia.
  11. ^ Hizon, Danny. "Madain Saleh: Arabia's Hidden Treasure – Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 2009-09-17.
  12. ^ Quran 11:62: "They said: "O Salih! Thou hast been of us! A centre of our hopes hitherto! Dost thou forbid us the worship of what our fathers worshiped? But we are really in suspicious (disquieting) doubt as to that to which thou invitest us.""
  13. ^ Quran 7:74: "And remember how He made you inheritors after the 'Ad people and gave you habitations in the land: ye build for yourselves palaces and castles in (open) plains, and care out homes in the mountains; so bring to remembrance the benefits (ye have received) from Allah, and refrain from evil and mischief on the earth"
  14. ^ Quran 7:75: "The leaders of the arrogant party among his people said to those who were reckoned powerless - those among them who believed: "Know ye indeed that Salih is a messenger from his Lord?"
  15. ^ Quran 7:73: "Now hath come unto you a clear (Sign) from your Lord! This she-camel of Allah is a Sign unto you: So leave her to graze in Allah's earth, and let her come to no harm, or ye shall be seized with a grievous punishment.'"
  16. ^ Quran 7:77
  17. ^ Quran 11:65
  18. ^ Quran 26:157
  19. ^ Quran 7:78
  20. ^ Quran 7:79: "So Salih left them, saying: 'O my people! I did indeed convey to you the message for which I was sent by my Lord: I gave you good counsel, but ye love not good counselors!'"
  21. ^ Quran 27:48
  22. ^ Quran 27:49
  23. ^ al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Yarir. The History of al-Tabari, Volume 2. Translated by William Brinner. p. 41-44.
  24. ^ Hoyland, Robert (1997). Seeing Islam As Others Saw It A Survey And Evaluation Of Christian Jewish And Zoroastrian Writings On Early Islam. Darwin Press. p. 480-485.
  25. ^ John of Damascus (1958). The Fathers Of The Church: A New Translation, Vol 37. Translated by Frederick H Chase Jr. Catholic University of America Press. p. 158-159.
  26. ^ Ibn Kathir. "Prophet Salih". Stories of the Prophets. Translated by Muhammad Mustapha Geme’ah. Darussalam.
Ali Abdullah Saleh

Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبدالله صالح , ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947 – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution. Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.Saleh developed deeper ties with Western powers, especially the United States, in the War on Terror. Terrorism may have been used and encouraged by Ali Abdullah Saleh to win Western support and for disruptive politically motivated attacks.In 2011, in the wake of the Arab Spring, which spread across North Africa and the Middle East (including Yemen), Saleh's time in office became more and more untenable until eventually he was ousted as President in 2012. He was succeeded by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.

In May 2015, Saleh openly allied with the Houthis (Ansar Allah) during the Yemeni Civil War, in which a protest movement and subsequent insurgency succeeded in capturing Yemen's capital, Sana'a, causing President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi to resign and flee the country. In December 2017, he declared his withdrawal from his coalition with the Houthis and instead sided with his former enemies – Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and President Hadi. Accused of treason by the Houthis, he was killed by a Houthi sniper while attempting to flee the capital city of Sana'a amidst the 2017 battle for the city on 4 December 2017.

Gaz Saleh-e Olya

Gaz Saleh-e Olya (Persian: گزصالح عليا‎, also Romanized as Gaz Şāleḩ-e ‘Olyā; also known as Gaz Sala, Gaz Şāleḩ, Gaz Şāleḩ-e Bālā, Gesāleh, Gesāleh-ye Bālā, and Jezsāleh-ye ‘Olyā) is a village in Hoseynabad Rural District, Esmaili District, Anbarabad County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 687, in 148 families.

Gaz Saleh-e Sofla

Gaz Saleh-e Sofla (Persian: گزصالح سفلي‎, also Romanized as Gaz Şāleḩ-e Soflá; also known as Gesāleh-ye Pā’īn and Jezsāleh-ye Soflá) is a village in Hoseynabad Rural District, Esmaili District, Anbarabad County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 382, in 75 families.

Gowmazi Saleh

Gowmazi Saleh (Persian: گومازي صالح‎, also Romanized as Gowmāzī Şāleḩ; also known as Gūmāzī) is a village in Kambel-e Soleyman Rural District, in the Central District of Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 145, in 28 families.

