Safe Drinking Water Act

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.[3] Pursuant to the act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set standards for drinking water quality and oversee all states, localities, and water suppliers that implement the standards.

The SDWA applies to every public water system (PWS) in the United States.[4] There are currently over 151,000 public water systems providing water to almost all Americans at some time in their lives.[5] The Act does not cover private wells.[6]

The SDWA does not apply to bottled water. Bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.[7]

Safe Drinking Water Act
Great Seal of the United States (obverse)
Long titleAn Act to amend the Public Health Service Act to assure that the public is provided with safe drinking water, and for other purposes
NicknamesSDWA
Enacted bythe 93rd United States Congress
EffectiveDecember 16, 1974
Citations
Public lawPub. L. 93-523
Statutes at Large88 Stat. 1660 (1974)
Codification
Titles amended42
U.S.C. sections created42 U.S.C. § 300f
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the Senate as S. 433 by Warren Magnuson (DWA) on January 18, 1973
  • Committee consideration by Senate Commerce, House Commerce
  • Passed the Senate on June 22, 1973 
  • Passed the House on November 19, 1974 (296-84 as H.R. 13002) with amendment
  • Senate agreed to House amendment on November 26, 1974 () with further amendment
  • House agreed to Senate amendment on December 3, 1974 ()
  • Signed into law by President Gerald Ford on December 16, 1974
Major amendments
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986,[1]
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996[2]

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations

SDWA Regulatory Analysis Processes - Flowchart - EPA 2016
Chart of Regulatory Analysis Processes under the SDWA

The SDWA requires EPA to establish National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) for contaminants that may cause adverse public health effects.[8]

The regulations include both mandatory requirements (Maximum Contaminant Levels, or MCLs; and Treatment Techniques) and nonenforceable health goals (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) for each included contaminant.[9] As of 2016, there were 88 organic and inorganic chemicals with minimum contaminant levels.[10] MCLs have additional significance because they can be used under the Superfund law as "Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements" in cleanups of contaminated sites on the National Priorities List.[11]

For some contaminants, EPA establishes a Treatment Technique (TT) instead of an MCL. TTs are enforceable procedures that drinking water systems must follow in treating their water for a contaminant.[9]

Federal drinking water standards are organized into six groups:

  • Microorganisms
  • Disinfectants
  • Disinfection Byproducts
  • Inorganic Chemicals
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Radionuclides.[12]

Microorganisms

EPA has issued standards for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, Legionella, coliform bacteria and enteric viruses. EPA also requires two microorganism-related tests to indicate water quality: plate count and turbidity.[12] The agency issued its initial Surface Water Treatment Rule in 1989, to address contamination from viruses, bacteria and Giardia lamblia.[13] The most recent amendment is the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated in 2006, requiring public water systems to employ a Treatment Technique to control Cryptosporidium and other pathogens.[14]

Disinfectants

EPA has issued standards for chlorine, chloramine and chlorine dioxide.[12]

Disinfection by-products

EPA has issued standards for bromate, chlorite, haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes.[12]

Inorganic Chemicals

EPA has issued standards for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, fluoride, lead, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, selenium and thallium.[12]

"Lead Free" plumbing requirements

Sources of Lead in Drinking Water - EPA 2017
EPA illustration of lead sources in residential buildings

The 1986 amendments require EPA to set standards limiting the concentration of lead in public water systems, and defines "lead free" pipes as:

(1) solders and flux containing not more than 0.2 percent lead;
(2) pipes and pipe fittings containing not more than 8.0 percent lead; and
(3) plumbing fittings and fixtures as defined in industry-developed voluntary standards (issued no later than August 6, 1997), or standards developed by EPA in lieu of voluntary standards.[15]

EPA issued an initial lead and copper regulation in 1991[16] and last revised the regulation in 2007. The regulation specifies a Treatment Technique rather than an MCL.[17]

Congress tightened the definition of "lead free" plumbing in a 2011 amendment to the Act.

