Saint Boniface (Latin: Bonifatius; c. 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the Devon town of Crediton, England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He organised significant foundations of the Catholic Church in Germany and was made archbishop of Mainz by Pope Gregory III. He was martyred in Frisia in 754, along with 52 others, and his remains were returned to Fulda, where they rest in a sarcophagus which became a site of pilgrimage. Boniface's life and death as well as his work became widely known, there being a wealth of material available—a number of vitae, especially the near-contemporary Vita Bonifatii auctore Willibaldi, legal documents, possibly some sermons, and above all his correspondence. He became the patron saint of Germania, known as the "Apostle of the Germans".
Norman F. Cantor notes the three roles Boniface played that made him "one of the truly outstanding creators of the first Europe, as the apostle of Germania, the reformer of the Frankish church, and the chief fomentor of the alliance between the papacy and the Carolingian family." Through his efforts to reorganize and regulate the church of the Franks, he helped shape the Latin Church in Europe, and many of the dioceses he proposed remain today. After his martyrdom, he was quickly hailed as a saint in Fulda and other areas in Germania and in England. He is still venerated strongly today by German Catholics. Boniface is celebrated (and criticized) as a missionary; he is regarded as a unifier of Europe, and he is seen (mainly by Catholics) as a Germanic national figure.
Saint Boniface by Cornelis Bloemaert, c. 1630
|Died||5 June 754 (aged c. 79)|
near Dokkum, Frisia
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Major shrine||Fulda Cathedral, St Boniface Catholic Church, Crediton, UK|
|Attributes||In bishop's robes, book pierced by a sword (also axe; oak; scourge)|
|Patronage||Fulda; Germania; England (Orthodox Church; jointly with Ss. Augustine of Canterbury, and Cuthbert of Lindisfarne)|
The earliest Bonifacian vita, Willibald's, does not mention his place of birth but says that at an early age he attended a monastery ruled by Abbot Wulfhard in escancastre, or Examchester, which seems to denote Exeter, and may have been one of many monasteriola built by local landowners and churchmen; nothing else is known of it outside the Bonifacian vitae. This monastery is believed to have occupied the site of the Church of St Mary Major in the City of Exeter, demolished in 1971, next to which was later built Exeter Cathedral. Later tradition places his birth at Crediton, but the earliest mention of Crediton in connection to Boniface is from the early fourteenth century, in John Grandisson's Legenda Sanctorum: The Proper Lessons for Saints' Days according to the use of Exeter. In one of his letters Boniface mentions he was "born and reared...[in] the synod of London", but he may have been speaking metaphorically.
According to the vitae, Winfrid was of a respected and prosperous family. Against his father's wishes he devoted himself at an early age to the monastic life. He received further theological training in the Benedictine monastery and minster of Nhutscelle (Nursling), not far from Winchester, which under the direction of abbot Winbert had grown into an industrious centre of learning in the tradition of Aldhelm. Winfrid taught in the abbey school and at the age of 30 became a priest; in this time, he wrote a Latin grammar, the Ars Grammatica, besides a treatise on verse and some Aldhelm-inspired riddles. While little is known about Nursling outside of Boniface's vitae, it seems clear that the library there was significant. In order to supply Boniface with the materials he needed, it would have contained works by Donatus, Priscian, Isidore, and many others. Around 716, when his abbot Wynberth of Nursling died, he was invited (or expected) to assume his position—it is possible that they were related, and the practice of hereditary right among the early Anglo-Saxons would affirm this. Winfrid, however, declined the position and in 716 set out on a missionary expedition to Frisia.
Boniface first left for the continent in 716. He traveled to Utrecht, where Willibrord, the "Apostle of the Frisians," had been working since the 690s. He spent a year with Willibrord, preaching in the countryside, but their efforts were frustrated by the war then being carried on between Charles Martel and Radbod, King of the Frisians. Willibrord fled to the abbey he had founded in Echternach (in modern-day Luxembourg) while Boniface returned to Nursling.
Boniface returned to the continent the next year and went straight to Rome, where Pope Gregory II renamed him "Boniface", after the (legendary) fourth-century martyr Boniface of Tarsus, and appointed him missionary bishop for Germania—he became a bishop without a diocese for an area that lacked any church organization. He would never return to England, though he remained in correspondence with his countrymen and kinfolk throughout his life.
