Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language, mainly in Iceland.
The texts are tales in prose which share some similarities with the epic, often with stanzas or whole poems in alliterative verse embedded in the text, of heroic deeds of days long gone, "tales of worthy men," who were often Vikings, sometimes pagan, sometimes Christian. The tales are usually realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and translated or recomposed romances. They are sometimes romanticised and fantastic.
The term saga originates from the Norse saga (pl. sögur), and refers to (1) "what is said, statement" or (2) "story, tale, history". It is cognate with the English word saw (as in old saw), and the German Sage. Icelandic sagas are based on oral traditions and much research has focused on what is real and what is fiction within each tale. The accuracy of the sagas is often hotly disputed. Most of the manuscripts in which the sagas are preserved were taken to Denmark and Sweden in the 17th century, but later returned to Iceland. Classic sagas were composed in the 13th century. Scholars once believed that these sagas were transmitted orally from generation to generation until scribes wrote them down in the 13th century. However, most scholars now believe the sagas were conscious artistic creations, based on both oral and written tradition. A study focusing on the description of the items of clothing mentioned in the sagas concludes that the authors attempted to create a historic "feel" to the story, by dressing the characters in what was at the time thought to be "old fashioned clothing". However, this clothing is not contemporary with the events of the saga as it is a closer match to the clothing worn in the 12th century.
There are plenty of tales of kings (e.g. Heimskringla), everyday people (e.g. Bandamanna saga) and larger than life characters (e.g. Egils saga). The sagas describe a part of the history of some of the Nordic countries (e.g. the last chapter of Hervarar saga). The British Isles, northern France and North America are also mentioned. It was only recently (start of 20th century) that the tales of the voyages to North America (modern day Canada) were authenticated.
Most sagas of Icelanders take place in the period 930–1030, which is called söguöld (Age of the Sagas) in Icelandic history. The sagas of kings, bishops, contemporary sagas have their own time frame. Most were written down between 1190 and 1320, sometimes existing as oral traditions long before, others are pure fiction, and for some we do know the sources: the author of King Sverrir's saga had met the king and used him as a source.
Norse sagas are generally classified as: the Kings' sagas (Konungasögur), sagas of Icelanders (Íslendinga sögur), Short tales of Icelanders (Íslendingaþættir), Contemporary sagas (Samtíðarsögur or Samtímasögur), Legendary sagas (Fornaldarsögur), Chivalric sagas (Riddarasögur), Saints' sagas (Heilagra manna sögur) and bishops' sagas (Biskupa sögur).
Kings' sagas are of the lives of Scandinavian kings. They were composed in the 12th to 14th centuries. The Icelanders' sagas (Íslendinga sögur), a.k.a. Family Sagas, are stories of real events, passed in oral form till they eventually were recorded, mostly in the 13th century. These are the highest form of the classical Icelandic saga writing. Some well-known examples include Njáls saga, Laxdæla saga and Grettis saga. The material of the Short tales of Icelanders sagas is similar to Íslendinga sögur, in shorter form. The narratives of the Contemporary Sagas are set in 12th- and 13th-century Iceland, and were written soon after the events they describe. Most are preserved in the compilation Sturlunga saga, though some, such as Arons saga Hjörleifssonar are preserved separately. Legendary Sagas blend remote history with myth or legend. The aim is on a lively narrative and entertainment. Scandinavia's pagan past was a proud and heroic history for the Icelanders. Chivalric sagas are translations of Latin pseudo-historical works and French chansons de geste as well as native creations in the same style.
While sagas are generally anonymous, a distinctive literary movement in the 14th century involves sagas, mostly on religious topics, with identifiable authors and a distinctive Latinate style. Associated with Iceland's northern diocese of Hólar, this movement is known as the North Icelandic Benedictine School (Norðlenski Benediktskólinn).
"Saga" is a word originating from Old Norse or Icelandic language ("Saga" is also the modern Icelandic and Swedish word for "story" or, especially in Swedish, fairytale). Saga is a cognate of the English word say: its various meanings in Icelandic are approximately equivalent to "something said" or "a narrative in prose", along the lines of a "story", "tale" or "history". Through the centuries, the word saga has gained a broader meaning in Nordic languages. In contemporary Swedish and Danish it describes a non-realistic or epic work of fiction. Folksaga means folk tale; a fairy tale by an unknown author, in Swedish and Danish. Konstsaga is the Swedish term for a fairy tale by a known author, such as Hans Christian Andersen or Astrid Lindgren, while the Danish and Norwegian term is kunsteventyr ("adventure").
Saga can also be a work of fantasy fiction. J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings series was translated into Swedish by Åke Ohlmarks with the title Sagan om ringen: "The Saga of the Ring". The 2004 translation was titled Ringarnas herre, a literal translation from the original. Icelandic journalist Þorsteinn Thorarensen (1926–2006) translated the work into Hringadróttins saga meaning "Saga of the Lord of the Rings".
