Saint Titus

Titus (/ˈtaɪtəs/; Greek: Τίτος) was an early Christian missionary and church leader, a companion and disciple of Paul the Apostle, mentioned in several of the Pauline epistles including the Epistle to Titus. He is believed to be a Gentile converted to Christianity by Paul and, according to tradition, he was consecrated as Bishop of the Island of Crete.[1]

Titus brought a fundraising letter from Paul to Corinth, to collect for the poor in Jerusalem. Later, on Crete, Titus appointed presbyters (elders) in every city and remained there into his old age, dying in Gortyna, near the city of Candia (modern Heraklion).[1]

Titus
Saint Titus (Kosovo, 14th c. Pech Patriarch., S. Nicholas church)
Bishop and Martyr
Born1st century AD
Died96 or 107 AD
Gortyn, Crete
Venerated inCatholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Lutheranism
Anglican Communion
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineHeraklion, Crete
FeastAugust 25 (Eastern Orthodox Liturgical Calendar)
January 26 (General Roman Calendar)
PatronageCrete

Life

Titus was a Greek, apparently from Antioch,[2] who is said to have studied Greek philosophy and poetry in his early years.[3] He seems to have been converted by Paul, whereupon he served as Paul's secretary and interpreter. In the year 49, Titus accompanied Paul to the council held at Jerusalem, on the subject of the Mosaic rites. Although Paul had consented to the circumcision of Timothy, in order to render his ministry acceptable among the Jews, he would not allow the same in regard to Titus, so as not to seem in agreement with those who would require it for Gentile converts.[4]

Towards the close of the year 56, Paul, as he himself departed from Asia, sent Titus from Ephesus to Corinth, with full commission to remedy the fallout precipitated by Timothy's delivery of 1 Corinthians[5] and Paul's "Painful Visit",[6] particularly a significant personal offense and challenge to Paul's authority by one unnamed individual.[7] During this journey, Titus served as the courier for what is commonly known as the "Severe Letter", a Pauline missive that has been lost but is referred to in 2 Corinthians.[8]

After success on this mission, Titus journeyed north and met Paul in Macedonia. There the apostle, overjoyed by Titus' success,[9] wrote 2 Corinthians. Titus then returned to Corinth with a larger entourage, carrying 2 Corinthians with him. Paul joined Titus in Corinth later. From Corinth, Paul then sent Titus to organize the collections of alms for the Christians at Jerusalem. Titus was therefore a troubleshooter, peacemaker, administrator, and missionary.

Early church tradition holds that Paul, after his release from his first imprisonment in Rome, stopped at the island of Crete to preach. Due to the needs of other churches, requiring his presence elsewhere, he ordained his disciple Titus as bishop of that island,[10] and left him to finish the work he had started. Chrysostom says that this is an indication of the esteem St. Paul held for Titus.[4]

Paul summoned Titus from Crete to join him at Nicopolis in Epirus.[11] Later, Titus traveled to Dalmatia.[12] The New Testament does not record his death.

It has been argued that the name "Titus" in 2 Corinthians and Galatians is nothing more than an informal name used by Timothy, implied already by the fact that even though both are said to be long-term close companions of Paul, they never appear in common scenes.[13] The theory proposes that a number of passages—1 Cor. 4:17, 16.10; 2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6, 13–14, 12:18; and Acts 19.22—all refer to the same journey of a single individual, Titus-Timothy. 2 Timothy seems to dispute this, by claiming that Titus has gone to Dalmatia (2 Timothy 4:10). The fact that Paul made a point of circumcising Timothy (Acts 16:3) but refused to circumcise Titus (Galatians 2:3) would indicate that they are different men, although certain manuscripts of Galatians (Galatians 2:4) have been taken (by Marius Victorinus,[14] for example) to indicate that Paul did circumcise Titus.

Veneration

The feast day of Titus was not included in the Tridentine Calendar. When added in 1854, it was assigned to 6 February.[15] In 1969, the Catholic Church assigned the feast to 26 January so as to celebrate the two disciples of Paul, Titus and Timothy, the day after the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul.[16] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America celebrates these two, together with Silas, on the same date. The Orthodox Church commemorates him on 25 August and on 4 January.

His relics, now consisting of only his skull, are venerated in the Church of St. Titus, Heraklion, Crete, to which it was returned in 1966[17] after being removed to Venice during the Turkish occupation.

