Saint Matthias

Matthias (Koine Greek: Μαθθίας, Maththías Greek pronunciation: [maθˈθi.as], from Hebrew מַתִּתְיָהוּ‎ Mattiṯyā́hū; Coptic: ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲁⲥ; died c. 80 AD) was, according to the Acts of the Apostles (written c. AD 80–90), the apostle chosen to replace Judas Iscariot following Judas' betrayal of Jesus and his (Judas') subsequent death.[1] His calling as an apostle is unique, in that his appointment was not made personally by Jesus, who had already ascended into heaven, and it was also made before the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the early Church.

Saint Matthias
Saint Matthias
Saint Matthias from the workshop of Simone Martini
Apostle
Born1st century AD
Judaea, Roman Empire
Diedc. 80 AD
Jerusalem, Judaea or in Colchis (modern-day Georgia)
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Anglican Communion
Lutheran Church
CanonizedPre-congregation
Feast14 May (Roman Catholic Church, some places in Anglican Communion)
9 August (Eastern Orthodox Church)
24 February (in leap years 25 February) (pre-1970 General Roman Calendar, Western Rite Orthodoxy, Anglican Communion, Episcopal Church, Lutheran Church)
Attributesaxe, Christian martyrdom

Biography

There is no mention of a Matthias among the lists of disciples or followers of Jesus in the three synoptic gospels, but according to Acts, he had been with Jesus from his baptism by John until his Ascension. In the days following, Peter proposed that the assembled disciples, who numbered about 120, nominate two men to replace Judas. They chose Joseph called Barsabas (whose surname was Justus) and Matthias. Then they prayed, "Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all [men], shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place."[Acts 1:24–25] Then they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias; so he was numbered with the eleven apostles.[2]

No further information about Matthias is to be found in the canonical New Testament. Even his name is variable: the Syriac version of Eusebius calls him throughout not Matthias but "Tolmai", not to be confused with Bartholomew (which means Son of Tolmai), who was one of the twelve original Apostles; Clement of Alexandria refers once to Zacchaeus in a way which could be read as suggesting that some identified him with Matthias;[3] the Clementine Recognitions identify him with Barnabas; Hilgenfeld thinks he is the same as Nathanael in the Gospel of John.

Ministry

The tradition of the Greeks says that St. Matthias planted the faith about Cappadocia and on the coasts of the Caspian Sea, residing chiefly near the port Issus.[4]

According to Nicephorus (Historia eccl., 2, 40), Matthias first preached the Gospel in Judaea, then in Aethiopia (by the region of Colchis, now in modern-day Georgia) and was there stoned to death.[2] An extant Coptic Acts of Andrew and Matthias, places his activity similarly in "the city of the cannibals" in Aethiopia.[a][5] A marker placed in the ruins of the Roman fortress at Gonio (Apsaros) in the modern Georgian region of Adjara claims that Matthias is buried at that site.

The Synopsis of Dorotheus contains this tradition: "Matthias preached the Gospel to barbarians and meat-eaters in the interior of Ethiopia, where the sea harbor of Hyssus is, at the mouth of the river Phasis. He died at Sebastopolis, and was buried there, near the Temple of the Sun."[2]

Alternatively, another tradition maintains that Matthias was stoned at Jerusalem by the local populace, and then beheaded (cf. Tillemont, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire ecclesiastique des six premiers siècles, I, 406–7). According to Hippolytus of Rome, Matthias died of old age in Jerusalem.

Clement of Alexandria observed (Stromateis vi.13.):

Not that they became apostles through being chosen for some distinguished peculiarity of nature, since also Judas was chosen along with them. But they were capable of becoming apostles on being chosen by Him who foresees even ultimate issues. Matthias, accordingly, who was not chosen along with them, on showing himself worthy of becoming an apostle, is substituted for Judas.

Writings

Surviving fragments of the lost Gospels of Matthias[6] attribute it to Matthias, but Early Church Fathers attributed it to heretical writings in the 2nd century.

Veneration

Santa Giustina (Padua) - Tomb of Saint Matthias
His reliquary in Padua.