EPA published a white paper in 2016 discussing options for additional revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule.[18]

Organic Chemicals

EPA has issued standards for 53 organic compounds, including benzene, dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), PCBs, styrene, toluene, vinyl chloride and several pesticides.[12]

Radionuclides

EPA has issued standards for alpha particles, beta particles and photon emitters, radium and uranium.[12] EPA proposed regulations for radon in 1991 and 1999.[19]

Secondary standards

Secondary drinking water standards are non-regulatory guidelines for aesthetic characteristics, including taste, color, and odor.[20]

Health advisories

EPA issues "health advisories" for some contaminants; some of which have not been regulated with MCLs. Health advisories provide technical information to public health officials about health effects, methods for chemical analysis, and treatment methods. The advisories are not enforceable. EPA was given explicit authority to issue advisories in the 1996 SDWA amendments.[21] As of 2018, health advisories have been issued for the following contaminants.[22]

EPA Drinking Water Health Advisories
Chemical Contaminants Microbial Contaminants
Boron Cyanotoxins
Dacthal (DCPA) and Dacthal degradates Cryptosporidium
2,4- and 2,6- Dinitrotoluene (DNT) Legionella
Fluoride Giardia
Manganese Mycobacteria
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)
Oxamyl
Perchlorate
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
Sodium
Sulfate
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

Future standards

Unregulated contaminants

The SDWA requires EPA to identify and list unregulated contaminants which may require regulation. The Agency must publish this list, called the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) every five years. EPA is required to decide whether to regulate at least five or more listed contaminants. EPA uses this list to prioritize research and data collection efforts, which support the regulatory determination process.[23]

As of 2017, EPA has developed four CCLs:

  • CCL1: 50 chemical and 10 microbiological contaminants/contaminant groups were listed in 1998.[24] In 2003 EPA made a determination that no regulatory action was needed on nine of these contaminants.[25]
  • CCL2: EPA carried forward the remaining 51 contaminants from CCL1 for consideration in 2005.[26] In 2008 EPA determined that no regulatory action was needed on 11 of these contaminants.[27]
  • CCL3: EPA revised its listing process, based on recommendations from the National Research Council and the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (a Federal Advisory Committee). It expanded its initial review to 7,500 potential chemical and microbial contaminants, and subsequently narrowed this universe to a list of 600 for further evaluation. 104 chemicals or chemical groups and 12 microbiological contaminants were listed in 2009.[28][29] In 2011 EPA announced it would develop regulations for perchlorate, which had been listed beginning with CCL1.[30][31] In 2016 EPA determined that no regulatory action was needed on four other listed contaminants, and delayed determination on a fifth contaminant, in order to review additional data.[32]
  • CCL4: EPA carried forward the CCL 3 contaminants for which determinations had not been made, and requested public comment on additional contaminants. 97 chemicals or chemical groups and 12 microbial contaminants were listed in 2016.[33][34]

The Natural Resources Defense Council filed a lawsuit in 2016 to accelerate EPA's regulatory process on perchlorate. A federal district court in New York issued a consent decree that initially required EPA to issue a proposed rule in October 2018, and a final rule in December 2019.[35] The modified court order requires EPA to issue a proposed rule by May 28, 2019.[36]

Non-community water systems

Future NPDWR standards will apply to non-transient non-community water systems (for example, some schools, factories, office buildings, and hospitals that operate their own water systems) because of concern for the long-term exposure of a stable population. It is important to note that EPA's decision to apply future NPDWRs to non-transient non-community water systems may have a significant impact on Department of Energy facilities that operate their own drinking water systems.