According to the vitae Boniface felled the Donar Oak, Latinized by Willibald as "Jupiter's oak," near the present-day town of Fritzlar in northern Hesse. According to his early biographer Willibald, Boniface started to chop the oak down, when suddenly a great wind, as if by miracle, blew the ancient oak over. When the god did not strike him down, the people were amazed and converted to Christianity. He built a chapel dedicated to Saint Peter from its wood at the site—the chapel was the beginning of the monastery in Fritzlar. This account from the vita is stylized to portray Boniface as a singular character who alone acts to root out paganism. Lutz von Padberg and others point out that what the vitae leave out is that the action was most likely well-prepared and widely publicized in advance for maximum effect, and that Boniface had little reason to fear for his personal safety since the Frankish fortified settlement of Büraburg was nearby. According to Willibald, Boniface later had a church with an attached monastery built in Fritzlar, on the site of the previously built chapel, according to tradition.
The support of the Frankish mayors of the palace (maior domos), and later the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was essential for Boniface's work. Boniface had been under the protection of Charles Martel from 723 on. The Christian Frankish leaders desired to defeat their rival power, the non-Christian Saxons, and to incorporate the Saxon lands into their own growing empire. Boniface's campaign of destruction of indigenous Germanic pagan sites may have benefited the Franks in their campaign against the Saxons.
In 732, Boniface traveled again to Rome to report, and Pope Gregory III conferred upon him the pallium as archbishop with jurisdiction over Germany. Boniface again set out for what is now Germany, continued his mission, and used his authority to resolve the problems of many other Christians who had fallen out of contact with the regular hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. During his third visit to Rome in 737–38, he was made papal legate for Germany.
After Boniface's third trip to Rome, Charles Martel erected four dioceses in Bavaria (Salzburg, Regensburg, Freising, and Passau) and gave them to Boniface as archbishop and metropolitan over all Germany east of the Rhine. In 745, he was granted Mainz as metropolitan see. In 742, one of his disciples, Sturm (also known as Sturmi, or Sturmius), founded the abbey of Fulda not far from Boniface's earlier missionary outpost at Fritzlar. Although Sturm was the founding abbot of Fulda, Boniface was very involved in the foundation. The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, the son of Charles Martel, and a supporter of Boniface's reform efforts in the Frankish church. The saint himself explained to his old friend, Daniel of Winchester, that without the protection of Charles Martel he could "neither administer his church, defend his clergy, nor prevent idolatry."
According to German historian Gunther Wolf, the high point of Boniface's career was the Concilium Germanicum, organized by Carloman in an unknown location in April 743. Although Boniface was not able to safeguard the church from property seizures by the local nobility, he did achieve one goal, the adoption of stricter guidelines for the Frankish clergy, which often hailed directly from the nobility. After Carloman's resignation in 747 he maintained a sometimes turbulent relationship with the king of the Franks, Pepin; the claim that he would have crowned Pepin at Soissons in 751 is now generally discredited.
Boniface balanced this support and attempted to maintain some independence, however, by attaining the support of the papacy and of the Agilolfing rulers of Bavaria. In Frankish, Hessian, and Thuringian territory, he established the dioceses of Würzburg, and Erfurt. By appointing his own followers as bishops, he was able to retain some independence from the Carolingians, who most likely were content to give him leeway as long as Christianity was imposed on the Saxons and other Germanic tribes.
According to the vitae, Boniface had never relinquished his hope of converting the Frisians, and in 754 he set out with a retinue for Frisia. He baptized a great number and summoned a general meeting for confirmation at a place not far from Dokkum, between Franeker and Groningen. Instead of his converts, however, a group of armed robbers appeared who slew the aged archbishop. The vitae mention that Boniface persuaded his (armed) comrades to lay down their arms: "Cease fighting. Lay down your arms, for we are told in Scripture not to render evil for good but to overcome evil by good."