St. Titus is the patron saint of the United States Army Chaplain Corps. The Corps has established the Order of Titus Award, described by the Department of Defense:

Order of Titus award is the only award presented by the Chief of Chaplains to recognize outstanding performance of ministry by chaplains and chaplain assistants. The Order of Titus is awarded for meritorious contributions to the unique and highly visible Unit Ministry Team Observer Controller Program. The award recognizes the great importance of realistic, doctrinally guided combat ministry training in ensuring the delivery of prevailing religious support to the American Soldier.[18]

References

  1. ^ a b Smith, William. Smith’s Bible Dictionary 11th printing, November 1975. New Jersey: Fleming H. Revel Company. pp. 701–02.
  2. ^ Foley O.F.M., Leonard. Saint of the Day, Lives, Lessons, and Feast, (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M.), Franciscan Media
  3. ^ "Timothy and Titus", Catholic News Agency, January 26, 2015
  4. ^ a b Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Saints, Vol. I, (1866)
  5. ^ 1 Corinthians 16:10–11
  6. ^ 2 Corinthians 2:1
  7. ^ 2 Corinthians 2:5–11
  8. ^ 2 Corinthians 7:8
  9. ^ 2 Corinthians 7:6–15
  10. ^ Titus 1:5
  11. ^ Titus 3:12
  12. ^ Pope Benedict XVI. "Timothy and Titus", L'Osservatore Romano, p. 11, December 27, 2006
  13. ^ Fellows, Richard G. "Was Titus Timothy?" Journal for the Study of the New Testament 81 (2001):33–58.
  14. ^ Cooper, Stephen. Marius Victorinus' Commentary on Galatians. Oxford University Press, 2005.
  15. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 86
  16. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 116
  17. ^ The Orthodox Messenger, v. 8(7/8), July/Aug 1997
  18. ^ "Titus Award". Retrieved 18 June 2017.
Argyrokastro Castle

Argyrokastro (Greek: Αργυρόκαστρο, "silver castle") is a castle in the region of the Peloponnese, Greece. It is located in mountainous Arcadia, near the village of Magouliana, at an elevation of 1,450 m. It is also known as the Gortyniako dynamari (Γορτυνιακό δυναμάρι, "Gortynian stronghold").

The castle was erected during the Frankish rule by the Villehardouin dynasty of the Principality of Achaea, and served as their summer retreat.

Calendar of saints (Church of the Province of Melanesia)

The calendar of saints and commemorations in the Church of the Province of Melanesia (the Anglican Church in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) is a continually developing list. Both old and new, universal and local saints and worthies are celebrated.

Catholic Church in Turkey

The Catholic Church in Turkey is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and the canonical leadership of the curia in Rome.

Turkey is notable for being the only country with territory in Europe, other than Estonia, to have never had a Catholic bishop from its own dominant ethnic group in recent centuries.

Cretan cuisine

Cretan cuisine (Greek: Κρητική κουζίνα ή διατροφή) is the traditional cuisine of the Mediterranean island of Crete.

Epistle to Titus

The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (along with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy) in the New Testament, historically attributed to Paul the Apostle. It is addressed to Saint Titus and describes the requirements and duties of elders and bishops.

Gortyn

Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Greek: Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα, pronounced [ˈɣortina]) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion. The seat of the municipality is the village Agioi Deka. Gortyn, the Roman capital of Creta et Cyrenaica, was first inhabited around 3200 BC.

It is located in the valley of Messara in the south of the Psiloritis mountain, in the current position of the settlements of Metropolis and Agioi Deka, and near the Libyan Sea.

Gortyna

Gortyna (Ancient Greek: Γόρτυνα), or Gortyn (Γορτύν), was a town of ancient Crete which appears in the Homeric poems, under the form of Γορτύν; but afterwards became usually Gortyna (Γόρτυνα). According to Stephanus of Byzantium it was originally called Larissa (Λάρισσα) and Cremnia or Kremnia (Κρήμνια).

Kingdom of Candia

The Realm or Kingdom of Candia (Italian: Regno di Candia) or Duchy of Candia (Italian: Ducato di Candia) was the official name of Crete during the island's period as an overseas colony of the Republic of Venice, from the initial Venetian conquest in 1205–1212 to its fall to the Ottoman Empire during the Cretan War (1645–1669). The island was at the time and up to the early modern era commonly known as Candia after its capital, Candia or Chandax (modern Heraklion). In modern Greek historiography, the period is known as the Venetocracy (Greek: Βενετοκρατία, Venetokratia or Ενετοκρατία, Enetokratia).