Monitoring, compliance and enforcement

Public water systems are required to regularly monitor their water for contaminants. Water samples must be analyzed using EPA-approved testing methods, by laboratories that are certified by EPA or a state agency.[37][38]

A PWS must notify its customers when it violates drinking water regulations or is providing drinking water that may pose a health risk. Such notifications are provided either immediately, as soon as possible (but within 30 days of the violation) or annually, depending on the health risk associated with the violation.[39] Community water systems—those systems that serve the same people throughout the year—must provide an annual "Consumer Confidence Report" to customers. The report identifies contaminants, if any, in the drinking water and explains the potential health impacts.[40]

Oversight of public water systems is managed by "primacy" agencies, which are either state government agencies, Indian tribes or EPA regional offices.[41] All state and territories, except Wyoming and the District of Columbia, have received primacy approval from EPA, to supervise the PWS in their respective jurisdictions.[42] A PWS is required to submit periodic monitoring reports to its primacy agency. Violations of SDWA requirements are enforced initially through a primacy agency's notification to the PWS, and if necessary following up with formal orders and fines.[43]

Protection of Underground Sources of Drinking Water

An underground source of drinking water (USDW) means an aquifer with sufficient quality and quantity of ground water to supply a public water system now or in the future.[44]

Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

The SDWA prohibits any underground injection which endangers drinking water sources.[45] The Ninth Circuit United States Court of Appeals while enforcing this prohibition of “harmful injections into drinking water aquifers” explains that underground injection of even clean water can result in the illegal movement of a fluid containing a contaminant into an USDW:

The SDWA and its implementing regulations are not concerned with whether an injected fluid is itself contaminated. Rather, they are concerned with the result of "injection activity." A permit applicant must show that the proposed activity will not allow "the movement of fluid containing [a] contaminant." Id. Injections of clean water into the ground can cause the movement of contaminants into an aquifer. For example, contaminants may dissolve into clean water as the injected water passes through the soil on its way to an aquifer.[46]:1077

Underground fluid injection can have disastrous consequences for drinking water and, in turn, for human health. Injected fluid is hard to trace once it enters the ground, and polluted aquifers are hard to remediate. Congress' cautious "preventive" approach requires permit applicants to show that their injections will not harm underground sources of drinking water. It presumes, until an applicant shows otherwise, that injections will contaminate an USDW. Although this approach may result in forbidding some injections that would not contaminate an USDW, it is a valid exercise of Congress' authority. [46]:1080

UIC Program Poster - EPA 2001
EPA poster illustrating UIC well classes

The 1974 SDWA authorized EPA to regulate injection wells in order to protect underground sources of drinking water.[47] The UIC permit system is organized into six classes of wells.[48]

  • Class I. Industrial waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) and municipal wastewater disposal wells
  • Class II. Oil and gas related injection wells (except wells solely used for production; see Hydraulic fracturing exemption)
  • Class III. Solution mining wells
  • Class IV. Shallow hazardous and radioactive waste injection wells (no longer permitted)
  • Class V. Wells that inject non-hazardous fluids into or above underground sources of drinking water
  • Class VI. Geologic sequestration wells for carbon dioxide.

EPA has granted UIC primacy enforcement authority to 34 states for Class I, II, III, IV and V wells. Seven additional states and two tribes have been granted primacy authority for Class II wells only. EPA manages enforcement of Class VI wells directly.[49]

If a state does not take appropriate enforcement action then EPA must issue an order requiring a violator to comply with the requirements, or the agency will initiate a civil enforcement action. The SDWA directly provides for citizen civil actions by 42 U.S.C. § 300j–8,.

Hydraulic fracturing exemption

Congress amended the SDWA in 2005 to exclude hydraulic fracturing, an industrial process for recovering oil and natural gas, from coverage under the UIC program, except where diesel fuels are used.[50][51] This exclusion has been called the "Halliburton Loophole". Halliburton is the world's largest provider of hydraulic fracturing services.[52] The measure was a response to a recommendation from the Energy Task Force, chaired by Vice President Dick Cheney in 2001.[53] (Cheney had been Chairman and CEO of Halliburton from 1995 to 2000.[54])

Wellhead protection areas

The act requires states to establish wellhead protection programs to protect underground sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection programs must specify the duties of agencies, determine the wellhead protection areas, identify sources of contaminants, implement control measures to protect the wellhead protection areas, and a contingency plan for alternative drinking water supplies in the event of contamination. Federal agencies having jurisdiction over potential sources of contaminants must comply with all requirements of the state wellhead protection program.