Having killed Boniface and his company, the Frisian bandits ransacked their possessions but found that the company's luggage did not contain the riches they had hoped for: "they broke open the chests containing the books and found, to their dismay, that they held manuscripts instead of gold vessels, pages of sacred texts instead of silver plates." They attempted to destroy these books, the earliest vita already says, and this account underlies the status of the Ragyndrudis Codex, now held as a Bonifacian relic in Fulda, and supposedly one of three books found on the field by the Christians who inspected it afterward. Of those three books, the Ragyndrudis Codex shows incisions that could have been made by sword or axe; its story appears confirmed in the Utrecht hagiography, the Vita altera, which reports that an eye-witness saw that the saint at the moment of death held up a gospel as spiritual protection. The story was later repeated by Otloh's vita; at that time, the Ragyndrudis Codex seems to have been firmly connected to the martyrdom.
Boniface's remains were moved from the Frisian countryside to Utrecht, and then to Mainz, where sources contradict each other regarding the behavior of Lullus, Boniface's successor as archbishop of Mainz. According to Willibald's vita Lullus allowed the body to be moved to Fulda, while the (later) Vita Sturmi, a hagiography of Sturm by Eigil of Fulda, Lullus attempted to block the move and keep the body in Mainz.
His remains were eventually buried in the abbey church of Fulda after resting for some time in Utrecht, and they are entombed within a shrine beneath the high altar of Fulda Cathedral, previously the abbey church.
Veneration of Boniface in Fulda began immediately after his death; his grave was equipped with a decorative tomb around ten years after his burial, and the grave and relics became the center of the abbey. Fulda monks prayed for newly elected abbots at the grave site before greeting them, and every Monday the saint was remembered in prayer, the monks prostrating themselves and reciting Psalm 50. After the abbey church was rebuilt to become the Ratgar Basilica (dedicated 791), Boniface's remains were translated to a new grave: since the church had been enlarged, his grave, originally in the west, was now in the middle; his relics were moved to a new apse in 819. From then on Boniface, as patron of the abbey, was regarded as both spiritual intercessor for the monks and legal owner of the abbey and its possessions, and all donations to the abbey were done in his name. He was honored on the date of his martyrdom, 5 June (with a mass written by Alcuin), and (around the year 1000) with a mass dedicated to his appointment as bishop, on 1 December.
Willibald's vita describes how a visitor on horseback come to the site of the martyrdom, and a hoof of his horse got stuck in the mire. When it was pulled loose, a well sprang up. By the time of the Vita altera Bonifatii (9th century), there was a church on the site, and the well had become a "fountain of sweet water" used to sanctify people. The Vita Liudgeri, a hagiographical account of the work of Ludger, describes how Ludger himself had built the church, sharing duties with two other priests. According to James Palmer, the well was of great importance since the saint's body was hundreds of miles away; the physicality of the well allowed for an ongoing connection with the saint. In addition, Boniface signified Dokkum's and Frisia's "connect[ion] to the rest of (Frankish) Christendom".
The UK National Shrine is located at the Catholic church at Crediton, Devon, which has a bas-relief of the felling of Thor's Oak, by sculptor Kenneth Carter. The sculpture was unveiled by Princess Margaret in his native Crediton, located in Newcombes Meadow Park. There is also a series of paintings there by Timothy Moore. There are quite a few churches dedicated to St. Boniface in the United Kingdom: Bunbury, Cheshire; Chandler's Ford and Southampton Hampshire; Adler Street, London; Papa Westray, Orkney; St Budeaux, Plymouth (now demolished); Bonchurch, Isle of Wight; Cullompton, Devon.
In 1818, Father Norbert Provencher founded a mission on the east bank of the Red River in what was then Rupert's Land, building a log church and naming it after St. Boniface. The log church was consecrated as Saint Boniface Cathedral after Provencher was himself consecrated as a bishop and the diocese was formed. The community that grew around the cathedral eventually became the city of Saint Boniface, which merged into the city of Winnipeg in 1971. In 1844, four Grey Nuns arrived by canoe in Manitoba, and in 1871, built Western Canada's first hospital: St. Boniface Hospital, where the Assiniboine and Red Rivers meet. Today, St. Boniface Hospital is the second-largest hospital in Manitoba.
Some traditions credit Saint Boniface with the invention of the Christmas tree. The vitae mention nothing of the sort. However, it is mentioned on a BBC-Devon website, in an account which places Geismar in Bavaria, and in a number of educational books, including St. Boniface and the Little Fir Tree, The Brightest Star of All: Christmas Stories for the Family, The American normal readers. and a short story by Henry van Dyke, "The First Christmas Tree".
