Saharanpur

Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District and the Saharanpur Division.

Saharanpur city grew in a region named after a Sufi Saint Shah Haroon Chishti. It was founded by Sah Ranbirsingh, a Jain nobleman,[1] who laid the foundations of the present-day city on the site of an army cantonment.

Saharanpur
Baba Bhura Dev temple, Shakumbhri Devi - panoramio
Out Side View Of Saharanpur Junction
Saharanpur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Saharanpur
Saharanpur
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Saharanpur is located in India
Saharanpur
Saharanpur
Saharanpur (India)
Coordinates: 29°57′50″N 77°32′46″E / 29.964°N 77.546°ECoordinates: 29°57′50″N 77°32′46″E / 29.964°N 77.546°E
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictSaharanpur
Population
(2011)
 • Total705,478
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
247001/02
Telephone code0132
Vehicle registrationUP-11
Sex ratio1000/898 /
Websitesaharanpur.nic.in

History

Medieval period

During the reign of Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish (1211–36), the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate. At that time, most of the area remained covered with forests and marshlands, through which the Paondhoi, Dhamola, and Ganda Nala rivers flowed. The climate was humid and malaria outbreaks were common. Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi (1325–1351), undertook a campaign in the northern doab to crush the rebellion of the Shivalik kings in 1340, when according to local tradition he learned of the presence of a sufi saint on the banks of the Paondhoi River. After visiting the sage, he ordered that henceforth this region would be known as 'Shah-Haroonpur', after the Sufi Saint Shah Haroon Chishti.[2] The simple but well-preserved tomb of this saint is situated in the oldest quarter of Saharanpur city, between the Mali Gate/Bazar Dinanath and Halwai Hatta. By the end of 14th century, the power of the Sultanate had declined and it was attacked by Emperor Timur (1336–1405) of Central Asia. Timur had marched through Saharanpur region in 1399 to sack Delhi and people of the region fought his army unsuccessfully. A weakened Sultanate was later conquered by the Central Asian Mogul king Babur (1483–1531).

Mughal period

During the Mughal period, Akbar (1542–1605), Saharanpur became an administrative unit under the Province of Delhi. Akbar bestowed the feudal jagir of Saharanpur to the Mughal treasurer, Sah Ranveer Singh, an Agrawal Jain[1] who laid the foundations of the present day city on the site of an army cantonment. The nearest settlements at that time were Shekhpura and Malhipur. Saharanpur was a walled city, with five gates: The Hathi Gate the Sarai Gate, the Mali Gate, the Buria Gate and the Lakhi Gate. The city was divided into the neighbourhoods os Nakhasa Bazar, Shah Behlol, Rani Bazar and Lakhi Gate. The ruins of Shah Ran Veer Singh's old fort can still be seen in the Chaudharian locality of Saharanpur, not far from the better known 'Bada-Imam-bada'. He also built a large Jain temple in Muhallah/Toli Chaundhariyan,[3] it is now known as the 'Digamber-Jain Panchayati Mandir'.

The Sayyids and Rohillas

Mughal emperors Akbar and later Shah Jehan (1592–1666) bestowed the administrative pargana of Sarwat on Muslim Sayyid families. In 1633 one of them founded a city and named it and the surrounding region Muzaffarnagar, in honour of his father, Sayyid Muzaffar Ali Khan. The Sayyids ruled the area until the 1739 invasion by Nadir Shah. After his departure, anarchy prevailed across the entire doab with the region ruled or ravaged in succession by Rajputs, Tyagis, Brahmins, and Jats. Taking advantage of this anarchy, the Rohillas took control of the entire Trans-Gangetic region.

Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler who invaded Northwestern and Northern India in the 1750s, conferred the territory of Saharanpur as Jagir on Rohilla chief Najaf Khan, who assumed the title of Nawab Najeeb-ud-Daula and took up residence in Saharanpur in 1754. He made Gaunsgarh his capital and tried to strengthen his position against Maratha Empire attacks by entering an alliance with the Hindu Gurjar chieftain Manohar Singh. In 1759, Najeeb-ud-Daula issued a Deed of Agreement handing over 550 villages to Manohar Singh, who became the Raja of Landaura. Thus the Rohillas and the Gurjars now controlled Saharanpur.

Maratha rule (1757–1803 AD)

In 1757, the Maratha army invaded the Saharanpur region, which resulted in Najeeb-ud-Daula losing control of Saharanpur to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. The most significant contribution of Nawab Ghulam Qadir to Saharanpur city is the Nawab Ganj area and the Ahmedabadi fortress therein, which still stands. The death of Ghulam Qadir put an end to the Rohilla administration in Saharanpur and it became the northernmost district of the Maratha Empire. Ghani Bahadur Banda was appointed its first Maratha governor. The Maratha Regime saw the construction of the Bhuteshwar Temple and Bagheshwar Temple in Saharanpur city. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, Saharanpur came under British suzerainty.[4]

Geography

Saharanpur is located at 29°58′N 77°33′E / 29.97°N 77.55°E,Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Saharanpur about 140 kilometres (87 mi) south-southeast of Chandigarh, 170 kilometres (110 mi) north-northeast of Delhi, 65 kilometres (40 mi) north-northeast of Shamli and about 68 kilometres (42 mi) south-west of Dehradun. It has an average elevation of 269 metres (883 ft). Saharanpur is a part of a geographical doab region.