The feast of Saint Matthias was included in the Roman Calendar in the 11th century and celebrated on the sixth day to the Calends of March (24 February usually, but 25 February in leap years). In the revision of the General Roman Calendar in 1969, his feast was transferred to 14 May, so as not to celebrate it in Lent but instead in Eastertide close to the Solemnity of the Ascension,[7] the event after which the Acts of the Apostles recounts that Matthias was selected to be ranked with the Twelve Apostles.

The Eastern Rites of the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrate his feast on 9 August. Yet the Western Rite parishes of the Orthodox Church continues the old Roman Rite of 24 and 25 February in leap years.

The Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, as well as other older common prayer books in the Anglican Communion,[8] celebrates Matthias on 24 February. According to the newer Common Worship liturgy, he is celebrated on 14 May with a Festival, although he may be celebrated on 24 February, if desired.[9] In the Episcopal Church as well as some in the Lutheran Church, including the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Lutheran Church–Canada, his feast remains on 24 February.[10] In Evangelical Lutheran Worship, used by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America as well as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the feast date for Matthias is on 14 May.[11]

It is claimed that St Matthias the Apostle's remains were brought to Italy through Empress Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine I (the Great); part of these relics would be interred in the Abbey of Santa Giustina, Padua, and the remaining in the Abbey of St. Matthias, Trier, Germany. According to Greek sources, the remains of the apostle are buried in the castle of Gonio-Apsaros, Georgia.[12]

Notes

  1. ^ The Ethiopia/Aethiopia mentioned here as well as in the quote from the "Synopsis of Dorotheus" is that region identified with an ancient Egyptian military colony in the Caucasus mountains on the river Alazani.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Acts 1
  2. ^ a b c Jacque Eugène. Jacquier, "St. Matthias." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 10 August 2014
  3. ^ Stromata Book 4 Ch 6 The New Advent Translation says "It is said, therefore, that Zaccheus, or, according to some, Matthew, the chief of the publicans, on hearing that the Lord had deigned to come to him, said, Lord, and if I have taken anything by false accusation, I restore him fourfold;" but the Greek has 4.6.35.2 Ζακχαῖον τοίνυν, οἳ δὲ Ματθίαν φασίν, ἀρχιτελώνην, ἀκηκοότα τοῦ κυρίου καταξιώσαντος πρὸς αὐτὸν γενέσθαι, ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίση τῶν ὑπαρχόντων μου δίδωμι ἐλεημοσύνην φάναι, κύριε, καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα, τετραπλοῦν ἀποδίδωμι. ἐφ' οὗ καὶ ὁ σωτὴρ εἶπεν· can just about be read as "by some said to be Matthias")
  4. ^ Butler, Alban. "Saint Matthias, Apostle", The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints, D. & J. Sadlier, & Company, 1864
  5. ^ See "Egyptian Colony and Language in the Caucasus and its Anthropological Relations," by Hyde Clarke, 1874
  6. ^ "The Traditions of Matthias". Earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  7. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 92; cf. p. 117
  8. ^ "The Prayer Book Society of Canada " The Calendar". The Prayer Book Society of Canada.
  9. ^ "web site". Oremus.org. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  10. ^ "Misc. Info. on Minor Festivals – The Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod". Archived from the original on 6 January 2011.
  11. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Worship, (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, 2007), 15
  12. ^ Kakhidze, Emzar (2008). "Apsaros: A Roman Fort in Southwestern Georgia". In Bilde, Pia Guldager; Petersen, Jane Hjarl (eds.). Meetings of Cultures – Between Conflicts and Coexistence. Black Sea Studies. 8. Aarhus University Press. pp. 303–332..

Sources

Calendar of saints (Lutheran)

The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which specifies the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by some Lutheran Churches in the United States. The calendars of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) are from the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship and the 1982 Lutheran Worship. Elements unique to the ELCA have been updated from the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect changes resulting from the publication of Evangelical Lutheran Worship in 2006. The elements of the calendar unique to the LCMS have also been updated from Lutheran Worship and the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect the 2006 publication of the Lutheran Service Book.