The earliest "Life" of Boniface was written by a certain Willibald, an Anglo-Saxon priest who came to Mainz after Boniface's death, around 765. Willibald's biography was widely dispersed; Levison lists some forty manuscripts. According to his lemma, a group of four manuscripts including Codex Monacensis 1086 are copies directly from the original.
Listed second in Levison's edition is the entry from a late ninth-century Fulda document: Boniface's status as a martyr is attested by his inclusion in the Fulda Martyrology which also lists, for instance, the date (1 November) of his translation in 819, when the Fulda Cathedral had been rebuilt. A Vita Bonifacii was written in Fulda in the ninth century, possibly by Candidus of Fulda, but is now lost.
The next vita, chronologically, is the Vita altera Bonifatii auctore Radbodo, which originates in the Bishopric of Utrecht, and was probably revised by Radboud of Utrecht (899–917). Mainly agreeing with Willibald, it adds an eye-witness who presumably saw the martyrdom at Dokkum. The Vita tertia Bonifatii likewise originates in Utrecht. It is dated between 917 (Radboud's death) and 1075, the year Adam of Bremen wrote his Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, which used the Vita tertia.
A later vita, written by Otloh of St. Emmeram (1062–1066), is based on Willibald's and a number of other vitae as well as the correspondence, and also includes information from local traditions.
Boniface engaged in regular correspondence with fellow churchmen all over Western Europe, including the three popes he worked with, and with some of his kinsmen back in England. Many of these letters contain questions about church reform and liturgical or doctrinal matters. In most cases, what remains is one half of the conversation, either the question or the answer. The correspondence as a whole gives evidence of Boniface's widespread connections; some of the letters also prove an intimate relationship especially with female correspondents.
There are 150 letters in what is generally called the Bonifatian correspondence, though not all them are by Boniface or addressed to him. They were assembled by order of archbishop Lullus, Boniface's successor in Mainz, and were initially organized into two parts, a section containing the papal correspondence and another with his private letters. They were reorganized in the eighth century, in a roughly chronological ordering. Otloh of St. Emmeram, who worked on a new vita of Boniface in the eleventh century, is credited with compiling the complete correspondence as we have it.
The correspondence was edited and published already in the seventeenth century, by Nicolaus Serarius. Stephan Alexander Würdtwein's 1789 edition, Epistolae S. Bonifacii Archiepiscopi Magontini, was the basis for a number of (partial) translations in the nineteenth century. The first version to be published by Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH) was the edition by Ernst Dümmler (1892); the most authoritative version until today is Michael Tangl's 1912 Die Briefe des Heiligen Bonifatius, Nach der Ausgabe in den Monumenta Germaniae Historica, published by MGH in 1916. This edition is the basis of Ephraim Emerton's selection and translation in English, The Letters of Saint Boniface, first published in New York in 1940; it was republished most recently with a new introduction by Thomas F.X. Noble in 2000.
Some fifteen preserved sermons are traditionally associated with Boniface, but that they were actually his is not generally accepted.
Early in his career, before he left for the continent, Boniface wrote the Ars Bonifacii, a grammatical treatise presumably for his students in Nursling. Helmut Gneuss reports that one manuscript copy of the treatise originates from (the south of) England, mid-eighth century; it is now held in Marburg, in the Hessisches Staatsarchiv. He also wrote a treatise on verse, the Caesurae uersuum, and a collection of riddles, the Enigmata, influenced greatly by Aldhelm and containing many references to works of Vergil (the Aeneid, the Georgics, and the Eclogues). Three octosyllabic poems written in clearly Aldhelmian fashion (according to Andy Orchard) are preserved in his correspondence, all composed before he left for the continent.
A letter by Boniface charging Aldebert and Clement with heresy is preserved in the records of the Roman Council of 745 that condemned the two. Boniface had an interest in the Irish canon law collection known as Collectio canonum Hibernensis, and a late 8th/early 9th-century manuscript in Würzburg contains, besides a selection from the Hibernensis, a list of rubrics that mention the heresies of Clemens and Aldebert. The relevant folios containing these rubrics were most likely copied in Mainz, Würzburg, or Fulda, all places associated with Boniface. Michael Glatthaar suggested that the rubrics should be seen as Boniface's contribution to the agenda for a synod.
