Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also known as Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia (Latin: Sancta Lucia), was a Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution. She is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and Orthodox Churches. She is one of eight women along with the Blessed Virgin Mary who are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass. Her feast day, known as Saint Lucy's Day, is celebrated in the West on 13 December. St. Lucia of Syracuse was honored in the Middle Ages and remained a well-known saint in early modern England.
Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia
Saint Lucy, by Niccolò di Segna mid 14th-century Sienese painting, circa 1340. The saint holds the dagger with which she was ultimately executed and the lamp, her attribute.
|Virgin and Martyr|
Syracuse, Roman Empire
Syracuse, Western Roman Empire
|Major shrine||San Geremia, Venice|
|Attributes||cord; eyes; eyes on a dish; lamp; swords; woman hitched to a yoke of oxen; woman in the company of Saint Agatha, Saint Agnes of Rome, Barbara, Catherine of Alexandria, and Saint Thecla; woman kneeling before the tomb of Saint Agatha|
|Patronage||The blind; martyrs; Perugia, Italy; Mtarfa, Malta; epidemics; salesmen; Syracuse, Italy; throat infections; writers; Sasmuan, Pampanga Philippines|
The oldest record of her story comes from the fifth-century Acts of the Martyrs. The single fact upon which various accounts agree is that a disappointed suitor accused Lucy of being a Christian, and she was executed in Syracuse, Sicily, in the year 304 during the Diocletianic Persecution. Her veneration spread to Rome, and by the 6th century to the whole Church. The oldest archaeological evidence comes from the Greek inscriptions from the catacombs of St. John in Syracuse. Jacobus de Voragine's Legenda Aurea was the most widely read version of the Lucy legend in the Middle Ages. In medieval accounts, Saint Lucy's eyes are gouged out prior to her execution.
All the details of her life are the conventional ones associated with female martyrs of the early 4th century. John Henry Blunt views her story as a Christian romance similar to the Acts of other virgin martyrs.
According to the traditional story, Lucy was born of rich and noble parents about the year 283. Her father was of Roman origin, but died when she was five years old, leaving Lucy and her mother without a protective guardian. Her mother's name Eutychia seems to indicate that she came of Greek stock.
Like many of the early martyrs, Lucy had consecrated her virginity to God, and she hoped to distribute her dowry to the poor. However, Eutychia, not knowing of Lucy's promise, and suffering from a bleeding disorder, feared for Lucy's future. She arranged Lucy's marriage to a young man of a wealthy pagan family.
Saint Agatha had been martyred 52 years before during the Decian persecution. Her shrine at Catania, less than 50 miles from Syracuse attracted a number of pilgrims; many miracles were reported to have happened through her intercession. Eutychia was persuaded to make a pilgrimage to Catania, in hopes of a cure. While there, St. Agatha came to Lucy in a dream and told her that because of her faith her mother would be cured and that Lucy would be the glory of Syracuse, as she was of Catania. With her mother cured, Lucy took the opportunity to persuade her mother to allow her to distribute a great part of her riches among the poor.
Eutychia suggested that the sums would make a good bequest, but Lucy countered, "...whatever you give away at death for the Lord's sake you give because you cannot take it with you. Give now to the true Savior, while you are healthy, whatever you intended to give away at your death."
News that the patrimony and jewels were being distributed came to Lucy's betrothed, who denounced her to Paschasius, the Governor of Syracuse. Paschasius ordered her to burn a sacrifice to the emperor's image. When she refused Paschasius sentenced her to be defiled in a brothel.
The Christian tradition states that when the guards came to take her away, they could not move her even when they hitched her to a team of oxen. Bundles of wood were then heaped about her and set on fire, but would not burn. Finally, she met her death by the sword thrust into her throat.