The event commemorated is listed with the type of event afterwards in parentheses as well as the country where it is observed (if not commonly observed on that date in North America). For individuals, the date given is the date of their death or "heavenly birthday." The single letter listed after each event is the designated color for vestments and paraments: White (W), Red (R) or Purple (P). Commemorations are noted as being specific to the ELCA or LCMS following the particular entry. Commemorations and Festivals that are held in common are not annotated.

For further information on the development of the calendar, see Liturgical calendar (Lutheran).

Gonio Fortress

Gonio fortress (Georgian: გონიოს ციხე, previously called Apsarus or Apsaros (Ancient Greek: Ἄψαρος) and Apsyrtus or Apsyrtos (Ἄψυρτος)), is a Roman fortification in Adjara, Georgia, on the Black Sea, 15 km south of Batumi, at the mouth of the Chorokhi river. The village sits 4 km north of the Turkish border. Its name was connected with the myth of Medea and her brother Absyrtus.The oldest reference to the fortress is by Pliny the Elder in the Natural History (1st century AD). There is also a reference to the ancient name of the site in Appian’s Mithridatic Wars (2nd century AD). In the 2nd century AD it was a well-fortified Roman city within Colchis. The town was also known for its theatre and hippodrome. Procopius, writing in the 6th century, speaks of the remains of its public buildings as proving that it was once a place of some importance.It later came under Byzantine influence. The name "Gonio" is first attested in Michael Panaretos in the 14th century. In addition, there was a short-lived Genoese trade factory at the site. In 1547 Gonio was taken by the Ottomans, who held it until 1878, when, via the San-Stefano Treaty, Adjara became part of the Russian empire. In the fall of 1647, according to Evliya Çelebi, Gonio was captured by a Cossack navy of 70 chaikas, but quickly recovered by Ghazi Sidi Ahmed, ruler of the Tortum sanjak, with a force of 1,000 Turks and 3,000 "Mingrelians".

The grave of Saint Matthias, one of the twelve apostles, is believed to be inside the Gonio fortress. However, this is unverifiable as the Georgian government currently prohibits digging near the supposed gravesite. Other archaeological excavations are however taking place on the grounds of the fortress, focusing on Roman layers.

Gonio is currently experiencing a tourism boom. Most tourists come from Tbilisi in the summer months to enjoy beaches that are generally regarded as cleaner than Batumi's beaches (located 15 km to the north).

John Robinson (priest)

The Very Reverend John Joseph Robinson, MA was Dean of Belfast in the first decades of the 20th century.He was born in Dublin in 1852, educated at Trinity College, Dublin and ordained in 1875. His first post was in Stepney, London but he returned to Ireland in 1879 as curate of Saint Matthias’, Dublin. He was the incumbent at Killiskey and then Delgany. From 1900 to 1903 he was Treasurer of Christ Church Cathedral, Waterford when he became Vicar of Belfast and a year later Dean of the city’s cathedral. He resigned in 1911 and emigrated to Canada where he was Rector of Christ Church Alberta until his death in June 1916.

Lanham, Maryland

Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland. As of the 2010 United States Census it had a population of 10,157. The New Carrollton station (the terminus of the Washington Metro's Orange Line) as well as an Amtrak station are across the Capital Beltway in New Carrollton, Maryland. Doctors Community Hospital is located in Lanham.

Laze, Novo Mesto

Laze (pronounced [ˈlaːzɛ]; German: Reuter, also Reuther or Laase) is a settlement south of Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia. The railway line from Ljubljana to Metlika runs through the settlement. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola and is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region.The local church, built on the southern outskirts of the village, is dedicated to Saint Matthias and belongs to the Parish of Toplice. It dates to the late 17th century.

Matthias of Jerusalem

Saint Matthias of Jerusalem (died 120 AD) was a 2nd-century Christian saint and a Bishop of Jerusalem, whose episcopacy was about 113–120 AD.

Matthew was probably bishop for few years after Tobias until 120. During his episcopacy, he dealt with a troubled political situation due to Roman persecution of Christians and a Jewish uprising. According to Eusebius of Caesarea he was a Jewish Christian. He was persecuted by Emperor Hadrian (117–138), but died peacefully about 120AD.