Beta Ray Bill is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Debuting in the Bronze Age of Comic Books, the character was initially intended to be a surprise; an apparent monster who unexpectedly turns out to be a great hero. As such, Bill is the first being outside the Marvel Universe's Norse pantheon to be introduced as being worthy to wield Thor's hammer, Mjolnir. After an initial rivalry for possession of the weapon, the alien warrior was granted a war hammer of his own, called Stormbreaker, and the two reconciled as staunch allies, going on to fight side by side.
Beta Ray Bill has been featured in other Marvel-endorsed products, such as animated television series, video games, and merchandise.Candy Crush Saga
Candy Crush Saga is a free-to-play match-three puzzle video game released by King on April 12, 2012, for Facebook; other versions for iOS, Android, Windows Phone, and Windows 10 followed. It is a variation of their browser game Candy Crush.In the game, players complete levels by swapping colored pieces of candy on a game board to make a match of three or more of the same color, eliminating those candies from the board and replacing them with new ones, which could potentially create further matches. Matches of four or more candies create unique candies that act as power-ups with larger board-clearing abilities. Boards have various goals that must be completed within a fixed number of moves or limited amount of time, such as a certain score or collecting a specific number of a type of candy.
Candy Crush Saga is considered one of the first and most successful uses of a freemium model; while the game can be played completely through without spending money, players can buy special actions to help clear more difficult boards, from which King makes its revenues—at its peak the company was reportedly earning almost $1 million per day. Around 2014, over 93 million people were playing Candy Crush Saga, while revenue over a three-month period as reported by King was over $493 million. Five years after its release on mobile, the Candy Crush Saga series has received over 2.7 billion downloads, and the game has been one of the highest-grossing and most-played mobile apps in that time frame. King has since released three related titles, Candy Crush Soda Saga, Candy Crush Jelly Saga, and Candy Crush Friends Saga.Heimskringla
Heimskringla (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈheimsˌkʰriŋla]) is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1178/79–1241) c. 1230. The name Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts (kringla heimsins, "the circle of the world").
Heimskringla is a collection of sagas about Swedish and Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla in 1177. The exact sources of his work are disputed, but included earlier kings' sagas, such as Morkinskinna, Fagrskinna and the twelfth century Norwegian synoptic histories and oral traditions, notably many skaldic poems. Snorri had himself visited Norway and Sweden. For events of the mid-12th century, Snorri explicitly names the now-lost work Hryggjarstykki as his source. The composition of the sagas is Snorri's.Kristen Stewart
Kristen Jaymes Stewart (born (1990-04-09)April 9, 1990) is an American actress, model and director. She is the recipient of several accolades, including a César Award, making her the first American woman to win it. Her films have grossed over $4.3 billion worldwide, and she was the highest-paid actress in the world in 2010 and 2012. Twilight brought Stewart worldwide fame, and established her among the highest paid and most bankable actresses in Hollywood. In 2013 Forbes ranked her as one of the most powerful celebrities in the world in the Forbes Celebrity 100, and in 2011 Forbes ranked her 4th on the most powerful actresses in the world.
Born in Los Angeles to parents who worked in show business, Stewart began her career as a child actor in 1999. She gained notice in 2002 for playing Jodie Foster's daughter in the thriller Panic Room, which garnered her a Young Artist Award nomination for Best Leading Actress in a Feature Film. She subsequently starred in Speak (2004), Catch That Kid (2004), Zathura: A Space Adventure (2005), and Into the Wild (2007). In 2010, she was awarded the BAFTA Rising Star Award. Stewart went on to gain wide recognition for playing Bella Swan in The Twilight Saga film series (2008–2012), which collectively grossed over $3.3 billion worldwide. Her work in the series established her as one of the highest-paid actresses in the world.
Following the starring role in the fantasy film Snow White and the Huntsman (2012), Stewart eschewed parts in big-budget films in favour of independent productions. She starred in the dramas Camp X-Ray and Still Alice (both 2014), and the science fiction romance Equals (2016). In 2015, she received critical acclaim for her role opposite Juliette Binoche in Olivier Assayas's French film Clouds of Sils Maria, for which she won the César Award for Best Supporting Actress. Stewart reunited with Assayas the following year in the supernatural thriller for her critically acclaimed role in Personal Shopper (2017) and made her directorial debut with the 2017 short film Come Swim.