Absent in the early narratives and traditions, at least until the 15th century, is the story of Lucia tortured by eye-gouging. According to later accounts, before she died she foretold the punishment of Paschasius and the speedy end of the persecution, adding that Diocletian would reign no more, and Maximian would meet his end. This so angered Paschasius that he ordered the guards to remove her eyes. Another version has Lucy taking her own eyes out in order to discourage a persistent suitor who admired them. This is one of the reasons that Lucy is the patron saint of eye illnesses. When her body was prepared for burial in the family mausoleum it was discovered that her eyes had been miraculously restored.
By the 6th century, her story was sufficiently widespread that she appears in the Sacramentary of Pope Gregory I. She is also commemorated in the ancient Roman Martyrology. St. Aldhelm (English, died in 709) and later the Venerable Bede (English, died in 735) attest that her popularity had already spread to England, where her festival was kept in England until the Protestant Reformation, as a holy day of the second rank, in which no work but tillage or the like was allowed.
The General Roman Calendar formerly had a commemoration of Saints Lucy and Geminianus on 16 September. This was removed in 1969, as a duplication of the feast of her dies natalis on 13 December and because the Geminianus in question, mentioned in the Passio of Saint Lucy, seems to be a fictitious figure, unrelated to the Geminianus whose feast is on 31 January.
Sigebert (1030–1112), a monk of Gembloux, in his sermo de Sancta Lucia, chronicled that her body lay undisturbed in Sicily for 400 years, before Faroald II, Duke of Spoleto, captured the island and transferred the body to Corfinium in the Abruzzo, Italy. From there it was removed by the Emperor Otho I in 972 to Metz and deposited in the church of St. Vincent. It was from this shrine that an arm of the saint was taken to the monastery of Luitburg in the Diocese of Speyer – an incident celebrated by Sigebert in verse.
The subsequent history of the relics is not clear. According to Umberto Benigni, Stephen II (768) sent the relics of St. Lucy to Constantinople for safety against the Saracen incursions. On their capture of Constantinople in 1204, the French found some relics attributed to Saint Lucy in the city, and Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice, secured them for the monastery of St. George at Venice. In 1513 the Venetians presented to Louis XII of France the saint's head, which he deposited in the cathedral church of Bourges. Another account, however, states that the head was brought to Bourges from Rome, where it had been transferred during the time when the relics rested in Corfinium.
The remainder of the relics remain in Venice: they were transferred to the church of San Geremia when the church of Santa Lucia was demolished in 1861 to make way for the new railway terminus. A century later, on 7 November 1981, thieves stole all her bones, except her head. Police recovered them five weeks later, on her feast day. Other parts of the corpse have found their way to Rome, Naples, Verona, Lisbon, Milan, as well as Germany, France and Sweden.
Lucy's Latin name Lucia shares a root (luc-) with the Latin word for light, lux. A number of traditions incorporate symbolic meaning of St. Lucy as the bearer of light in the darkness of winter, her feast day being December 13. Because some versions of her story relate that her eyes were removed, either by herself or by her persecutors, she is the patron saint of the blind.
She is also the patron saint of authors, cutlers, glaziers, laborers, martyrs, peasants, Perugia, Italy; saddlers, salesmen, and stained glass workers. She is invoked against hemorraghes, dysentery, diseases of the eye, and throat infections.
St. Lucy is also the patroness of Syracuse in Sicily, Italy. At the Piazza Duomo in Syracuse, the church of Santa Lucia alla Badia houses the painting "Burial of St. Lucy (Caravaggio)". She is also the patron saint of the coastal town of Olón, Ecuador, which celebrates with a week-long festival culminating on the feast day December 13th.
Saint Lucy is also the patron saint of the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia, one of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles.
The emblem of eyes on a cup or plate apparently reflects popular devotion to her as protector of sight, because of her name, Lucia (from the Latin word "lux" which means "light"). In paintings St. Lucy is frequently shown holding her eyes on a golden plate. Lucy was represented in Gothic art holding a dish with two eyes on it. She also holds the palm branch, symbol of martyrdom and victory over evil. Other symbolic images include a lamp, dagger, or two oxen.