Mo Chutu of Lismore

Saint Mo Chutu mac Fínaill (died 14 May 639), also known as Carthach or Carthach the Younger (a name Latinized as Carthagus and Anglicized as Carthage), was abbot of Rahan, County Offaly and subsequently, founder and first abbot of Lismore (Irish Les Mór Mo Chutu), County Waterford. The saint's Life has come down in several Irish and Latin recensions, which appear to derive from a Latin original written in the 11th or 12th century.Through his father, Fínall Fíngein, Mo Chutu belonged to the Ciarraige Luachra, while his mother, Finmed, was of the Corco Duibne. Notes added to the Félire Óengusso (the Martyrology of Óengus) claim that his fosterfather was Carthach mac Fianáin, that is Carthach the Elder, whose period of activity can be assigned to the late 6th century.Mo Chutu first became abbot of Rahan, a monastery which lay in the territory of the southern Uí Néill. He composed a rule for his monks, an Irish metrical poem of 580 lines, divided into nine separate sections, a notable literary relic of the early Irish Church.According to the Annals of Ulster, he was expelled from the monastery during the Easter season of 637. The incident has been connected with the Easter controversy, in which Irish churches were involved during the 7th century. Through his training in Munster, Mo Chutu may have been a supporter of the Roman system of calculation, which would have brought him into conflict with adherents of the 'Celtic' reckoning in Leinster.

Following his expulsion, Mo Chutu journeyed to the Déisi, where he founded the great monastery of Lismore (in modern County Waterford). The Latin and Irish Lives make very little of Mo Chutu's earlier misfortune and focus instead on the saint's resistance to the oppressive Uí Néill rulers and his joyous reception among the Déisi. He has been portrayed in a heroic light in Indarba Mo Chutu a r-Raithin (The expulsion of Mo Chutu from Rahan).His foundation at Lismore flourished after his lifetime, eclipsing the reputation of the saint's earlier church. It was able to withstand the Viking depredations which plagued the area and benefited from the generosity of Munster kings, notably the Mac Carthaig of Desmond. In the 12th century, St Déclán's foundation of Ardmore aspired to the status of episcopal see in the new diocese, but the privilege went instead to Lismore.His feast day in the Irish martyrologies is 14 May, as well as in the Great Synaxaristes of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the present calendar of the Catholic Church in Ireland, in which 14 May is the feast of Saint Matthias, the memorial of Saint Carthage is celebrated on 15 May.

Modest (bishop of Trier)

Saint Modest (died 489) was bishop of Trier when the Franks gained control over the city of Trier and he is considered a Pre-Congregational Saint. His feast day is 24 February.

Despite the turmoil he lived through he died in Trier in 489 of natural causes and his relics are enshrined in the church Saint Matthias, Trier, Germany.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Jaro

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Jaro is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. The Metropolitan Cathedral of St. Elizabeth of Hungary in Jaro (one of six districts of Iloilo City, Iloilo on Panay Island, Western Visayas) is the seat of the archdiocese. Popularly known as Jaro Cathedral, it is also referred to as the National Shrine of Our Lady of Candles.The Archdiocese of Jaro is one of the oldest sees in the country. It was created a diocese by virtue of a papal bull of Pope Pius IX on May 27, 1865, according to a document signed by Archbishop Gregorio Martinez, then Archbishop of Manila, under whole ecclesiastical province the new diocese belonged as suffragan. Its first Bishop was Fray Mariano Cuartero, O.P., Dominican Missionary in the Philippines, who took possession of the diocese, on April 25, 1868.On April 10, 1910, it lost some territory to establish the Diocese of Zamboanga and Apostolic Prefecture of Palawan. Much later, three other ecclesiastical jurisdictions were established from parts of its territory: Diocese of Bacolod (15 July 1932), Apostolic Prefecture of Mindoro (2 July 1936), and Diocese of Capiz (27 January 1951).On 29 June 1951, it was raised as a Metropolitan Archdiocese by Pope Pius XII. But again, on 24 March 1962, it lost some territory to establish the Territorial Prelature of San Jose de Antique.At present, the Archdiocese of Jaro covers the provinces of Iloilo and Guimaras, an island off Iloilo. San Jose de Antique on Panay, Bacolod, San Carlos and Kabankalan in Negros Occidental, are suffragans.As of the year 2004, out of a population of 2,232,931, 92.00% or 2,054,296 are Catholic, making Jaro the 8th largest diocese in the Philippines. In 2015, the archdiocese has 92 parishes, 256 priests (173 diocesan, 83 religious), 644 lay religious (121 brothers, 523 sisters), 65 seminarians. In the same year, the Catholic population numbers 2,641,965 Catholics or 83.1% of 3,177,462 total residents of its entire territory covering 5,304 km². The province is predominantly rural with 72.7 percent of the total population residing in rural areas and only 27.3 percent in urban area. Agriculture, forestry and fishing are the leading major industries.