The island of Crete had formed part of the Byzantine Empire until 1204, when the Fourth Crusade dissolved the empire and divided its territories amongst the crusader leaders (see Frankokratia). Crete was initially allotted to Boniface of Montferrat, but, unable to enforce his control over the island, he soon sold his rights to Venice. Venetian troops first occupied the island in 1205, but it took until 1212 for it to be secured, especially against the opposition of Venice's rival Genoa. Thereafter, the new colony took shape: the island was divided into six provinces (sestieri) named after the divisions of the city of Venice itself, while the capital Candia was directly subjected to the Commune Veneciarum. The islands of Tinos and Cythera, also under Venetian control, came under the kingdom's purview. In the early 14th century, this division was replaced by four provinces, almost identical to the four modern prefectures.

During the first two centuries of Venetian rule, revolts by the native Orthodox Greek population against the Roman Catholic Venetians were frequent, often supported by the Empire of Nicaea. Fourteen revolts are counted between 1207 and the last major uprising, the Revolt of St. Titus in the 1360s, which united the Greeks and the Venetian coloni against the financial exactions of the metropolis. Thereafter, and despite occasional revolts and Turkish raids, the island largely prospered, and Venetian rule opened up a window into the ongoing Italian Renaissance. As a consequence, an artistic and literary revival unparalleled elsewhere in the Greek world took place: the Cretan School of painting, which culminated in the works of El Greco, united Italian and Byzantine forms, and a widespread literature using the local idiom emerged, culminating with the early 17th-century romances Erotokritos and Erophile.

After the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus in 1571, Crete was Venice's last major overseas possession. The Republic's relative military weakness, coupled with the island's wealth and its strategic location controlling the waterways of the Eastern Mediterranean attracted the attention of the Ottoman Empire. In the long and devastating Cretan War (1645–1669), the two states fought over the possession of Crete: the Ottomans quickly overran most of the island, but failed to take Candia, which held out, aided by Venetian naval superiority and Ottoman distractions elsewhere, until 1669. Only the three island fortresses of Souda, Gramvousa and Spinalonga remained in Venetian hands. Attempts to recover Candia during the Morean War failed, and these last Venetian outposts were finally taken by the Turks in 1715, during the last Ottoman–Venetian War.

Latins (Middle Ages)

The name Latin was in the Middle Ages a common demonym among the followers of the Latin Church of Western Christianity. It derived from the Italic tribe who in antiquity developed ancient Roman civilization. The name was used irrespective of ethnicity, including by Germanic, Italic and Slavic peoples. In the Byzantine Empire, and the broader Greek Orthodox world, Latins was an exonym for all people who followed Roman Catholic Christianity. It was generally a negative characterization, especially after the 1054 schism. Thus the people associated with the states created during the Crusades were generally referred to as Latins or Franks.

List of Archbishops of Crete

Saint Titus 55/64 - 105 ?

Artemas ?

Philippos (160/170 - 180/192) ?

Dioskoros ?

Kreskes 256

Cyril † 304 ?

Miron † 350 ?

Peter ?

Paul I ?

Ikonios 431

Martyrios 451

Theodoros 553

John I 597

Paul II 667

Eumenios † 668/680 ?

Basil I 680, 692

Saint Andrew of Jerusalem 712-740

Elias I 787

John II ?

Stephan I ?

Niketas I ?

Niketas II ?

Basil II 823-828 ?

Basil III 879

Elias II 920-961

Dionysius V of Constantinople 1858-1868(The Orthodox Church of Crete was elevated again to an Archdiocese under the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1967.)

Timotheos III Papoutsakis (10 March 1978 - 26 July 2006)

Irinaios Athanasiadis (30 August 2006 - present)

List of converts to Judaism from paganism

This is a list of converts to Judaism from pagan religions.