Lucia appears in Dante's Inferno Canto II as the messenger sent to Beatrice from "The blessed Dame" (the Virgin Mary), to rouse Beatrice to send Virgil to Dante's aid. Henry Fanshawe Tozer identifies Lucia as representing "illuminative grace". According to Robert Pogue Harrison, and Rachel Jacoff, Lucia's appearance in this intermediary role is to reinforce the scene in which Virgil tries to fortify Dante's courage to begin the journey through the Inferno.
In the Purgatorio IX:52–63, Lucy carries the sleeping Dante to the entrance to Purgatory. Then in Paradiso XXXII Dante places her opposite Adam within the Mystic Rose in Canto XXXII of the Paradiso. Lucy may also be seen as a figure of Illuminating Grace or Mercy or even Justice.
Her feast day was commonly described as the shortest day of the year, as it is in John Donne's poem, "A Nocturnal upon St. Lucie's Day, being the shortest day" (1627). The poem begins with: "'Tis the year's midnight, and it is the day's".
Lucia is also the protagonist of a Swedish novel: "Ett ljus i mörkret" ("A light in the darkness") by Agneta Sjödin.
This is particularly seen in Scandinavian countries, with their long dark winters. There, a young girl dressed in a white dress and a red sash (as the symbol of martyrdom) carries palms and wears a crown or wreath of candles on her head. In both Norway and Sweden, girls dressed as Lucy carry rolls and cookies in procession as songs are sung. It is said that to vividly celebrate St. Lucy's Day will help one live the long winter days with enough light.
A special devotion to St. Lucy is practiced in the Italian regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige, in the North of the country, and Sicily and Calabria, in the South, as well as in Croatian coastal region of Dalmatia. The feast is a Catholic-celebrated holiday with roots that can be traced to Sicily. On 13th of every December it is celebrated with large traditional feasts of home made pasta and various other Italian dishes, with a special dessert of wheat in hot chocolate milk. The large grains of soft wheat are representative of her eyes and are a treat only to be indulged in once a year. In the North of Italy Saint Lucy brings gift to kids between the 12th and 13th of December. Traditionally a bouquet of hay is put outside of the house for Lucy's Donkey and food in the house for Lucy to refresh them after the long night bringing gifts to every kid. In small towns, a parade with Saint Lucy is held the evening of the 12th when she goes through the main streets of the town munching sweets and candy from her cart, always together with her donkey.
A Hungarian custom is to plant wheat in a small pot on St. Lucy's feast. By Christmas green sprouts appear, signs of life coming from death. The wheat is then carried to the manger scene as the symbol of Christ in the Eucharist.
In the Philippines, villagers from Barangay Sta. Lucia in Magarao, Camarines Sur, hold a novena to St. Lucy nine days before her feast. A procession of the saint's image is held every morning at the poblacion or village centre during the nine days leading up to St. Lucy's Day, attracting devotees from other parts of the Bicol Region. Hymns to the saint, known as the Gozos, as well as the Spanish version of the Ave Maria are chanted during the dawn procession, which is followed by a Mass.
The Albinea Madonna or Madonna of Albinea is a lost painting by Correggio. The best surviving copy is a 16th century one by Antonio Leto, from the church of San Rocco in Reggio Emilia and now in the Galleria Nazionale di Parma.Burial of St. Lucy (Caravaggio)
Burial of Saint Lucy is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio. It is located in the church of Santa Lucia alla Badia located on the Piazza Duomo in Syracuse, Sicily.Errol Barrow
Errol Walton Barrow, PC, QC (21 January 1920 – 1 June 1987) was a Caribbean statesman and the first Prime Minister of Barbados. Born into a family of political and civic activists in the parish of Saint Lucy, he was educated at Harrison College. He was also known as "Dipper Barrow" within the country itself.Henderson Bryan
Henderson Ricardo "Hendy" Bryan (born 17 March 1970) is a former Barbadian cricketer, who played for West Indies as an all rounder in 15 One Day Internationals.Kal, Ivančna Gorica
Kal (pronounced [ˈkaːu̯]) is a small village just west of Ambrus in the Municipality of Ivančna Gorica in central Slovenia. The area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The municipality is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region.The local church is dedicated to Saint Lucy and belongs to the Parish of Ambrus. It was originally built in the 17th century, but largely rebuilt in 1836.Kemar Roach
Kemar Andre Jamal Roach (born 30 June 1988) is a Barbadian international cricketer who plays for the West Indies. He played in the 2006 U-19 Cricket World Cup in Sri Lanka and has represented the West Indies in Test and One Day International cricket.
