Sagalassos (Greek: Σαγαλασσός), also known as Selgessos (Greek: Σελγησσός) and Sagallesos (Greek: Σαγαλλησός), is an archaeological site in southwestern Turkey, about 100 km north of Antalya (ancient Attaleia), and 30 km from Burdur and Isparta. The ancient ruins of Sagalassos are 7 km from Ağlasun (as well as being its namesake) in the province of Burdur, on Mount Akdağ, in the Western Taurus mountains range, at an altitude of 1450–1700 metres. In Roman Imperial times, the town was known as the "first city of Pisidia", a region in the western Taurus mountains, currently known as the Turkish Lakes Region. During the Hellenistic period it was already one of the major Pisidian towns.
View of Sagalassos
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Ağlasun, Burdur Province, Turkey|
|Abandoned||Middle of the seventh century CE|
The urban site was laid out on various terraces at an altitude between 1400 and 1600 m. After suffering from a major earthquake in the early sixth century CE, the town managed to recover, but a cocktail of epidemics, water shortages, a general lack of security and stability, a failing economy and finally another devastating earthquake around the middle of the seventh century forced the inhabitants to abandon their town and resettle in the valley.
Large-scale excavations started in 1990 under the direction of Marc Waelkens of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. A large number of buildings, monuments and other archaeological remains have been exposed, documenting the monumental aspect of the Hellenistic, Roman and early Byzantine history of this town.
Human settlement in the area goes back to 8000 BCE, before the actual site was occupied. Hittite documents refer to a mountain site of Salawassa in the fourteenth century BCE and the town spread during the Phrygian and Lydian cultures. Sagalassos was part of the region of Pisidia in the western part of the Taurus Mountains. During the Persian period, Pisidia became known for its warlike factions.
Sagalassos was one of the wealthiest cities in Pisidia when Alexander the Great conquered it in 333 BCE on his way to Persia. It had a population of a few thousand. After Alexander's death, the region became part of the territories of Antigonus Monophthalmus, possibly Lysimachus of Thrace, the Seleucids of Syria and the Attalids of Pergamon. The archeological record indicates that locals rapidly adopted Hellenic culture.
The Roman Empire absorbed Pisidia after the Attalids and it became part of the province of Asia. In 39 BCE it was handed out to Galatian client king Amyntas, but after he was killed in 25 BCE Rome turned Pisidia into the province of Galatia. Under the Roman Empire, Sagalassos became the important urban center of Pisidia, particularly favoured by the Emperor Hadrian, who named it the "first city" of the province and the center of the imperial cult. Contemporary buildings have a fully Roman character.
Around 400 CE Sagalassos was fortified for defence. An earthquake devastated it in 518 and a plague circa 541-543 halved the local population. Arab raids threatened the town around 640 and after another earthquake destroyed the town in the middle of the seventh century, the site was abandoned. The populace probably resettled in the valley. Excavations have found only signs of a fortified monastery—possibly a religious community, which was destroyed in the twelfth century. Sagalassos disappeared from the records.
In the following centuries, erosion covered the ruins of Sagalassos. It was not looted to a significant extent, possibly because of its location.
Explorer Paul Lucas, who was traveling in Turkey on a mission for the court of Louis XIV of France, visited the ruins in 1706. After 1824, when Francis Vyvyan Jago Arundell (1780–1846), the British chaplain at Izmir and an antiquarian, visited the site and deciphered its name in inscriptions, Western travelers began to visit the ruins. Polish historian of art, count K. Lanckoroński produced the first map of Sagalassos. However, the city did not attract much archaeological attention until 1985, when an Anglo-Belgian team led by Stephen Mitchell began a major survey of the site.
From 1990 Sagalassos, a major tourist site, has become a major excavation project led by Marc Waelkens of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. The monumental city center is now exposed; four major restoration projects are (nearly) completed. The project also undertakes an intensive urban and geophysical survey, excavations in the domestic and industrial areas, and an intensive survey of the territory. The first survey documents a thousand years of occupation—from Alexander the Great to the seventh century—while the latter has established the changing settlement patterns, the vegetation history and farming practices, the landscape formation and climatic changes during the last 10,000 years.
On August 9, 2007, the press reported the discovery of a finely detailed, colossal statue of the Emperor Hadrian, which is thought to have stood 4-5m in height. The statue dates to the early part of Hadrian's reign, and depicts the emperor in military garb. It was carved in sections that were fitted together with marble tenons on the site, which was a thermae, a public bath. A major earthquake sometime between the late sixth and early seventh centuries CE brought the vaulting crashing down; the statue of Hadrian was felled, coming apart along the joins of its facture. The discovery of carved marble toes drilled with dowel holes to fasten them to the hem of a long mantle suggests the possibility of finding a companion sculpture of Sabina, the emperor's consort. On August 14, 2008, the head statue of Faustina the Elder, wife of Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (Hadrian's successor and adopted son) was discovered in the same site. On August 22, 2008, another colossal portrait head was found, this time of Marcus Aurelius.
In a phylogenetic study the mitochondrial DNA of 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th–13th century AD was compared to modern populations. The research found a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant was also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population was ascertained.
The year 1985 in archaeology involved some significant events.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Ağlasun
Ağlasun (from Greek Αγαλασσός Agalassos, in turn from Koine Greek Σαγαλασσός Sagalassos, in turn from Hittite Salawassa) is a town and district of Burdur Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The mayor is Aydın Kaplan (MHP).
The town is 7 km from the ruins of the ancient city of Sagalassos, from which it gets its modern name.
