Salad bowl (cultural idea)

The salad bowl concept suggests that the integration of the many different cultures of United States residents combine salad, as opposed to the more traditional notion of a cultural melting pot. New York City can be considered as being a "salad bowl". In Canada this concept is more commonly known as the cultural mosaic.[1] In the salad bowl model, different American cultures are brought together — like salad ingredients — but do not form together into a single homogeneous culture; each culture keeps its own distinct qualities. This idea proposes a society of many individual cultures, since the latter suggests that ethnic groups may be unable to preserve their heritage.

An example of the European version of a salad bowl can be seen in its policy regarding the EU programme ‘integration of non-European nationals’ which finances and promotes integration initiatives targeting those who are not members of the EU25. This project aims to encourage dialogue in civil society, develop integration models, and spread and highlight the best initiatives regarding integration.

The salad bowl idea in practice has its supporters and detractors. Supporters argue that being American does not inherently tie a person to a single culture, though rather to citizenship and loyalty to the United States. Thus, one does not need to abandon their cultural heritage in order to be considered "American". Critics tend to oppose the idea in tandem with other critiques on multiculturalism, saying that America needs to have a common culture in order to preserve a common national identity.

Cold meat salad
Various distinct components can combine to make a salad.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kalman, Bobbie (2010). Canada: The Culture. Crabtree Pub. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7787-9284-0. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  1. Lind, Michael. The Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution. 1996
  2. Schmidt, Alvin J. The Menace of Multiculturalism: Trojan Horse in America. 1997
  3. Huntington, Samuel P. Who Are We?: The Challenges to America's National Identity. 2005
  4. Chua, Amy. Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance and Why They Fall. 2007
  5. Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. 2009
American nationalism

Related to but distinct from American patriotism.

American nationalism or United States nationalism is a form of civic nationalism, cultural nationalism or ethnic nationalism found in the United States. Essentially, it indicates the aspects that characterize and distinguish the United States as an autonomous political community. The term often serves to explain efforts to reinforce its national identity and self-determination within their national and international affairs. All three forms of nationalism have found expression throughout the United States' history, depending on the historical period. American scholars such as Hans Kohn state that the United States government institutionalized a civic nationalism founded upon legal and rational concepts of citizenship, being based on common language and cultural traditions. The Founding Fathers of the United States established the country upon classical liberal and individualist principles, although forms of ethnic nationalism were also present, as codified in the Naturalization Act of 1790.

Americanization (foreign culture and media)

In American media, the term Americanization is used to describe the censoring and editing of a foreign TV show or movie that is bought by a U.S. station. This editing is done with the aim of making the work more appealing to American audiences, and to respond to perceived American sensitivities. The changes can be so drastic that little—if any—evidence of the TV show or movie's true origin remains.

For television documentaries, it is an established practice in English-speaking countries to hire someone of the audience's accent as a narrator. Sometimes the script is done verbatim, e.g., the PBS Nova documentary series continued to use the BBC's original word "maize," whereas an American audience would expect to hear "corn."

Americanization (immigration)

Americanization is the process of an immigrant to the United States becoming a person who shares American values, beliefs, and customs by assimilating into American society. This process typically involves learning the English language and adjusting to American culture, values and customs.

The Americanization movement was a nationwide organized effort in the 1910s to bring millions of recent immigrants into the American cultural system. 30+ states passed laws requiring Americanization programs; in hundreds of cities the chamber of commerce organized classes in English language and American civics; many factories cooperated. Over 3000 school boards, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, operated after-school and Saturday classes. Labor unions, especially the coal miners, (United Mine Workers of America) helped their members take out citizenship papers. In the cities, the YMCA and YWCA were especially active, as were organization of descendants of the founding generation such as the Daughters of the American Revolution. The movement climaxed during World War I, as eligible young immigrant men were drafted into the Army, and the nation made every effort to integrate the European ethnic groups into the national identity. During the movement of immigrants to America in the 1990s, Americanization was pushed on immigrants, except by one organization, the International Institute.

As a form of cultural assimilation, the movement stands in contrast to later ideas of multiculturalism. Americanization efforts during this time period went beyond education and English learning, into active and sometimes coercive suppression of "foreign" cultural elements. The movement has been criticized as xenophobic and prejudiced against Southern Europeans, though anti-German sentiment also became widespread after the U.S. declared war on Germany.

Index of United States-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United States of America.

Pluralism (political theory)

Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence. The central question for classical pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process. Groups of individuals try to maximize their interests. Lines of conflict are multiple and shifting as power is a continuous bargaining process between competing groups. There may be inequalities but they tend to be distributed and evened out by the various forms and distributions of resources throughout a population. Any change under this view will be slow and incremental, as groups have different interests and may act as "veto groups" to destroy legislation. The existence of diverse and competing interests is the basis for a democratic equilibrium, and is crucial for the obtaining of goals by individuals. A polyarchy—a situation of open competition for electoral support within a significant part of the adult population—ensures competition of group interests and relative equality. Pluralists stress civil rights, such as freedom of expression and organization, and an electoral system with at least two parties. On the other hand, since the participants in this process constitute only a tiny fraction of the populace, the public acts mainly as bystanders. This is not necessarily undesirable for two reasons: (1) it may be representative of a population content with the political happenings, or (2) political issues require continuous and expert attention, which the average citizen may not have.Important theorists of pluralism include Robert A. Dahl (who wrote the seminal pluralist work, Who Governs?), David Truman, and Seymour Martin Lipset.

Salad Bowl

Salad Bowl can refer to the following:

Salad bowl (cultural idea), a cultural idea referring to the United States

Salad Bowl (game), a defunct, annual, post-season college football bowl game

Salad Bowl strike, a series of strikes, mass pickets, boycotts and secondary boycotts in 1970, led by César Chávez and United Farm Workers, that led to the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history

The Salinas Valley in California, often referred to as the world's salad bowl because of the volume of produce exported from the region

A bowl of salad

Colloquial term for the Meisterschale, the trophy awarded to the German champions in association football

The Making of an American

The Making of an American is a 1920 short silent film used as an educational tool in the governmental Americanization initiatives to assimilate immigrants into mainstream culture, especially by encouraging them to learn the English language. It was produced for the State of Connecticut Department of Americanization by the Worcester Film Corp., a company founded in 1918 in Worcester, Massachusetts. The film was rediscovered and preserved by Northeast Historic Film (NHF) a regional moving image archive in New England.

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