Emergency power

The “Updated Guidance on Invoking Emergency Authority Under Section 1431 Of The Safe Drinking Water Act” shows that 42 U.S.C. § 300i gives the EPA Administrator broad power to protect public water systems and underground sources of drinking water (USDWs).[55]:3 This guidance encourages more widespread use of the EPA's emergency powers.[55]:3 This emergency power is granted when the Administrator receives “information that a contaminant which is present in or likely to enter a public water system or an underground source of drinking water ... which may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of persons” and that appropriate agencies have not acted.[55]:6-7 Since this emergency power protection applies to all USDWs it includes potential future supplies of public water and even private wells.[55]:7-8 The imminent endangerment includes contaminants that lead to chronic health effects that may not be realized for years such as lead and carcinogens.[55]:9-10 To prevent harm from occurring the EPA Administrator may issue administrative orders or commence civil actions even without absolute proof.[55]:11

Judicial review and civil actions

Whenever the EPA Administrator finds a violation of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program and the State does not or cannot act, 42 U.S.C § 300h–2 makes it mandatory for the EPA Administrator to issue an administrative order or to file a civil action to require compliance.

Where and when a citizen can file a petition for judicial review of final actions of the EPA Administrator are specified in 42 U.S.C. § 300j–7. Then by 42 U.S.C. § 300j–8 a citizen may also file against any violator of the SDWA or against the EPA Administrator for failure to take action under the SDWA which is not discretionary. Even the EPA Administrator's emergency administrative orders are final actions subject to judicial review.[56]

Related programs

Airline water supplies

In 2004, EPA tested drinking water quality on commercial aircraft and found that 15 percent of tested aircraft water systems tested positive for total coliform bacteria. EPA published a final regulation for aircraft public water systems in 2009. The regulation requires air carriers operating in the U.S. to conduct coliform sampling, management practices, corrective action, public notification, operator training, and reporting and recordkeeping. An airline with a non-complying aircraft must restrict public access to the on-board water system for a specified period.[57]

Source water assessment

The SDWA requires each state to delineate the boundaries of areas that public water systems use for their sources of drinking water—both surface and underground sources.[58] Within each source area the origins of regulated contaminants are identified in order to determine the susceptibility of the public water systems. This information can help communities understand the risks to their sources of drinking water.[59]

Whistleblower protection

The SDWA includes a whistleblower protection provision.[60] Employees in the US who believe they were fired or suffered another adverse action related to enforcement of this law have 30 days to file a written complaint with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

History

Prelude

Prior to the SDWA there were few national enforceable requirements for drinking water. Improvements in testing were allowing the detection of smaller concentrations of contaminant and allowing more tests to be run.[61][62]

Under state programs, some water works managers mistakenly believed that the major, real threats were behind them and their primary focus was on providing consistent and effective service through aging infrastructure, with major efforts at maintaining the bacteriological quality of drinking water.[63]

1974 Act

The Safe Drinking Water Act was one of several pieces of environmental legislation in the 1970s. Discovery of organic contamination in public drinking water and the lack of enforceable, national standards persuaded Congress to take action.

Historically, up through 1914, drinking water quality in the United States was managed at the state and local level. After that, interstate waters were protected using United States Public Health Service (USPHS) standards. Ultimately the USPHS standards were adopted and expanded as national drinking water standards after passage of the 1974 law.[64]

The 1974 law very clearly defined roles and responsibilities, giving EPA the job of generating scientifically based standards that would be applicable to all water supplies that served 25 or more customers and creating a process for setting new standards. EPA was mandated to contract with the National Academy of Sciences for a major study of contaminants in drinking water that might have health significance and to issue revised regulations once the NAS report was completed.[65]

1986 amendments

The 1986 SDWA amendments required EPA to apply future NPDWRs to both community and non-transient non-community water systems when it evaluated and revised current regulations.[1] The first case in which this was applied was the "Phase I" final rule, published on July 8, 1987.[66] At that time NPDWRs were promulgated for certain synthetic volatile organic compounds and applied to non-transient non-community water systems as well as community water systems. This rulemaking also clarified that non-transient non-community water systems were not subject to MCLs that were promulgated before July 8, 1987. The 1986 amendments were signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on June 19, 1986.