Demographics

Provisional 2011 census data indicates that Saharanpur has a population of 705,478, out of which males were 371,740 and females were 333,738. The literacy rate was 76.32 per cent.[5]

Places of interest

The Saharanpur Botanical Gardens, known as the Company Garden and once the preserve of the British East India Company, is one of the oldest existing gardens in India, dating to before 1750. Then named Farahat-Bakhsh, it was originally a pleasure ground set out by a local chief, Intazam ud-ullah. In 1817, it was acquired by the British East India Company[7] and placed under the authority of the District Surgeon. Joseph Dalton Hooker says of this Botanical Garden that "Amongst its greatest triumphs may be considered the introduction of the tea-plant from China, a fact I allude to, as many of my English readers may not be aware that the establishment of the tea-trade in the Himalaya and Assam is almost entirely the work of the superintendents of the gardens of Calcutta and Seharunpore.[8] In 1887, when the Botanical Survey of India was set up to reform the country's botanical sciences, Saharanpur became the centre for the survey of the northern Indian flora. The Garden is seen historically as being second only to the Calcutta Gardens for its contribution to science and economy in India. Under private auspices today, it is full of greenery and has many different kinds of plants and flowers.[9]

Saharanpur falls on the route of the proposed 1,839-kilometre (1,143 mi) Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor project, funded by the World Bank.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.indiatvnews.com/news/india/india-s-agrawal-community-its-history-and-prominent-personaliti-18629.html?page=4
  2. ^ History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 369. 1909.
  3. ^ Madhu Jain, O. C. Handa, and Omacanda Handa, Wood Handicraft: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Saharanpur, Indus Publishing (2000), pp. 22–24. ISBN 81-7387-103-5
  4. ^ Mayaram, Shail. Against history, against state: counterperspectives from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
  5. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  6. ^ "Saharanpur Religion Census 2011". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  7. ^ Sharad Singh Negi, Biodiversity and its conservation in India 2nd revised ed. New Delhi, Indus Publishing (2008) ISBN 978-81-7387-211-2
  8. ^ "Joseph Dalton Hooker, Himalayan Journals, or Notes of a Naturalist ..., Kew (1854), vol. I, p. 5.
  9. ^ Saharanpur Botanic Garden
  10. ^ Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor Archived 8 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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Delhi–Meerut–Saharanpur line

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Muzaffarnagar district

Muzaffarnagar district is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. It is part of Saharanpur division. The city of Muzaffarnagar is the district headquarters. This district is the part of National Capital Region.

Nakur (Assembly constituency)

Nakur Assembly constituency (Hindi: नकुर विधान सभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is one of the 403 constituencies of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is a part of the Saharanpur district and one of the five assembly constituencies in the Kairana (Lok Sabha constituency). First election in this assembly constituency was held in 1952 after the "DPACO (1951)" (delimitation order) was passed in 1951. After the "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order" was passed in 2008, the constituency was assigned identification number 2.

National Highway 709B (India)

National Highway 709B, is a national highway in India. It was initially envisaged as Delhi - Yamnotri national highway but terminates at Saharanpur only. The highway starts from Akshardham in Delhi. It is a spur road of National Highway 9. NH-709B traverses the states of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh , and passes through various towns and cities in Western Uttar Pradesh like Baghpat, Baraut, Shamli, Thanabhawan, Rampur Maniharan, Saharanpur, in India. Shamli acts as a major junction as two other major highways of the area (709A) and (709AD) intersects with (709B) at Shamli.

Rampur Maniharan (Assembly constituency)

Rampur Maniharan Assembly constituency (Hindi: रामपुर मनिहारान) is one of the 403 constituencies of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is a part of the Saharanpur district and one of the five assembly constituencies in the Saharanpur (Lok Sabha constituency). First assembly election in this assembly constituency was conducted in 2012 after the constituency came into existence in the year 2008 as a result of the "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008".

Saharanpur (Assembly constituency)

Saharanpur Assembly constituency (Hindi: सहारनपुर) is one of the 403 constituencies of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is a part of the Saharanpur district and one of the five assembly constituencies in the Saharanpur (Lok Sabha constituency). Saharanpur Assembly constituency came into existence in 1955 as a result of the "Final Order DC (1953-1955)". The extant and serial number of this constituency was last defined in "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008".

Saharanpur (Lok Sabha constituency)

SAHARANPUR Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (Lower house of the Parliament) constituencies in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Saharanpur Junction railway station

Saharanpur railway station is a railway station on the Northern Railway network in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Saharanpur Nagar (Assembly constituency)

Saharanpur Nagar Assembly constituency (Hindi: सहारनपुर नगर) is one of the 403 constituencies of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is a part of the Saharanpur district and one of the five assembly constituencies in the Saharanpur (Lok Sabha constituency). First assembly election in this assembly constituency was conducted in 2012 after the constituency came into existence in the year 2008 as a result of the "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008". VVPAT facility with EVMs will be here in 2017 U.P assembly polls.

Saharanpur district

Saharanpur district is the northernmost of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, India. Bordering the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and close to the foothills of Shivalik range, it lies in the northern part of the Doab region. It is primarily an agricultural area.

The district headquarters are Saharanpur city and it belongs to Saharanpur Division. Other principal towns are Behat, Deoband, Gangoh and Rampur Maniharan.

Saharanpur division

Saharanpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. The city of Saharanpur is the administrative headquarters of the division.

Sarsawa Air Force Station

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