Boniface's death (and birth) has given rise to a number of noteworthy celebrations. The dates for some of these celebrations have undergone some changes: in 1805, 1855, and 1905 (and in England in 1955) anniversaries were calculated with Boniface's death dated in 755, the "Mainz tradition"; in Mainz, Michael Tangl's dating of the martyrdom in 754 was not accepted until after 1955. Celebrations in Germany centered on Fulda and Mainz, in the Netherlands on Dokkum and Utrecht, and in England on Crediton and Exeter.
The first German celebration on a fairly large scale was held in 1805 (the 1050th anniversary of his death), followed by a similar celebration in a number of towns in 1855; both of these were predominantly Catholic affairs, which emphasized the role of Boniface in German history. But if the celebrations were mostly Catholic, in the first part of the 19th century the respect for Boniface in general was an ecumenical affair, with both Protestants and Catholics praising Boniface as a founder of the German nation, in response to the German nationalism that arose after the Napoleonic era came to an end. The second part of the 19th century saw increased tension between Catholics and Protestants; for the latter, Martin Luther had become the model German, the founder of the modern nation, and he and Boniface were in direct competition for the honor. In 1905, when strife between Catholic and Protestant factions had eased (one Protestant church published a celebratory pamphlet, Gerhard Ficker's Bonifatius, der "Apostel der Deutschen"), there were modest celebrations and a publication for the occasion on historical aspects of Boniface and his work, the 1905 Festgabe by Gregor Richter and Carl Scherer. In all, the content of these early celebrations showed evidence of the continuing question about the meaning of Boniface for Germany, though the importance of Boniface in cities associated with him was without question.
In 1954, celebrations were widespread, in England, Germany, and the Netherlands, and a number of these celebrations were international affairs. Especially in Germany, these celebrations had a distinctly political note to them and often stressed Boniface as a kind of founder of Europe, such as when Konrad Adenauer, the (Catholic) German chancellor, addressed a crowd of 60,000 in Fulda, celebrating the feast day of the saint in a European context: "Das, was wir in Europa gemeinsam haben, [ist] gemeinsamen Ursprungs" ("What we have in common in Europe comes from the same source").
When Pope John Paul II visited Germany in November 1980, he spent two days in Fulda (17 and 18 November). He celebrated mass in Fulda Cathedral with 30,000 gathered on the square in front of the building, and met with the German Bishops' Conference (held in Fulda since 1867). The pope next celebrated mass outside the cathedral, in front of an estimated crowd of 100,000, and hailed the importance of Boniface for German Christianity: "Der heilige Bonifatius, Bischof und Märtyrer, bedeutet den 'Anfang' des Evangeliums und der Kirche in Eurem Land" ("The holy Boniface, bishop and martyr, signifies the beginning of the gospel and the church in your country"). A photograph of the pope praying at Boniface's grave became the centerpiece of a prayer card distributed from the cathedral.
In 2004, anniversary celebrations were held throughout Northwestern Germany and Utrecht, and Fulda and Mainz—generating a great amount of academic and popular interest. The event occasioned a number of scholarly studies, esp. biographies (for instance, by Auke Jelsma in Dutch, Lutz von Padberg in German, and Klaas Bruinsma in Frisian), and a fictional completion of the Boniface correspondence (Lutterbach, Mit Axt und Evangelium). A German musical proved a great commercial success, and in the Netherlands an opera was staged.
The literature on the saint and his work is extensive. At the time of the various anniversaries, edited collections were published containing essays by some of the best-known scholars of the time, such as the 1954 collection Sankt Bonifatius: Gedenkgabe zum Zwölfhundertsten Todestag and the 2004 collection Bonifatius—Vom Angelsächsischen Missionar zum Apostel der Deutschen. In the modern era, Lutz von Padberg published a number of biographies and articles on the saint focusing on his missionary praxis and his relics. The most authoritative biography is still Theodor Schieffer's Winfrid-Bonifatius und die Christliche Grundlegung Europas (1954).