Roach made his Test debut in 2009 against Bangladesh when the West Indies team was weakened due to a player strike, and impressed with his bowling so that he was given an opportunity to play when the team returned to its full strength. A 5-foot-8-inch (1.73 m) fast bowler, Roach is capable of express speeds and has reached 150 kilometres per hour (93 mph) on a number of occasions, and was the 7th fastest active bowler as of 3 January 2015. In 2012 he became the first West Indies bowler to take 10 wickets in a Test since 2005.List of cities, towns and villages in Barbados
This is a list of cities, towns and villages in Barbados. Barbados is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles, in the Americas. It is 34 kilometres (21 miles) in length and up to 23 km (14 mi) in width, covering an area of 432 km2 (167 sq mi). It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; Many of the village names in Barbados are based upon the names of plantations. Barbados is divided into 11 parishes.Lucy Filippini
Lucy Filippini (Italian: Santa Lucia Filippini) (13 January 1672 – 25 March 1732) is venerated as a Roman Catholic saint.Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy
Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy (fl. 1480-1510) was an unidentified Early Netherlandish painter from Bruges. His name comes from an altarpiece in the church of Saint James in Bruges, dated 1480, depicting three scenes from the life of Saint Lucy. Since then, twenty-five to thirty-five paintings have been attributed to the same hand. He may have trained Spanish students at his studio in Bruges. Many of his paintings are characterized by views of the city of Bruges in the background, and can be dated according to the level of construction of its belfry. He may have trained with Dieric Bouts, and was certainly influenced by Hans Memling.Pradalunga
Pradalunga (Bergamasque: Prédalónga) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of Milan and about 11 kilometres (7 mi) northeast of Bergamo. As of 31 December 2006, it had a population of 4,460 and an area of 8.39 square kilometres (3.24 sq mi).The municipality of Pradalunga contains the frazione (subdivision) Cornale.
Pradalunga borders the following municipalities: Albino, Cenate Sopra, Nembro, Scanzorosciate.
Pradalunga has many hills and mountains: the most important mountain in Pradalunga is “Mount Misma“. The Serio River crosses Pradalunga, so Pradalunga is in the Seriana Valley.
On Mount Misma there is a sanctuary. Its name is “Forcella” and it is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It was built by miners. Next to the sanctuary there is a restaurant.
The patron saints of Pradalunga and Cornale are Saint Lucy, Saint Christopher, Saint Vincent and Saint Barbara.
Saint Lucy brings presents to the children in the night of every 13 December. Pradalunga and Cornale’s people pray a lot for them. There are three churches dedicated to the patron saints; some hocal streets are named for them.
