Saint-Mihiel

Saint-Mihiel is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

Saint-Mihiel
Entombment of Christ, sculpture by Ligier Richier, in the Church of St. Étienne, in Saint-Mihiel
Entombment of Christ, sculpture by Ligier Richier, in the Church of St. Étienne, in Saint-Mihiel
Coat of arms of Saint-Mihiel

Coat of arms
Location of Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel is located in France
Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel is located in Grand Est
Saint-Mihiel
Saint-Mihiel
Coordinates: 48°53′21″N 5°32′37″E / 48.8892°N 5.5436°ECoordinates: 48°53′21″N 5°32′37″E / 48.8892°N 5.5436°E
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentMeuse
ArrondissementCommercy
CantonSaint-Mihiel
IntercommunalitySammiellois
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Alain Perelle
Area
1
33 km2 (13 sq mi)
Population
(1999)2
5,260
 • Density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
55463 /55300
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Geography

Saint-Mihiel lies on the banks of the Meuse River.

History

A Benedictine abbey was established here in 708 or 709 by Count Wulfoalde and his wife Adalsinde. The library, containing over 9,000 works, is still on the original site.

During World War I, Saint-Mihiel was captured by the Germans in 1914, and was recaptured during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel from 12 September to 19 September 1918.

Features

Saint-Mihiel is known for its sculptures by Renaissance sculptor Ligier Richier (1500–1567).

Saint-Mihiel serves both as the starting and ending point of the 2014 video game Valiant Hearts: The Great War.

See also

References

External links

Albert Girard

Albert Girard (French pronunciation: ​[alˈbɛʁ ʒiˈʁaʁ]) (1595 in Saint-Mihiel, France − 8 December 1632 in Leiden) was a French-born mathematician. He studied at the University of Leiden. He "had early thoughts on the fundamental theorem of algebra" and gave the inductive definition for the Fibonacci numbers.

He was the first to use the abbreviations 'sin', 'cos' and 'tan' for the trigonometric functions in a treatise. Girard was the first to state, in 1625, that each prime of the form 1 mod 4 is the sum of two squares. (See Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares.) It was said that he was quiet-natured and, unlike most mathematicians, did not keep a journal for his personal life.

In the opinion of Charles Hutton, Girard was

...the first person who understood the general doctrine of the formation of the coefficients of the powers from the sum of the roots and their products. He was the first who discovered the rules for summing the powers of the roots of any equation.

This had previously been given by François Viète for positive roots, and is today called Viète's formulas, but Viète did not give these for general roots.

In his paper, Funkhouser locates the work of Girard in the history of the study of equations using symmetric functions. In his work on the theory of equations, Lagrange cited Girard. Still later, in the nineteenth century, this work eventuated in the creation of group theory by Cauchy, Galois and others.

Girard also showed how the area of a spherical triangle depends on its interior angles. The result is called Girard's theorem. He also was a lutenist and mentioned having written a treatise on music, though this was never published.

American Expeditionary Forces

The American Expeditionary Forces (A. E. F., A.E.F. or AEF) was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen. John J. Pershing. It fought alongside French Army, British Army, Canadian Army, and Australian Army units against the German Empire. A minority of the AEF troops also fought alongside Italian Army units in that same year against the Austro-Hungarian Army. The AEF helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at the Battle of Château-Thierry and Battle of Belleau Wood) in the summer of 1918, and fought its major actions in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in the latter part of 1918.

Arrondissement of Commercy

The arrondissement of Commercy is an arrondissement of France in the Meuse department in the Grand Est region. It has 135 communes.

Battle of Saint-Mihiel

The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a major World War I battle fought from 12–15 September 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) and 110,000 French troops under the command of General John J. Pershing of the United States against German positions. The U.S. Army Air Service played a significant role in this action.This battle marked the first use of the terms "D-Day" and "H-Hour" by the Americans.

The attack at the St. Mihiel salient was part of a plan by Pershing in which he hoped that the Americans would break through the German lines and capture the fortified city of Metz. It was the first and only offensive launched solely by the United States Army in World War I, and the attack caught the Germans in the process of retreating. This meant that their artillery was out of place and the American attack, coming up against disorganized German forces, proved more successful than expected. The St. Mihiel attack established the stature of the U.S. Army in the eyes of the French and British forces, and again demonstrated the critical role of artillery during World War I and the difficulty of supplying such massive armies while they were on the move. The U.S. attack faltered as artillery and food supplies were left behind on the muddy roads. The attack on Metz was not realized, as the Supreme Allied Commander Ferdinand Foch ordered the American troops to march towards Sedan and Mézières, which would lead to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.

Benoît de Maillet

Benoît de Maillet (Saint-Mihiel, 12 April 1656 – Marseille, 30 January 1738) was a well-travelled French diplomat and natural historian. He was French consul general at Cairo, and overseer in the Levant. He formulated an evolutionary hypothesis to explain the origin of the earth and its contents.

De Maillet's geological observations convinced him that the earth could not have been created in an instant because the features of the crust indicate a slow development by natural processes. He also believed that creatures on the land were ultimately derived from creatures living in the seas. He believed in the natural origin of man. He estimated that the development of the earth took two billion years.