She will return to blockbuster films with Charlie's Angels in 2019 and Underwater in 2020, both of which she is the lead.List of Twilight characters
The following is a list of characters in the Twilight novel series by Stephenie Meyer, comprising the books; Twilight, New Moon, Eclipse and Breaking Dawn, as well as The Twilight Saga film series adaptations.Robert Pattinson
Robert Douglas Thomas Pattinson (born 13 May 1986) is an English actor, model, and musician. After starting to act at the local theatre club at the age of 15, he began his film career by playing Cedric Diggory in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire when he was 19. At 22, he went on to star as Edward Cullen in the film adaptations of the Twilight novels, consisting of five films between 2008 and 2012, which grossed a combined total of over $3.3 billion worldwide. It brought Pattinson worldwide fame, and established him among the highest-paid actors in Hollywood. In 2010, Pattinson was named by Time as one of the 100 most influential people in the world, and he was featured in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list.In 2009, he portrayed Salvador Dalí in Little Ashes. That same year, a documentary film, Robsessed, about the actor's fame and popularity, was released. He appeared as a troubled young man in Remember Me (2010) and also starred in a romantic drama, Water for Elephants (2011). His performance as a tough, cold-hearted and calculating billionaire in David Cronenberg's Cosmopolis (2012), earned him critical praise. He gained further critical appreciation for his performances in David Michod's futuristic western The Rover (2014), in Cronenberg's satire drama Maps to the Stars (2014), in James Gray's The Lost City of Z (2017), as an aide-de-camp to an explorer who disappeared in the Amazon while looking for an ancient city, and in the Safdie Brothers Good Time (2017).
Pattinson started his career as a model at the age of 12. In 2013, Dior Homme signed him as the face of their Fragrances. In 2016, he also became the first brand ambassador of their Menswear collection. Pattinson composes and plays his own music. He sang songs for the Twilight film series and the 2008 independent comedy-drama film How to Be. He is a supporter of the End Child Prostitution and Trafficking (ECPAT) campaign, Parents and Abducted Children Together (PACT), and the GO Campaign, a nonprofit organization that raises awareness and funds to help orphans and vulnerable children throughout the world. He became ambassador of the latter in 2015 to help raise international awareness of it. He is also a member of International Medical Corps and has promoted and shared details about cancer through PSAs to raise awareness about the disease.Saga Prefecture
Saga Prefecture (佐賀県, Saga-ken) is a prefecture in the northwest part of the island of Kyushu, Japan. It touches both the Sea of Japan and the Ariake Sea. The western part of the prefecture is a region famous for producing ceramics and porcelain, particularly the towns of Karatsu, Imari, and Arita. The capital is the city of Saga.StarCraft
StarCraft is a military science fiction media franchise, created by Chris Metzen and James Phinney and owned by Blizzard Entertainment. The series, set in the beginning of the 26th century, centers on a galactic struggle for dominance among four species—the adaptable and mobile Terrans, the ever-evolving insectoid Zerg, the powerfully enigmatic Protoss, and the "god-like" Xel'Naga creator race—in a distant part of the Milky Way galaxy known as the Koprulu Sector. The series debuted with the video game StarCraft in 1998. It has grown to include a number of other games as well as eight novelizations, two Amazing Stories articles, a board game, and other licensed merchandise such as collectible statues and toys.
Blizzard Entertainment began planning StarCraft in 1995, with a development team led by Metzen and Phinney. The game debuted at E3 1996, and used a modified Warcraft II game engine. StarCraft also marked the creation of Blizzard Entertainment's film department; the game introduced high quality cinematics integral to the storyline of the series. Most of the original development team for StarCraft returned to work on the game's expansion pack, Brood War; the game's development began shortly after StarCraft was released. In 2001, StarCraft: Ghost began development under Nihilistic Software. Unlike the previous real-time strategy games in the series, Ghost was to be a stealth-action game. After three years of development, work on the game was postponed in 2004. Development of StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty began in 2003; the game was announced in May 2007 and was released in July 2010. The StarCraft II franchise continued with the StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm expansion, which was released in March 2013. The third StarCraft II installment, StarCraft II: Legacy of the Void, released in November 2015.
The original game and its expansion have been praised as one of the benchmark real-time strategy games of its time. The series has gathered a solid following around the world, particularly in South Korea, where professional players and teams participate in matches, earn sponsorships, and compete in televised matches. By June 2007, StarCraft and Brood War had sold nearly 10 million copies combined. In addition, the series was awarded a star on the Walk of Game in 2006, and holds four Guinness World Records in the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition of 2008.On March 27, 2017, Blizzard announced StarCraft: Remastered, a remastered version of the original StarCraft, with the core updates being up-to-date graphics, and revised dialogue and audio. As of April 19, 2017, StarCraft and its Brood War expansion are free to download and play from Blizzard's website.Star Wars
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon.