In addition to requiring more contaminants to be regulated, the 1986 amendments included:

  • Well head protection
  • New monitoring for certain substances
  • Filtration for certain surface water systems
  • Disinfection for certain groundwater systems
  • Restriction on lead in solder and plumbing
  • More enforcement powers.[67]

1996 SDWA amendments

In 1996, Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water Act to emphasize sound science and risk-based standard setting, small water supply system flexibility and technical assistance, community-empowered source water assessment and protection, public right-to-know, and water system infrastructure assistance through a multibillion-dollar state revolving loan fund. The amendments were signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 6, 1996.[2]

Main points of the 1996 amendments

  1. Consumer Confidence Reports: All community water systems must prepare and distribute annual reports about the water they provide, including information on detected contaminants, possible health effects, and the water's source.
  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis: EPA must conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis for every new standard to determine whether the benefits of a drinking water standard justify the costs.
  3. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund.[68] States can use this fund to help water systems make infrastructure or management improvements or to help systems assess and protect their source water.
  4. Microbial Contaminants and Disinfection Byproducts: EPA is required to strengthen protection for microbial contaminants, including cryptosporidium, while strengthening control over the byproducts of chemical disinfection. EPA promulgated the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule[69] and the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule[70] to address these risks.
  5. Operator Certification: Water system operators must be certified to ensure that systems are operated safely. EPA issued guidelines in 1999 specifying minimum standards for the certification and recertification of the operators of community and non-transient, noncommunity water systems.[71] These guidelines apply to state operator certification programs. All states are currently implementing EPA-approved operator certification programs.
  6. Public Information and Consultation: SDWA emphasizes that consumers have a right to know what is in their drinking water, where it comes from, how it is treated, and how to help protect it. EPA distributes public information materials (through its Drinking Water Hotline, Safewater web site, and Resource Center) and holds public meetings, working with states, tribes, water systems, and environmental and civic groups, to encourage public involvement.
  7. Small Water Systems: Small water systems are given special consideration and resources under SDWA, to make sure they have the managerial, financial, and technical ability to comply with drinking water standards.

2005 amendment

Through the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Safe Drinking Water Act was amended to exclude the underground injection of any fluids or propping agents other than diesel fuels used in hydraulic fracturing operations from being considered as "underground injections" for the purposes of the law.[50]

2011 amendment

Congress passed the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act in 2011. This amendment, effective in 2014, tightened the definition of "lead-free" plumbing fixtures and fittings.[72]

2015 amendments

The Drinking Water Protection Act was enacted on August 7, 2015.[73] It required EPA to submit to Congress a strategic plan for assessing and managing risks associated with algal toxins in drinking water provided by public water systems. EPA submitted the plan to Congress in November 2015.[74]

The Grassroots Rural and Small Community Water Systems Assistance Act was signed by President Barack Obama on December 11, 2015. The amendment provides technical assistance to small public water systems, to help them comply with National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.[75]

2016 amendments

The Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act added several provisions to the SDWA, along with providing financial assistance to the city of Flint, Michigan in responding to its lead contamination crisis, as well as assistance for other communities. The provisions include:

  • expanding the water infrastructure public-private partnership loan program
  • requiring public notification when household drinking water contains lead levels above the EPA action level (currently 0.015 mg/L)
  • establishing a voluntary program for testing for lead in drinking water at schools and childcare centers
  • creating a public information clearinghouse on alternative drinking water delivery systems.[76]