Abraham (the founder), probably from Semitic paganism

Aquila of Sinope (Acylas), from traditional Greek religion

Bithiah, from traditional Egyptian religion

Bulan, king of the Khazars, from traditional Khazar religion

Jethro, priest of Midian and father-in-law of Moses [1], from a Mideastern religion

Makeda, queen of Sheba, from a Mideastern or Ethiopian religion

Dhu Nuwas, king of Yemen, from a Mideastern religion

Obadiah the prophet, from a Mideastern religion

Sh'maya, Sage and President of the Sanhedrin, apparently from a Mideastern religion

Avtalyon, Sage and Vice-President of the Sanhedrin, apparently from a Mideastern religion

Onkelos, Hebrew scholar and translator, from ancient Roman religion

Ruth, great-grandmother of King David, from a Near Eastern religion.

Helena, queen of Adiabene, from traditional Greek religion. [2]

Izates bar Monobaz, king of Adiabene, from a Persian or Mideastern religion. [3]

Symacho, wife of Izates bar Monobaz, from a Persian or Mideastern religion. [4]

Monobaz II, king of Adiabene, from a Persian or Mideastern religion. [5]

Osenath, from Canaanite religion (her name relates to Anat)

Zipporah, from a Mideastern or northern African religion

Yael, from Canaanite or another Near Eastern religion

Flavia Domitilla, from traditional ancient Roman religion (possibly to Jewish Christianity, as she is also a Christian saint)

Titus Flavius Clemens (consul), great-nephew of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, from traditional Roman religion (possibly to Jewish Christianity, as he is also a Christian saint)

Fulvia (wife of Saturninus), wife of Emperor Tiberius' close friend, Saturninus, from traditional Roman religion.

Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad, from Arabian religion, was the Himyarite king of Yemen. He ruled Yemen from 390–420 CE.

Paulina Beturia, from traditional Roman religion

Lordship of Chios

The Lordship of Chios was a short-lived autonomous lordship run by the Genoese Zaccaria family. Its core was the eastern Aegean island of Chios, and in its height it encompassed a number of other islands off the shore of Asia Minor. Although theoretically a vassal of the Byzantine Empire, the Zaccaria ruled the island as a practically independent domain from its capture in 1304 until the Greek-Byzantines recovered it, with the support of the local Greek population, in 1329.

Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes

The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, also known as the Kastello (Greek: Καστέλο, from Italian: Castello, "castle"), is a medieval castle in the city of Rhodes, on the island of Rhodes in Greece. It is one of the few examples of Gothic architecture in Greece. The site was previously a citadel of the Knights Hospitaller that functioned as a palace, headquarters, and fortress.

Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles, also called Epistles of Paul or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen books of the New Testament, composed of letters which are largely attributed to Paul the Apostle, although authorship of some is in dispute. Among these letters are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity. As part of the canon of the New Testament, they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics. The Epistle to the Hebrews, although it does not bear his name, was traditionally considered Pauline for a thousand years, but from the 16th century onwards opinion steadily moved against Pauline authorship and few scholars now ascribe it to Paul, mostly because it does not read like any of his other epistles in style and content. Most scholars agree that Paul really wrote seven of the Pauline epistles, but that four of the epistles in Paul's name are pseudepigraphic (Ephesians, First Timothy, Second Timothy, and Titus); scholars are divided on the authenticity of two of the epistles.The Pauline epistles are usually placed inbetween the Acts of the Apostles and the general epistles in modern editions. Most Greek manuscripts, however, place the General epistles first, and a few minuscules (175, 325, 336, and 1424) place the Pauline epistles at the end of the New Testament.

Revolt of Saint Titus

The Revolt of Saint Titus (Greek: Eπανάσταση του Αγίου Τίτου) was a fourteenth-century rebellion against the Republic of Venice in the Venetian colony of Crete. The rebels overthrew the official Venetian authorities and attempted to create an independent state, declaring Crete a republic under the protection of Saint Titus (Άγιος Τίτος): the "Republic of Saint Titus".

Siege of Candia

The Siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. Lasting from 1648 to 1669, or a total of 21 years, it is the second longest siege in history after the siege of Ceuta; however, the Ottomans were ultimately victorious despite Candia's unprecedented resistance.

Stato da Màr

The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus. It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e. Venice proper, and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy.

Treaty of Nymphaeum (1214)

The Treaty of Nymphaeum (Greek: Συνθήκη του Νυμφαίου) was a peace treaty signed in December 1214 between the Nicaean Empire, successor state of the Byzantine Empire, and the Latin Empire, which was established in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade of 1204.

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