Houthi movement

The Houthi movement (; Arabic: الحوثيون‎ al-Ḥūthiyyūn [ˈħuːθij.juːn]), officially called Ansar Allah (anṣār allāh أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), is an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s. They are of the Zaidi sect, though the movement reportedly also includes Sunnis.Under the leadership of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, the group emerged as a Zaydi opposition to former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, whom they charged with massive financial corruption and criticized for being backed by Saudi Arabia and the United States at the expense of the Yemeni people and Yemen's sovereignty. Resisting Saleh's order for his arrest, Hussein was killed in Sa'dah in 2004 along with a number of his guards by the Yemeni army, sparking the Houthi insurgency in Yemen. Since then, except for a short intervening period, the movement has been led by his brother Abdul-Malik al-Houthi.The Houthi movement attracts its Zaidi-Shia followers in Yemen by promoting regional political-religious issues in its media, including the overarching US-Israeli conspiracy and Arab "collusion". In 2003, the Houthis' slogan "God is great, death to the US, death to Israel, curse the Jews, and victory for Islam", became the group's trademark. Houthi officials, however, have rejected the literal interpretation of the slogan.The movement's expressed goals include combating economic underdevelopment and political marginalization in Yemen while seeking greater autonomy for Houthi-majority regions of the country. They also claim to support a more democratic non-sectarian republic in Yemen. The Houthis have made fighting corruption the centerpiece of their political program.The Houthis took part in the 2011 Yemeni Revolution by participating in street protests and by coordinating with other opposition groups. They joined the National Dialogue Conference in Yemen as part of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) initiative to broker peace following the unrest. However, the Houthis would later reject the November 2011 GCC deal's provisions stipulating formation of six federal regions in Yemen, claiming that the deal did not fundamentally reform governance and that the proposed federalization "divided Yemen into poor and wealthy regions". Houthis also feared the deal was a blatant attempt to weaken them by dividing areas under their control between separate regions. In late 2014, Houthis repaired their relationship with the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and with his help, they took control of the capital and much of the north.In 2014–2015, Houthis took over the government in Sanaʽa with the help of the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and announced the fall of the current government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. Houthis have gained control of most of the northern part of Yemen's territory and since 2015 have been resisting the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen that claims to seek to restore the internationally recognized Yemeni government to power. Additionally, the Islamic State militant group has attacked all of the conflict's major parties including Houthis, Saleh forces, the Yemeni government, and the Saudi Arabian-led coalition forces.

Hussein Ahmed Salah

Hussein Ahmed Salah (Arabic: حسين أحمد صلاح‎, born 31 December 1956 in Ali Sabieh, Djibouti) is a Djiboutian former long-distance runner, best known for winning a bronze medal in the marathon at the 1988 Summer Olympics. He also won silver medals in this event at the 1987 and 1991 World Championships. In addition, he won the 1985 IAAF World Marathon Cup. He also came second in the New York Marathon in 1985, and won the Paris Marathon in 1986.

His personal best time was 2:07:07, achieved in a 2nd-place finish in the Rotterdam Marathon in April 1988. He and race winner Belayneh Densamo both ran faster than Carlos Lopes' World Record of 2:07:12, set on the Rotterdam course in 1985. Salah's 2:07:07 is the current national record for Djibouti. He also holds the national record in 10,000 metres with 28:17.4 minutes. He is the only Djiboutian athlete to win an Olympic medal.

List of Chadian films

Following is a sortable list of films produced or shot in Chad.

Lubang Jeriji Saléh

Lubang Jeriji Saléh is a limestone cave located in the Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in district of Bengalon, East Kutai, East Kalimantan province of Indonesian Borneo, believed to contain the oldest figurative art in the world.

Mada'in Saleh

Mada'in Saleh (Arabic: مَدَائِن صَالِح‎, translit. madāʼin Ṣāliḥ, lit. 'Cities of Saleh'), also called Al-Ḥijr (Arabic: ٱلْحِجْر‎) or "Hegra", is an archaeological site located in the Sector of Al-`Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia. A majority of the remains date from the Nabatean kingdom (1st century CE). The site constitutes the kingdom's southernmost and largest settlement after Petra (modern-day Jordan), its capital. Traces of Lihyanite and Roman occupation before and after the Nabatean rule, respectively, can also be found.

The Quran places the settlement of the area by the Thamudi people during the days of Saleh, between those of Nuh (Noah) and Hud on one hand, and those of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Musa (Moses) on the other. According to the Islamic text, the Thamudis were punished by Allah (God) for their practice of idol worship, being attacked by a loud shouting. Thus, the site has earned a reputation as a cursed place—an image which the national government is attempting to overcome as it seeks to develop Mada'in Saleh for its potential for tourism.