2018 amendments

Environmental justice

The SDWA can promote environmental justice by increasing the safety of drinking water in the communities most adversely impacted by water contamination.[78] Communities of color and low-income communities are disproportionately impacted by unsafe drinking water and associated health problems in the United States.[79] Specifically, Native American reservations and communities with dense Latino and African American populations are at higher risk of exposure to drinking water contaminants.[80] Contaminants found in the drinking water of such communities include nitrates, coliform, and lead, which have been linked to cancer, reproductive health problems, gastrointestinal illness, and other health problems. One study found that levels of contaminants in the drinking water of two Nebraska Native American reservations were significantly higher than regional contaminant levels.[81] Another study found that Latino residents in Tucson, Arizona, had higher than average levels of contaminants in their drinking water, which were linked to higher rates of cancer and neurological disorders among residents.[82] Also, it is understood that low-income residents in the Appalachian region of West Virginia are disproportionately exposed to contaminants in drinking water from coal mining in the region.[83]

In addressing the updated priorities associated with the act, EPA states that its first priority is to "promote equity... in disadvantaged, small, and environmental justice communities," specifically addressing that disadvantaged communities face disproportionate risks associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water.[78]

See also

External links

Further reading

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "US Federal Legislation".

  1. ^ a b United States. Pub.L. 99–359; 100 Stat. 642. "Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986." 1986-06-19.
  2. ^ a b United States. Pub.L. 104–182, 110 Stat. 1613. "Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996." 1996-08-06.
  3. ^ United States. Pub.L. 93–523; 88 Stat. 1660; 42 U.S.C. § 300f et seq. 1974-12-16.
  4. ^ A public water system has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves at least 25 individuals, at least 60 days per year. 42 U.S.C. § 300f(4)(A)
  5. ^ "Information about Public Water Systems". Drinking Water Requirements for States and Public Water Systems. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2017-03-08.
  6. ^ "About Private Water Wells". EPA. 2015-11-17.
  7. ^ United States. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.
  8. ^ EPA. "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 141.
  9. ^ a b "How EPA Regulates Drinking Water Contaminants". EPA. 2018-06-06.
  10. ^ Joseph Cotruvo, Victor Kimm, Arden Calvert. “Drinking Water: A Half Century of Progress.” EPA Alumni Association. March 1, 2016.
  11. ^ "Chapter 4. Guidance for Compliance with Requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act". CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual (Report). EPA. August 1988. p. 4-1. EPA 540/G-89/006.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations". EPA. 2017-07-11.
  13. ^ "Surface Water Treatment Rules". EPA. 2016-11-02.
  14. ^ EPA (2006-01-05). "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule." 71 FR 654
  15. ^ Safe Drinking Water Act. "Prohibition on use of lead pipes, solder, and flux." 42 U.S.C. § 300g-6(d).
  16. ^ EPA. "Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper; Final Rule." Federal Register, 56 FR 26460, 1991-06-07.
  17. ^ EPA (2007-10-10). "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper: Short-Term Regulatory Revisions and Clarifications." Federal Register, 72 FR 57782
  18. ^ Lead and Copper Rule Revisions; White Paper (PDF) (Report). EPA. October 2016.
  19. ^ "Proposed Radon in Drinking Water Regulation". EPA. 2014-06-14.
  20. ^ "Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals". EPA. 2017-03-08.
  21. ^ SDWA sec. 1412(b)(1)(F); 42 U.S.C. § 300g-1(b)(1)(F)
  22. ^ "Drinking Water Contaminant Human Health Effects Information". EPA. 2018-10-03.
  23. ^ "Basic Information on the CCL and Regulatory Determination". EPA. 2015-11-25.
  24. ^ EPA (1998-03-02). "Announcement of the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List." Federal Register, 63 FR 10274