...een nog steeds niet achterhaalde biografie
|Catholic Church titles|
| Archbishop of Mainz
Jove's Oak (interpretatio romana for Donar's Oak and therefore sometimes referred to as Thor's Oak) was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans located in an unclear location around what is now the region of Hesse, Germany. According to the 8th century Vita Bonifatii auctore Willibaldi, the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface and his retinue cut down the tree earlier the same century. Wood from the oak was then reportedly used to build a church at the site dedicated to Saint Peter. Sacred trees and sacred groves were widely venerated by the Germanic peoples.Franco-Manitoban
Franco-Manitobans (French: Franco-Manitobains) are a community of French Canadians and other French-speaking people living in Manitoba. Most Franco-Manitobans have roots in Quebec. However, many are of Métis and Belgian ancestry, while others have ancestors that came directly from France, its former colonies and other francophone countries throughout the world (Congo, Laos, Vietnam, and Tunisia among others). Many have partial English, Scottish, Irish, Ukrainian and German / Mennonite ancestry through inter-marriages. The community is centred primarily in three districts in south-east Winnipeg, notably in Saint-Boniface, Saint-Vital and Saint-Norbert. There are smaller numbers of Franco-Manitobans living throughout the province as well.
Notable Franco-Manitobans include Métis nationalist Louis Riel, former Manitoba Premier Marc-Amable Girard, writer Gabrielle Roy, international singer-songwriter Daniel Lavoie, journalist, entrepreneur, and magazine publisher Tyler Brûlé, current federal Member of Parliament Kevin Lamoureux, former federal Members of Parliament Ronald Duhamel, Raymond Simard and Robert Bockstael, former provincial MLAs Jean Allard, Albert Préfontaine, Edmond Préfontaine, Neil Gaudry and Laurent Desjardins, current member of the Canadian Senate Maria Chaput, professional hockey players Jonathan Toews and Travis Hamonic, and country singer Lucille Starr.
The province's primary French language post-secondary educational institution is l' Université de Saint-Boniface located in Saint-Boniface.
Although 90% of the Franco-Manitoban community lives in the Greater Winnipeg area, rural Franco-Manitoban centres do exist in Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, Saint-Claude, Saint-Pierre-Jolys, Sainte-Anne-des-Chênes, Saint-Adolphe, Saint-Alphonse, Sainte-Agathe, Letellier, Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Sainte-Rose-du-Lac, Saint-Malo, Île-des-Chênes, Lorette, La Broquerie, Saint-Laurent, Somerset, Marquette, Saint-Eustache, Saint-François-Xavier, Richer, Grande-Clairière, Saint-Labre, Rathwell, Saint-Léon, Saint-Georges, Laurier, La Salle, Tourond, La Rochelle, South Junction, Fisher Branch, Marchand, Bruxelles, Otterburne and Saint-Lazare.Lac du BonnetGabrielle Roy
Gabrielle Roy, (March 22, 1909 – July 13, 1983) was a French Canadian author.
There is a quotation by her on the back of the Canadian $20 bill that reads: "Could we ever know each other in the slightest without the arts?"Joseph-Philippe Guay
Joseph-Philippe Guay, (October 4, 1915 – July 30, 2001) was a Canadian parliamentarian, serving as a member of the Liberal Party.
Born in St. Vital, Manitoba, Teillet was an alderman and mayor of Saint-Boniface, Manitoba before turning to federal politics. He won the St. Boniface Liberal nomination in the buildup to the 1968 federal election over the sitting member, cabinet minister Roger-Joseph Teillet. Guay campaigned on the fact that he, unlike Teillet, had supported Pierre Elliott Trudeau on every ballot of the 1968 Liberal Party of Canada leadership convention. He was returned in the general election, and was re-elected in 1972 and 1974.
He held numerous parliamentary functions including: Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Transport (1972–1974), Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Regional Economic Expansion (1974–1975), Chief Government Whip (1975–1977), Minister of State (Multiculturalism) (1977), Minister without Portfolio (1976–1977), and Minister of National Revenue (1977–1978).
In 1978, he was appointed to the Senate representing the senatorial division of St. Boniface, Manitoba. He retired on his 75th birthday in 1990.