In 2008, UNESCO proclaimed Mada'in Saleh as a site of patrimony, becoming Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site. It was chosen for its well-preserved remains from late antiquity, especially the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs, with their elaborately ornamented façades, of the Nabatean kingdom.

Raden Saleh

Raden Saleh Sjarif Boestaman (Arabic: رادين صالح شريف بوستامن‎ Rādīn Ṣāliḥ Šarīf Būstāman, Javanese: ꦫꦢꦺꦤ꧀ꦱꦭꦺꦃꦯ꦳ꦫꦶꦥ꦳꧀ꦨꦸꦱ꧀ꦠꦩꦤ꧀; EYD, EBI: Raden Saleh Syarif Bustaman; 1807 – 23 April 1880) was a pioneering Indonesian Romantic painter of Arab-Javanese ethnicity. He was considered to be the first "modern" artist from Indonesia (then Dutch East Indies), and his paintings corresponded with nineteenth-century romanticism which was popular in Europe at the time. He also expressed his cultural roots and inventiveness in his work.

Ripak-e Saleh

Ripak-e Saleh (Persian: ريپك صالح‎, also Romanized as Rīpak-e Şāleḩ; also known as Rīpak-e Şāleḩ Bāzār) is a village in Negur Rural District, Dashtiari District, Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 680, in 140 families.

Saleh Ebrahim

Saleh Ebrahim (Persian: صالح ابراهيم‎, also Romanized as Şāleḩ Ebrāhīm) is a village in Lalar and Katak Rural District, Chelo District, Andika County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 52, in 8 families.

Saleh Khani

Saleh Khani (Persian: صالح خاني‎, also Romanized as Şāleḩ Khānī; also known as Kalāteh-ye Şāleḩ Khānī) is a village in Pain Velayat Rural District, Razaviyeh District, Mashhad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 72, in 18 families.

Saleh Kutah

Saleh Kutah (Persian: صالح كوتاه‎, also Romanized as Şāleḩ Kūtāh and Saleh Kootah) is a village in Abezhdan Rural District, Abezhdan District, Andika County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 230, in 43 families.

Saleh Safir

Saleh Safir (Persian: صالح صغير‎, also Romanized as Şāleḩ Şafīr; also known as Şāleḩ Şaghīr and Sāl Şaghīr) is a village in Borborud-e Gharbi Rural District, in the Central District of Aligudarz County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 32, in 5 families.

Serai Saleh railway station

Serai Saleh railway station (Urdu: سرائے صالح ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located in Pakistan.

Yassin al-Haj Saleh

Yassin al-Haj Saleh (born in Raqqa in 1961) is a Syrian writer and political dissident. He writes on political, social and cultural subjects relating to Syria and the Arab world.From 1980 until 1996 he spent time in prison in Syria for his membership in the left-wing opposition group Syrian Communist Party (Political Bureau), which he calls a "communist pro-democracy group". However, he has also stated that his time in prison allowed him to break out of the "internal prisons [of] narrow political affiliation [and] rigid ideology", and has called the Syrian revolution an "open-ended and multi-leveled struggle", while remaining supportive of aspects of Marxism. He was arrested while he was studying medicine in Aleppo and spent sixteen years in prison, the last in Tadmur Prison. He took his final examination as a general medical practitioner in 2000, but never practiced.He has been granted a Prince Claus Award for 2012 as "actually a tribute to the Syrian people and the Syrian revolution. He was not able to collect the award as he is living hiding in the underground in Syria. He was awarded Swedish Tucholsky Prize in 2017. He was one of the talkers in a two-day anti-capitalist forum, which was held in Ankara, Turkey, on Nov 23rd-24th, 2013. Additionally, he was speaking at the event 'Reporting Change - Stories from the Arab region' in Amsterdam on 15 June 2014, an event jointly organized by Human Rights Watch and World Press Photo.Al-Haj Saleh is married to Samira Khalil, a communist dissident, former political detainee and a revolutionary activist abducted in Douma in December 2013. After 21 months of hiding in Damascus and whole Syria, for being wanted by both the government and radical Islamist militants, he fled to Turkey and lived in Istanbul until 2017. Al-Haj Saleh is now a fellow at Berlin Institute for Advanced Study (Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin).

Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than three decades. After Saleh left office in early 2012 as part of a mediated agreement between the Yemeni government and opposition groups, the government led by Saleh's former vice president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, struggled to unite the fractious political landscape of the country and fend off threats both from Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Houthi militants that had been waging a protracted insurgency in the north for years. In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. The rebels continued to apply pressure on the weakened government until, after his presidential palace and private residence came under attack from the militant group, Hadi resigned along with his ministers in January 2015. The following month, the Houthis declared themselves in control of the government, dissolving Parliament and installing an interim Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a cousin of Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi. However, Hadi escaped to Aden, where he declared that he remains Yemen's legitimate president, proclaimed the country's temporary capital, and called on loyal government officials and members of the military to rally to him. On 27 March 2015, BBC reported that Hadi had "fled rebel forces in the city of Aden" and subsequently "arrived in Saudi Arabia's capital Riyadh" as "Saudi authorities began air strikes in Yemen". Civil War subsequently erupted between Hadi's government and the Houthis. Since 2017 the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC) has also fought against the government.

Yemeni Revolution

The Yemeni Uprising (intifada), and also known as the Yemeni Revolution of Dignity followed the initial stages of the Tunisian Revolution and occurred simultaneously with the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and other Arab Spring protests in the Middle East and North Africa. In its early phase, protests in Yemen were initially against unemployment, economic conditions and corruption, as well as against the government's proposals to modify Yemen's constitution. The protesters' demands then escalated to calls for the resignation of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh. Mass defections from the military, as well as from Saleh's government, effectively rendered much of the country outside of the government's control, and protesters vowed to defy its authority.

A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sanaʽa, Yemen's capital, on 27 January. On 2 February, Saleh announced he would not run for reelection in 2013 and that he would not pass power to his son. On 3 February, 20,000 people protested against the government in Sanaʽa, while others protested in Aden, a southern Yemeni seaport city, in a "Day of Rage" called for by Tawakel Karman, while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress and many protesters held a pro-government rally in Sanaʽa. In a "Friday of Anger" on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in Taiz, Sanaʽa and Aden. On a "Friday of No Return" on 11 March, protesters called for Saleh's ousting in Sanaʽa where three people were killed. More protests were held in other cities, including Mukalla, where one person was killed. On 18 March, protesters in Sanaʽa were fired upon, resulting in 52 deaths and ultimately culminating in mass defections and resignations.Starting in late April, Saleh agreed to a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered deal, only to back away hours before the scheduled signing three times. After the third time, on 22 May, the GCC declared it was suspending its efforts to mediate in Yemen. On 23 May, a day after Saleh refused to sign the transition agreement, Sheikh Sadiq al-Ahmar, the head of the Hashid tribal federation, one of the most powerful tribes in the country, declared support for the opposition and his armed supporters came into conflict with loyalist security forces in the capital Sanaʽa. Heavy street fighting ensued, which included artillery and mortar shelling. Saleh and several others were injured and at least five people were killed by a 3 June bombing of the presidential compound when an explosion ripped through a mosque used by high-level government officials for prayer services. Reports conflicted as to whether the attack was caused by shelling or a planted bomb. The next day, Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi took over as acting president while Saleh flew to Saudi Arabia to be treated. The crowds celebrated Saleh's transfer of power, but Yemeni officials insisted that Saleh's absence was temporary and he would soon return to Yemen to resume his duties of office.In early July the government rejected the opposition's demands, including the formation of a transitional council with the goal of formally transferring power from the current administration to a caretaker government intended to oversee Yemen's first-ever democratic elections. In response, factions of the opposition announced the formation of their own 17-member transitional council on 16 July, though the Joint Meeting Parties that have functioned as an umbrella for many of the Yemeni opposition groups during the uprising said the council did not represent them and did not match their "plan" for the country.On 23 November, Saleh signed a power-transfer agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council in Riyadh, under which he would transfer his power to his Vice-President, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, within 30 days and leave his post as president by February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Although the GCC deal was accepted by the JMP, it was rejected by many of the protesters and the Houthis. A presidential election was held in Yemen on 21 February 2012, with Hadi running unopposed. A report claims that the election had a 65% turnout, with Hadi receiving 99.8% of the vote. Hadi took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February 2012. Saleh returned home on the same day to attend Hadi's inauguration. After months of protests, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and formally transferred power to his successor, marking the end of his 33-year rule.

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