Saint Barbara is the patron of every miner. Miners are very important for the economy of Pradalunga because in this village there are the quarries of the “Coti” stones; from these quarries miners used to extract the “Coti” stones. These stones are typical of Pradalunga and they are used to sharpen knives, scissors and so on. They are exported to a lot of foreign countries.Raymon Reifer
Raymon Anton Reifer (born 11 May 1991) is a Barbadian cricketer. Reifer is a left-handed batsman who bowls left-arm medium-fast. He was born in Saint Lucy, Barbados. He made his international debut for the West Indies cricket team in December 2017.Saint Lucy's Day
Saint Lucy's Day, also called the Feast of Saint Lucy, is a Christian feast day celebrated on 13 December in Advent, commemorating Saint Lucy, a 3rd-century martyr under the Diocletianic Persecution, who according to legend brought "food and aid to Christians hiding in the catacombs" using a candle-lit wreath to "light her way and leave her hands free to carry as much food as possible". Her feast once coincided with the Winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year before calendar reforms, so her feast day has become a Christian festival of light. Falling within the Advent season, Saint Lucy's Day is viewed as an event signaling the arrival of Christmastide, pointing to the arrival of the Light of Christ in the calendar, on Christmas Day.Saint Lucy’s Day is celebrated most commonly in Scandinavia, with their long dark winters, where it is a major feast day, and in Italy, with each emphasising a different aspect of the story. In Scandinavia, where Saint Lucy is called Santa Lucia in Norwegian and Danish, and Sankta Lucia in Swedish, she is represented as a lady in a white dress (a symbol of a Christian's white baptismal robe) and red sash (symbolizing the blood of her martyrdom) with a crown or wreath of candles on her head. In Norway, Sweden and Swedish-speaking regions of Finland, as songs are sung, girls dressed as Saint Lucy carry cookies and saffron buns in procession, which "symbolizes bringing the light of Christianity throughout world darkness". In both Protestant and Catholic churches, boys participate in the procession as well, playing different roles associated with Christmas, such as that of Saint Stephen. It is said that to vividly celebrate Saint Lucy's Day will help one live the long winter days with enough light. A special devotion to Saint Lucy is practiced in the Italian regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige, in the north of the country, and Sicily, in the south, as well as in the Croatian coastal region of Dalmatia. In Hungary and Croatia, a popular tradition on Saint Lucy's Day involves planting wheat grains that will eventually be several centimetres high at Christmas, representing the Nativity.Saint Lucy, Barbados
The parish of Saint Lucy ("St. Lucy") is the northern-most area in the country of Barbados. Saint Lucy is the only parish of Barbados out of the eleven to be named after a female patron saint, Saint Lucy of Syracuse. Saint Lucy was the location of a United States Navy base at Harrison's Point. Saint Lucy's shape also resembles a peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, east and west. The Harrison Point Lighthouse is located in Harrisons, Saint Lucy between Great Head and Norse's Bay, also in Saint Lucy. To the south lies the neighbouring Parish of Saint Peter.
As the crow flies, Saint Lucy is the most distant part of Barbados from the capital city Bridgetown, located in the parish of Saint Michael or Grantley Adams International Airport in Christ Church. Saint Lucy remains one of the less populated parts of the island because its remoteness.
In a bid to improve the economic fortunes of Saint Lucy, almost every leader of Barbados has grappled with various plans of how to turn around the development status of the Parish. One of the most recent ideas during the 1990s was to capitalise on a venture said to be in the works by Donald Trump in neighbouring Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. It was being proposed that if Donald Trump moved ahead to develop a hotel in those islands, that Barbados could build a second seaport with large ships traveling directly to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines for wealthy land-owners at the Trump development to have easy access to the Grantley Adams airport in Barbados.
The closest major town to Saint Lucy in Barbados is Speightstown located in the parish of Saint Peter.
Saint Lucy is the birthplace of Barbados's first Prime Minister, Errol Barrow. It is also the birthplace of two cricketers; Charlie Griffith and Manny Martindale.