  25. ^ EPA (2003-07-18). "Announcement of Regulatory Determinations for Priority Contaminants on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List." 68 FR 42898
  26. ^ EPA (2005-02-24) "Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 2." 70 FR 9071
  27. ^ EPA (2008-07-30). "Regulatory Determinations Regarding Contaminants on the Second Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List." 73 FR 44251.
  28. ^ EPA (2009-10-08). "Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3-Final." 74 FR 51850
  29. ^ "Overview of CCL 3 Process". CCL and Regulatory Determination. EPA. 2016-09-29.
  30. ^ "Perchlorate in Drinking Water". Drinking Water Contaminants—Standards and Regulations. EPA. 2017-03-31.
  31. ^ EPA (2011-02-11). "Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate." 76 FR 7762
  32. ^ EPA (2016-01-04). "Announcement of Final Regulatory Determinations for Contaminants on the Third Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List." 81 FR 13.
  33. ^ EPA (2016-11-17) "Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 4-Final." 81 FR 81099.
  34. ^ "Overview of the CCL 4 Approach". CCL and Regulatory Determination. EPA. 2016-11-17.
  35. ^ Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. v. United States Environmental Protection Agency and Gina McCarthy, 16 Civ. 1251 (ER). United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Consent Decree filed October 17, 2016.
  36. ^ "Regulatory Update At-A-Glance". Washington, DC: Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  37. ^ "Learn about Drinking Water Analytical Methods". EPA. 2015-10-02.
  38. ^ "Learn About Laboratory Certification for Drinking Water". EPA. 2015-10-07.
  39. ^ "Public Notification Rule". Drinking Water Requirements for States and Public Water Systems. EPA. 2015-11-09.
  40. ^ "Safe Drinking Water Act: Consumer Confidence Reports (CCR)". EPA. 2016-01-19.
  41. ^ "Primacy Enforcement Responsibility for Public Water Systems". Drinking Water Requirements for States and Public Water Systems. EPA. 2015-11-09.
  42. ^ EPA (2004). "Understanding the Safe Drinking Water Act." Fact sheet. Document no. EPA 816-F-04-030.
  43. ^ Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA. "Enforcing Drinking Water Regulations." Accessed 2014-02-19.
  44. ^ 40 C.F.R. 144.3
  45. ^ 42 U.S.C. § 300h(b) and 42 U.S.C. § 300h-1(c)
  46. ^ a b One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work in the public domain: US v. King, 660 F.3d 1071 (9th Cir. 2011).
  47. ^ SDWA. "Regulations for State programs." 42 U.S.C. § 300h
  48. ^ "Protecting Underground Sources of Drinking Water from Underground Injection". EPA. 2017-01-19.
  49. ^ "Primary Enforcement Authority for the Underground Injection Control Program". EPA. 2017-05-10.
  50. ^ a b Energy Policy Act of 2005, (Pub.L. 109–58), approved 2005-08-08. Amended SDWA § 1421(d). See 42 U.S.C. § 300h.
  51. ^ "Natural Gas Extraction - Hydraulic Fracturing". EPA. 2016-02-01.
  52. ^ Mark Drajem and Katarzyna Klimasinska (1 February 2012). "EPA Shrinking 'Halliburton Loophole' Threatens Obama Gas Pledge". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  53. ^ United States. National Energy Policy Development Group (May 2001). National Energy Policy (PDF) (Report). U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-16-050814-2.
  54. ^ "Cheney's Halliburton Ties Remain". CBS News. September 26, 2003. Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2007.
  55. ^ a b c d e f  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Environmental Protection Agency document "Updated Guidance on Emergency Authority under Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act" by Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. Retrieved on 2018-12-05.
  56. ^ Sackett v. EPA, 132 S. Ct. 1367, 1374 (U.S. 2012).
  57. ^ EPA. "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Drinking Water Regulations for Aircraft Public Water Systems." Final rule. Federal Register, 74 FR 53590, 2009-10-19.
  58. ^ 42 U.S.C. § 300j–13
  59. ^ "Basic Information about Source Water Protection". EPA. 2018-09-12.
  60. ^ SDWA. "General provisions." 42 U.S.C. § 300j-9(i)