Bertrand Pancher

Bertrand Pancher (born June 5, 1958 in Saint-Mihiel) is a member of the National Assembly of France. He represents the Meuse department, and is a member of the Union of Democrats and Independents as part of the Radical Party.

Jonville-en-Woëvre

Jonville-en-Woëvre is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

Ligier Richier

Ligier Richier (c. 1500–1567) was a French sculptor active in Saint-Mihiel in north-eastern France.

Richier primarily worked in the churches of his native Saint-Mihiel and from 1530 he enjoyed the protection of Duke Antoine of Lorraine, for whom he did important work. Whilst Richier did sometimes work in wood, he preferred the pale, soft limestone with its fine grain, and few veins, extracted at Saint Mihiel and Sorcy and when working in this medium he experimented with refined polishing techniques, with which he was able to give the stone a marble-like appearance. One of his finest works is the "Groupe de la Passion", consisting of 13 life-size figures made in the local stone of the Meuse region. It can be found in the Church of St. Étienne. It is also known as the "Pâmoison de la Vierge" (Swoon of the Virgin, the Virgin fainting, supported by St John). Other works attributed to him are in the Church of St. Pierre, Bar-le-Duc, and in the Louvre.

His work "Le Transi de René de Chalon" is in the church of Saint-Étienne i, Bar-le-Duc. Made in Sorcy stone and standing at 1m74cm, it depicts the corpse of Rene de Chalon, Prince of Orange (who died on the 15th of July 1544) in the form of a flayed corpse clutching its own heart.

Michel Périn

Michel Périn (born 19 January 1957 in Saint-Mihiel) is a French rally navigator.

Montsec, Meuse

Montsec is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Fighting in World War I and World War II took place in and around Montsec. The Montsec American Monument was built here during the 1930s by the American Battle Monuments Commission. The monument, dedicated in 1937, commemorates the American forces who fought in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in World War I.

Ranzières

Ranzières is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

Rupt-devant-Saint-Mihiel

Rupt-devant-Saint-Mihiel is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

Saint Mihiel Abbey

Saint Mihiel Abbey is an ancient Benedictine abbey situated in the town of Saint-Mihiel, near Verdun in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.

The benedictine abbey was built in 708 or 709 by a Count Wulfoalde and his wife Adalsinde, probably to house the relics that Wulfoalde had brought back from Italy.

It was dedicated to Saint Michael the Archangel, a popular saint at the time, as can be testified by the establishment of the abbeys of Mont St Michel in Normandy and the Abbey of Honau in Alsace in the same period.

In 1734 the tombs of both Wulfoalde and Adalsinde were discovered in the abbey.

The abbey was placed under the authority of Fulrad of St Denis, chaplain to Charlemagne.

In 755 a mayor Wulfoald, probably a relative of the founder of the abbey, was accused of high treason and plotting against Pepin the Short, was condemned to death. When Fulrad intervened to save his life, Wulfoald expressed his gratitude by giving King Childéric II his possessions, including the Abbey.

The Abbey is best known for its abbot Smaragdus, who moved there around the year 814 with his monks from the monastery on Mt. Castellion.

Some time between 816 and 826 Smaragdus obtained royal protection for the abbey from Louis the Pious, ensuring that wagons, pack-horses and ships would be exempt from customs taxes on goods transported between the monastery and its lands.

Smaragdus achieved fame as a writer of homilies, and for his writings on the Rule of St Benedict.

Smaragdus, who died around 840, was succeeded as Abbott by Hadegaudus, who was probably elected by the monks themselves.

Abbots in the tenth century included Odon I, followed by Sarovard, followed by Odon II, who died in 995.

Over the years, the abbey proved very popular with royalty, emperors and kings and dukes. In the 11th century, for example, it came under the protection of Gérard, Duke of Lorraine.

During the Middle Ages, the Abbey was famous for its relics, not least of which concerned Saint Anatole, Bishop of Cahors, whose body was reputed to have been transferred to Mihiel in 779.

The Abbey was dissolved during the French revolution.

Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel

Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel (c. 760 – c. 840) was a Benedictine monk of Saint Mihiel Abbey, near Verdun. He was a significant writer of homilies, and on the Rule of St Benedict.

The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature [1] allows the possibility that Smaragdus was "perhaps Irish" but gives no further information for this.

St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial

The St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial is located at the west edge of Thiaucourt (Meurthe-et-Moselle), France. The 40.5 acres (16.4 ha) cemetery contains the graves of 4,153 American military dead from World War I. The majority of these died in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, an offensive that resulted in the reduction of the St. Mihiel salient that threatened Paris.

Theodemir

Theodemir, Theodemar, Theudemer or Theudimer was a Germanic name common among the various Germanic peoples of early medieval Europe. According to Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel (9th century), the form Theudemar is Frankish and Theudemir is Gothic.

Theodemer (Frankish king), early 5th century

Theodemir (Ostrogothic king) (died 475), Ostrogothic king

Theodemir (Suebian king) (died 570), Suevic King of Galicia

Theodemir (Visigoth) (died 743), Visigothic nobleman

Theodemir (saint) (died 851), Spanish saint

Theodemar of Monte Cassino (fl. late 8th century), abbot of Monte Cassino

Theodemir of Iria (died 847), bishop of Iria Flavia

Theodemir (bishop of Mondoñedo), flourished 972–77

Communes of the Meuse department

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