With its rich architectural heritage, Ağlasun is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions.Beçin
Beçin (also known as Berçin or Peçin) was a historical fort in Turkey.Burdur Province
Burdur Province (Turkish: Burdur ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the southwest and bordering Muğla and Antalya to the south, Denizli to the west, Afyon to the north, and Isparta to the east. It has an area of 6,887 km2 and a population of 258,868. The provincial capital is Burdur city.
Burdur is located in the Lakes Region of Turkey and has many lakes of various sizes, the largest of which, Burdur Lake, is named after the province. Salda Lake is the second largest lake in the province and is considered to be one of the cleanest lakes in the world.Global Heritage Fund
Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization empowering communities through historic conservation and heritage-driven local development. Since 2002, GHF has helped local communities to save 28 sites in 19 countries with over 100 partner organizations. Using their Preservation by Design methodology of community-based planning, conservation science, and strategic partnerships, GHF has invested over $30 million and secured $25 million in co-funding to ensure sustainable preservation and responsible development.Heroon
A heroon or herõon (; Greek ἡρῷον, plural ἡρῷα, heroa), also latinized as heroum, was a shrine dedicated to an ancient Greek or Roman hero and used for the commemoration or cult worship of the hero. It was often erected over his or her supposed tomb or cenotaph.Kekova
Kekova, also named Caravola (Greek: Dolichiste), is a small Turkish island near Demre (Demre is the Lycian town of Myra) district of Antalya province which faces the villages of Kaleköy (ancient Simena) and Üçağız (ancient Teimioussa). Kekova has an area of 4.5 km2 (2 sq mi) and is uninhabited.List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey (tentative list)
Below is the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey. (For the criteria see the Selection criteria)List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Ma (goddess)
Ma was a local goddess at Comana in Cappadocia. Her name Ma means "Mother", and she also had the epithets "Invincible" and "Bringer of Victory".Mamure Castle
Mamure Castle (Turkish: Mamure kalesi) is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey.Marc Waelkens
Marc, Knight Waelkens (Dutch pronunciation: [mɑrk ˈʋalkə(n)s]; born 12 April 1948) is a professor emeritus of archaeology at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. He is acting director of the excavation at the Pisidian city of Sagalassos in Turkey. The research project has become one of the biggest and most interdisciplinary excavations in the Mediterranean, where all aspects of the city and its territory are studied by means of a variety of modern research techniques.
Waelkens has also participated in archaeological studies in Greece, Syria, Italy and Egypt. His doctoral research and early concentration involved Phrygian tombstones and sarcophagi. He identified the workshop at Dokimeion near Afyon, and tried to identify the provenance of the types of stone used and the production patterns.Marcus Lollius
Marcus Lollius perhaps with the cognomen Paulinus (c. 55 BC-after 2 BC) was a Roman politician, military officer and supporter of the first Roman emperor Augustus.Pisidia
Pisidia (; Greek: Πισιδία, Pisidía; Turkish: Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, and corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Among Pisidia's settlements were Antioch(ia) in Pisidia, Termessos, Cremna, Sagalassos, Etenna, Neapolis, Selge, Tyriacum, Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium.Royal Museum for Central Africa
The Royal Museum for Central Africa or RMCA (Dutch: Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika or KMMA; French: Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale or MRAC), colloquially known as the Africa Museum, is an ethnography and natural history museum situated in Tervuren in Flemish Brabant, Belgium, just outside Brussels. It was first built to showcase King Leopold II's Congo Free State in the 1897 World Exhibition.
The museum focuses on the Congo, a former Belgian colony. The sphere of interest however (especially in biological research) extends to the whole Congo River basin, Middle Africa, East Africa and West Africa, attempting to integrate "Africa" as a whole. Intended originally as a colonial museum, from 1960 onwards it has more focused on ethnography and anthropology. Like most museums, it houses a research department in addition to its public exhibit department.
Not all research pertains to Africa (e.g. research on the archaeozoology of Sagalassos, Turkey). Some researchers have strong ties with the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.
In November 2013, the museum closed for renovation work (including the construction of new exhibition space) until reopening in December 2018.Saint Paul's Church, Tarsus
Saint Paul's Church is a former Greek Orthodox church in Tarsus, Mersin Province, Turkey.Seleucia Sidera
Seleucia Sidera (Greek: Σελεύκεια η Σιδηρᾶ, Seleukeia hê Sidêra; Latin: Seleucia Ferrea), also transliterated as Seleuceia, Seleukeia, and later known as Claudioseleucia, Greek Klaudioseleukeia, was an ancient city in the northern part of Pisidia, Anatolia, near the village of Bayat (old name Selef), near Atabey, about 15 km North-northeast of Isparta, Isparta Province, in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey.
Founded by Seleucus I Nicator or Antiochus I Soter to protect the military road across northern Pisidia. The city's surname Sidera (hê Sidêra, Ptol. v. 5. § 4; Hierocl. p. 673), is probably derives from iron-works in its vicinity. The city minted its own coins, some of which bear the image of the Asiatic divinity Men, who was worshipped at Antioch.
The city was restored by the Roman emperor Claudius, and the name was changed to Claudioseleucia. This name is retained on the city's coins down to the time of Claudius II, though in Ptolemy, the Synecdemus of Hierocles, and the Notitiae Dignitatum the name is recorded as Seleucia.
The city was Christianized early, its bishop, Eutychius being present at the Council of Nicaea in 325. 
The city is in ruins. Remnants of the city wall, a necropolis, and a theater can be found.Tomb of Ahi Evren
Tomb of Ahi Evren is a part of mosque-tomb complex in Kırşehir, Turkey.
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