In 1957, he was knighted as a member of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great by Pope Pius XII.Plymouth Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of Saint Mary and Saint Boniface in Plymouth, England, is the seat of the Bishop of Plymouth and mother church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Plymouth, which covers the counties of Cornwall, Devon and Dorset. The Diocese of Plymouth was created in 1850 after the issuing of the papal bull Universalis Ecclesiae. In 1858 the new condign cathedral was opened and put under the patronage of Virgin Mary and Saint Boniface, the latter being born in Crediton in the area of the diocese.
The Cathedral is also used by Royal Navy personnel stationed at HMNB Devonport for the annual naval mass celebrated in July.Pope Boniface I
Pope Boniface I (Latin: Bonifatius I; died 4 September 422) was Pope from 28 December 418 to his death in 422. His election was disputed by the supporters of Eulalius, until the dispute was settled by the Emperor. Boniface was active maintaining church discipline and he restored certain privileges to the metropolitical sees of Narbonne and Vienne, exempting them from any subjection to the primacy of Arles. He was a contemporary of Saint Augustine of Hippo, who dedicated to him some of his works.Quebec Route 350
Route 350 is a provincial highway located in the Mauricie region of Quebec. It runs from the junction of Route 348 in Saint-Édouard-de-Maskinongé to the junction of Route 153 west of Saint-Boniface-de-Shawinigan. It overlaps Route 349 in Saint-Paulin and Route 351 in Charette.Raymonde Gagné
Raymonde Gagné CM OM (born January 7, 1957) is a Canadian politician and academic who was named to the Senate of Canada to represent Manitoba on March 18, 2016.Prior to her appointment to the Senate, Gagné was a longtime faculty member and president of the Université de Saint-Boniface in Winnipeg. She was named a member of the Order of Canada in 2015.Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Boniface
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint-Boniface (Latin: Archidioecesis Sancti Bonifacii) is a Latin archdiocese in part of the civil Province of Manitoba in Canada. Despite having no suffragan dioceses, the archdiocese is nominally metropolitan and considered to constitute as an ecclesiastical province by itself.
Its cathedral archiepiscopal see is a Minor Basilica: Basilique-Cathédrale Saint-Boniface Basilique-Cathédrale Saint-Boniface, Winnipeg. It is currently led by Archbishop Albert LeGatt.Ron Duhamel
Ronald J. Duhamel, (March 2, 1938 – September 30, 2002) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and Senator.
Born in Saint Boniface, Manitoba, he obtained a Bachelor of Arts (BA) from Lakehead University and a Master of Arts (MA) and Ph.D. from the University of Toronto. He was a teacher, school principal, professor at the University of Manitoba, assistant deputy minister of education, and deputy minister of education in Manitoba. In 1987, he was awarded the Manitoba Lieutenant-Governor's Medal in Public Administration.
He was elected as a Liberal candidate in the riding of Saint Boniface in the 1988 federal election. He was re-elected in 1993, 1997 and 2000. Duhamel was wildly popular in the riding and never won an election with less than 50% of the vote, winning each of his elections by 52%, 63%, 51% and 52%.
In 2000, Duhamel was appointed to the federal Cabinet by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to the portfolio of Veterans Affairs, a post he held until 2002. Other posts he held include Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Public Works (Public Works and Government Services), Parliamentary Secretary to the President of the Treasury Board, Secretary of State (Science, Research and Development), Secretary of State (Western Economic Diversification), and Secretary of State (Francophonie).
Duhamel was appointed to the Senate on January 15, 2002, representing the senatorial division of Manitoba. He died of cancer on September 30, survived by his wife Carolyn and three daughters, Kathie, Natalie and Karine.Saint-Boniface, Quebec
Saint-Boniface is a municipality in the Mauricie region of the province of Quebec in Canada.