Its titutar patron saint is St. Elizabeth of Hungary, whose feast is celebrated on November 17.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucena

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucena (Latin: Dioecesis Lucenensis) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines with the seat in Lucena City. The Roman Rite Latin Church diocese was erected in 1950 from the Archdiocese of Lipa to become a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese. In 1977, the Diocese of Boac, which covers the parishes in the island-province of Marinduque, was created and separated from Lucena. In 1984, the Diocese of Lucena was further divided with the creation of the Diocese of Gumaca, which covers the municipalities of Quezon province east of Gumaca, Quezon.

San Mattia, Bologna

San Mattia was a former Roman Catholic monastery and church located at 14 via Sant'Isaia in Bologna, region of Emilia Romagna, Italy. The church was dedicated to Saint Matthias.

St. Matthias' Abbey

St. Matthias' Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

The abbey church, a Romanesque basilica, is a renowned place of pilgrimage because of the tomb of Saint Matthias the Apostle, after whom the abbey is named, located here since the 12th century, and the only burial of an apostle in Germany and north of the Alps. The abbey was originally named after Saint Eucharius, first Bishop of Trier, whose tomb is in the crypt. The church has been given the status of a basilica minor.

St Matthias Islands

The St Matthias Islands (also known as the Mussau islands) are a small archipelago group of islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, in northern Papua New Guinea. They are within New Ireland Province.

St Matthias School

St Matthias School is a mixed secondary school located in Wolverhampton in the West Midlands of England.It was established as Deansfield High School in 1968, and serves the Deansfield area in the east of the city, around the Willenhall Road. It was later renamed Deansfield Community School.

Deansfield Community School relocated to new buildings in 2015 and was renamed St Matthias School.

St Matthias languages

The St Matthias languages are a pair of Oceanic languages spoken in the St. Matthias Islands.

They are a "residual" group of Oceanic languages.

Tumauini Church

The San Matias Parish Church (Spanish: Iglesia Parroquial de San Matías), commonly known as Tumauini Church, is a Roman Catholic church in the municipality of Tumauini, Isabela, Philippines, within the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ilagan. It became a separate parish independent from Cabagan under the advocacy of Saint Matthias in 1751.

The church, known for its brick, Baroque-style architecture, was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines. Together with the churches of Boljoon, Guiuan, Loboc and Lazi, the Tumauini Church has been considered for the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List since 2006 under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension).

Varied triller

The varied triller (Lalage leucomela) like its better-known relative the white-winged triller, is a smaller member of the cuckoo-shrike family, Campephagidae. Varied trillers prefer warm, reasonably moist environments and are found in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, along much of the tropical and sub-tropical coastal hinterland of eastern Australia, from about the Sydney area to the tip of Cape York Peninsula, in the moister part of the Kimberley, and throughout the Top End.

Common to very common in the north, they are uncommon to rare in the colder south. Typical habitat is rainforest, vine forest, riverine thickets, eucalypt forest and woodland, with a particular preference for the border areas between closed and open forests.

Varied trillers work their way slowly and methodically through foliage at any level (sometimes on the ground), searching in pairs or small groups for insects and fruit, and making repeated rolling contact calls almost continuously.

The Mussau triller, L. conjuncta was formerly considered a subspecies.

Apostles
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Seven Archangels
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