The historical Parish church for Saint Lucy is located in the Nesfield area of Saint Lucy.Saint Lucy Parish, Campbell, California
St. Lucy Catholic Parish is the Roman Catholic parish church of the Latin Rite in Campbell, California. The church was originally established as a Mission of Saint Martin Parish of San Jose in 1914. The current church was built in 1957.San Zaccaria Altarpiece
The San Zaccaria Altarpiece (also called Madonna Enthroned with Child and Saints) is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Giovanni Bellini, executed in 1505 and located in the church of San Zaccaria, Venice.Santa Lucia
"Santa Lucia" (Italian: [ˈsanta luˈtʃiːa], Neapolitan: [ˈsandə luˈʃiːə]) is a traditional Neapolitan song. It was translated by Teodoro Cottrau (1827–1879) into Italian and published by the Cottrau firm, as a barcarola, in Naples in 1849. Cottrau translated it from Neapolitan into Italian during the first stage of the Italian unification, the first Neapolitan song to be given Italian lyrics. Its transcriber, who is very often credited as its composer, was the son of the French-born Italian composer and collector of songs Guillaume Louis Cottrau (1797–1847). Various sources credit A. Longo with the music, 1835.The original lyrics of "Santa Lucia" celebrate the picturesque waterfront district, Borgo Santa Lucia, in the Gulf of Naples, in the invitation of a boatman to take a turn in his boat, to better enjoy the cool of the evening.
In the United States, an early edition of the song, with an English translation by Thomas Oliphant, was published by M. McCaffrey, Baltimore. Perhaps the definitive 20th century recording of the song was that of Enrico Caruso, the great Neapolitan opera singer. Mario Lanza recorded this song in this album "Mario Lanza sings Caruso favorites", RCA Victor LSC-2393.
Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album 101 Gang Songs (1961).
The song was also recorded by Elvis Presley on the 1965 album Elvis for Everyone! and featured in the film Viva Las Vegas.
In Sweden, Finland, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Norway, "Santa Lucia" has been given various lyrics to accommodate it to the winter-light Saint Lucy's Day, at the darkest time of the year. The three most famous lyrics versions in Swedish are Luciasången, also known by its incipit, Sankta Lucia, ljusklara hägring ("Saint Lucy, bright illusion"); Natten går tunga fjät ("The night walks with heavy steps"); and the 1970s "kindergarten" version, Ute är mörkt och kallt ("Outside it’s dark and cold"). The more common Norwegian version is Svart senker natten seg ("Black the night descends").
In the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia), it was made famous with the words Krásná je Neapol sung by Waldemar Matuška.
In Austria it is famous under the title "Wenn sich der Abend mild". It is sung by Austrian fraternities.
In Thailand a translation, Silpakorn Niyom (Thai: ศิลปากรนิยม), is the anthem of Silpakorn University; the founder of the university, Silpa Bhirasri, was Italian.Santa Luzia (Angra do Heroísmo)
Santa Luzia (Portuguese for Saint Lucy) is a parish in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo on the island of Terceira, in the Azores. The population in 2011 was 2,755, in an area of 1.26 km². It is the smallest parish in Angra do Heroísmo.
Part of its territory integrates the historical center of the city of Angra do Heroísmo classified as UNESCO World Heritage. Its built heritage includes the monument Memória a D. Pedro IV, the mansion Madre de Deus, the Church of Santa Luzia and Angra do Heroísmo Cultural and Congress Center.Senuše
Senuše (pronounced [sɛˈnuːʃɛ]; German: Senusche) is a village west of Leskovec pri Krškem in the Municipality of Krško in eastern Slovenia. The area was traditionally part of Lower Carniola. It is now included in the Lower Sava Statistical Region.The local church is dedicated to Saint Lucy and belongs to the Parish of Leskovec pri Krškem. It is a late Gothic building with a rectangular nave and a western belfry that was rebuilt in 1852. A Roman tombstone is incorporated into the western wall of the nave.Stanežiče
Stanežiče (pronounced [ˈstaːnɛʒitʃɛ]; German: Staneschitz) is a settlement in the City Municipality of Ljubljana in central Slovenia. It lies just northwest of Ljubljana and was part of the traditional region of Upper Carniola. It is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region.The local church is dedicated to Saint James (Slovene: sveti Jakob) and belongs to the Parish of Šentvid. The bell tower was built in 1681, the nave and cloistered presbytery in 1721, and the barrel-vaulted narthex in 1794. The main altar was created by Matevž Tomec in 1856. There are four side altars in the church, dedicated to the Descent from the Cross and Saint Florian (both 1739), and to Saint Peregrine and Saint Lucy (both renovated in 1934).