On April 5, 2003, the village municipality of Saint-Boniface-de-Shawinigan changed its legal status and its name and became the municipality of Saint-Boniface.Saint Boniface, Pennsylvania
Saint Boniface is an unincorporated community in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, United States. The community is located along Pennsylvania Route 36 1.7 miles (2.7 km) east of Hastings. Saint Boniface has a post office with ZIP code 16675.Saint Boniface, Winnipeg
Saint Boniface is a city ward of Winnipeg that is the centre of much of the Franco-Manitoban community. It features such landmarks as the St. Boniface Cathedral, Boulevard Provencher, the Provencher Bridge, Esplanade Riel, St. Boniface Hospital, the Université de Saint-Boniface and the Royal Canadian Mint. It covers the southeast part of the city and includes le Vieux Saint-Boniface (Old St. Boniface), Norwood West, Norwood East, Windsor Park, Niakwa Park, Niakwa Place, Southdale, Southland Park, Royalwood, Sage Creek and Island Lakes, plus a large industrial area. The ward is represented by Matt Allard, a member of Winnipeg City Council, and also corresponds to the neighbourhood clusters of St. Boniface East and West. The population was 54,201 according to the Canada 2011 Census.Saint Boniface Cathedral
Saint Boniface Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Saint-Boniface) is a Roman Catholic basilica and the cathedral of Saint Boniface, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
It is an important building in Winnipeg, and is the principal church in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Boniface, serving the eastern part of Manitoba province as well as the local Franco-Manitoban community. The basilica sits in the centre of the city at 190 avenue de la Cathédrale, Saint Boniface.Saint Boniface Church (New Vienna, Iowa)
Saint Boniface Church is the Catholic parish church for the city of New Vienna, Iowa and the surrounding area. It is a Gothic-style church, with stained glass windows, a handcarved main altar, and a striking 200-foot (61 m) spire The parish, part of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, is partnered with Ss. Peter and Paul Parish, Petersburg, Iowa - the two parishes share a pastor.Saint Boniface Hospital
Saint Boniface Hospital (French: Hôpital Saint-Boniface; also called St. B and previously called the Saint-Boniface General Hospital) is Manitoba's second-largest hospital, located in the Saint Boniface neighbourhood of Winnipeg. It was founded by the Sisters of Charity (Grey Nuns) of Montreal in 1871, and was the first hospital in Western Canada. The hospital was incorporated in 1960, and as of 2003 has 554 beds and 78 bassinets.
St. Boniface Hospital is a tertiary health care facility, employing nearly 700 doctors and around 1,500 nurses. The hospital buildings cover about 120,774 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft). The St. Boniface Hospital & Research Foundation is the primary fundraising organization for the hospital. The general admissions program cares for 4,000 patients per year in-hospital, and about 40,000 as outpatients. Over 5,000 births per year occur at the hospital. St. Boniface is a regional centre for cardiac care, and is one of two specialized laboratory testing facilities. It also provides diagnostic imaging and hemodialysis for the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority.
Besides patient care, St. Boniface Hospital also carries out medical research and offers practicum positions for university students through its affiliation with the University of Manitoba. The hospital's primary research mandate is in cardiovascular studies, imaging (especially MRI), neurodegenerative disorders, and nutraceuticals. The hospital also participates in clinical trials of research discoveries.Saint Boniface—Saint Vital
Saint Boniface—Saint Vital (French: Saint-Boniface—Saint-Vital; formerly Saint Boniface) is a federal electoral district in Winnipeg, Manitoba that has been represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1925.
The district covers roughly the southern portion of the city of Winnipeg, east of the Red River. In particular, it contains the Franco-Manitoban community of Saint Boniface and roughly the northern two-thirds of the community of St. Vital. The riding (as federal electoral districts are called in Canada) has a sizeable French population (16% according to the last census) and was a Liberal Party stronghold for most of its history. However, Conservative Shelly Glover, a Winnipeg police sergeant, won it in 2008 and three years later became the first centre-right MP in the riding's history to be re-elected.
It is the only riding in Western Canada that regularly elects francophone candidates to parliament.Tache Avenue, Winnipeg
Taché Avenue, or Avenue Taché, is a street in the neighborhood of St. Boniface in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Part of the road lies along the Red River. Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface and Saint Boniface General Hospital both adjoin Taché Avenue. Other nearby landmarks include the Saint Boniface Cathedral and the Provencher Bridge.
The street is named after Alexandre-Antonin Taché, the first Archbishop of St. Boniface.Université de Saint-Boniface
The Université de Saint-Boniface (USB) is a French language public university located in the Saint Boniface neighbourhood of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. An affiliated institution of the University of Manitoba, USB offers general and specialized university degree programs as well as technical and professional training. In 2014, enrolment counted 1,368 regular students and over 4,200 enrolments in its Continuing Education Division, which includes a language school.