The first film, later subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by the sequels Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi (1983), forming what is collectively referred to as the original trilogy. A prequel trilogy was later released, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (2005). Finally, a sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens (2015), continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi (2017), and will conclude with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker (2019). The first eight films were nominated for Academy Awards (with wins going to the first two released) and were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical anthology films Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016) and Solo: A Star Wars Story (2018), the films combined box office revenue equates to over US$9 billion, and is currently the second-highest-grossing film franchise.The film series expanded into other media, including television series, video games, novels, comic books, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in an all encompassing fictional universe. Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, and it is currently the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all-time.Taylor Lautner
Taylor Daniel Lautner (; born February 11, 1992) is an American actor, voice actor, and model. He is known for playing Jacob Black in The Twilight Saga film series based on the novels of the same name by Stephenie Meyer.
Lautner began his acting career playing bit roles in comedy series such as The Bernie Mac Show (2003) and My Wife and Kids (2004), before having voice roles in television series like What's New, Scooby-Doo? (2005) and Danny Phantom (2005). In 2005, he appeared in the film Cheaper by the Dozen 2 and starred in The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D. He also starred in the 2011 action film Abduction.
Since 2013, Lautner has starred in the BBC sitcom Cuckoo as the son of the titular main character. In 2016, he played a leading role, Dr. Cassidy Cascade, in the second season of FOX black comedy series Scream Queens.
The late 2000s saw Lautner become a teen idol and sex symbol, after extensively changing his physique to keep the role of Jacob Black in further Twilight installments, and generating media attention for his looks. In 2010, he was ranked second on Glamour's "The 50 Sexiest Men of 2010" list, and fourth on People's "Most Amazing Bodies" list. Also in the same year, Lautner was named the highest-paid teenage actor in Hollywood.The Dark Phoenix Saga
"The Dark Phoenix Saga" is an extended X-Men storyline in the fictional Marvel Comics Universe, focusing on Jean Grey and the Phoenix Force. It was written by Chris Claremont with art by John Byrne.
It is sometimes divided into two parts, with the "Phoenix Saga" (Uncanny X-Men #101-108, 1976–1977, with art by Dave Cockrum and Byrne) referring to Grey's seeming assumption of the Phoenix power and the repair of the M'Kraan Crystal, and the "Dark Phoenix Saga" (Uncanny X-Men #129-138, 1980) referring to her corruption and fall. It is one of the most well-known and heavily referenced stories in mainstream American superhero comics, and widely considered a classic.It was adapted for the X-Men animated series, and alluded to in the live-action movie X2: X-Men United. A third live-action movie, X-Men: The Last Stand, released in 2006, contains some elements from the saga. The animated series Wolverine and the X-Men adapted "the Dark Phoenix" saga at the end of its first season, though it changed many elements of the story.
Had there been a fifth season of the animated series X-Men: Evolution, its own version of the four-part Dark Phoenix would have been adapted. The 2019 live-action X-Men film Dark Phoenix is planned as a direct adaptation of the story.The Twilight Saga
Twilight series may refer to:
Twilight (novel series), a novel series by Stephenie Meyer
The Twilight Saga (film series), a film series based on the novelsThe Twilight Saga (film series)
The Twilight Saga is a series of five romance fantasy films from Summit Entertainment based on the four novels by American author Stephenie Meyer. The films star Kristen Stewart, Robert Pattinson, and Taylor Lautner. The series has grossed over $3.3 billion in worldwide receipts. The first installment, Twilight, was released on November 21, 2008. The second installment, New Moon, followed on November 20, 2009, breaking box office records as the biggest midnight screening and opening day in history, grossing an estimated $72.7 million. The third installment, Eclipse, was released on June 30, 2010, and was the first Twilight film to be released in IMAX.The series was in development since 2004 at Paramount Pictures, during which time a screen adaptation of Twilight that differed significantly from the novel was written. Three years later, Summit Entertainment acquired the rights to the film. After Twilight grossed $35.7 million on its opening day, Summit Entertainment announced they would begin production on New Moon; they had acquired the rights to the remaining novels earlier that same month. A two-part adaptation of Breaking Dawn began shooting in November 2010 with release dates of November 18, 2011, and November 16, 2012, respectively.The Witcher
The Witcher (Polish: Wiedźmin, Polish pronunciation: [ˈvʲɛd͡ʑmʲin]), by Polish writer Andrzej Sapkowski, is a fantasy series of short stories and novels about the protagonist character Geralt of Rivia. In Sapkowski's books, "witchers" like Geralt are monster hunters who (with training and body modification) develop supernatural abilities at a young age to battle deadly beasts. The books have been adapted into a film, a television series, video games, and a graphic novel series. The series of novels is known as the Witcher Saga. The short stories and novels have been translated into numerous languages, including English.
The books have been described as having a cult following in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Bulgaria and other Central and Eastern European countries. The video games have been very successful, and as of March 2018, they have sold over 33 million copies worldwide.