  61. ^ Bredickas, Vincent; Hartnett, Kim (1998-02-24). "Safe Drinking Water Act". Water Treatment Primer. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  62. ^ Theiss, Jeffrey C.; Stoner, Gary D.; Shimkin, Michael B.; Weisburger, Elizabeth K. (1977). "Test for Carcinogenicity of Organic Contaminants of United States Drinking Waters by Pulmonary Tumor Response in Strain A Mice" (PDF). Cancer Research. 37 (8 Pt 1): 2717–2720. ISSN 1538-7445. PMID 872098.
  63. ^ EPA Alumni Association: Senior EPA officials discuss early implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Video, Transcript (see p4).
  64. ^ EPA Alumni Association: Senior EPA officials discuss early implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Video, Transcript (see p3).
  65. ^ EPA Alumni Association: Senior EPA officials discuss early implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Video, Transcript (see pages 4,5).
  66. ^ EPA (1987). "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations – Synthetic Organic Chemicals; Monitoring for Unregulated Contaminants; Final Rule." Federal Register, 52 FR 25690, 1987-07-08.
  67. ^ EPA (1986). "President Signs Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments." Press release. 1986-06-20.
  68. ^ EPA. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program and implementation regulations. 40 CFR 3500 (Subpart L).
  69. ^ EPA (1998). "Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule." Federal Register, 63 FR 69389, 1998-12-16.
  70. ^ EPA (1998). "Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ." Federal Register, 63 FR 69477, 1998-12-16.
  71. ^ EPA (1999). "Final guidelines for the Certification and Recertification of the Operators of Community and Nontransient Noncommunity Public Water Systems." Federal Register, 64 FR 5915, 1999-02-05.
  72. ^ Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act. Pub.L. 111–380; 124 Stat. 4131. Approved January 4, 2011.
  73. ^ Drinking Water Protection Act. Pub.L. 114–45. Approved August 7, 2015.
  74. ^ EPA (November 2015). "Algal Toxin Risk Assessment and Management Strategic Plan for Drinking Water."
  75. ^ Grassroots Rural and Small Community Water Systems Assistance Act. Pub.L. 114–98. Approved December 11, 2015.
  76. ^ Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act. Pub.L. 114–322. Approved 2016-12-16.
  77. ^ United States. America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018. Pub.L. 115–270. October 23, 2018.
  78. ^ a b "Drinking Water Action Plan" (PDF). EPA. November 2016.
  79. ^ Christian-Smith, Juliet (2002). A Twenty-First Century US Water Policy. Oxford University. ISBN 9780199859443.
  80. ^ Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna (2017-04-21). "Disproportionate Exposures in Environmental Justice and Other Populations: The Importance of Outliers". American Journal of Public Health. 101 (Suppl 1): S53–S63. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300121. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3222496. PMID 21551384.
  81. ^ McGinnis, Shelley; Davis, R. (2001-12-01). "Domestic well water quality within tribal lands of eastern Nebraska". Environmental Geology. 41 (3–4): 321–329. doi:10.1007/s002540100389. ISSN 0943-0105.
  82. ^ Pinderhughes, Raquel (1996-01-01). "The Impact of Race on Environmental Quality: An Empirical and Theoretical Discussion". Sociological Perspectives. 39 (2): 231–248. doi:10.2307/1389310. JSTOR 1389310.
  83. ^ Ludke, Robert (2012). Appalachian Health and Well-being. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813135861.
America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018

America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 (S. 3021, Pub.L. 115–270) is a United States federal law, enacted during the 115th United States Congress, that provides for water infrastructure improvements throughout the country in the areas of:

flood control

navigable waterways

water resources development

maintenance and repair of dams and reservoirs

ecosystem restoration

public water systems

financing of improvements

hydropower development

technical assistance to small communities.The law also reauthorizes the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 2014 (WIFIA) which provides expanded financial assistance to communities under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act.

Also included in the law is the designation of the United States courthouse located at 300 South Fourth Street in Minneapolis, Minnesota, as the "Diana E. Murphy United States Courthouse".

American Water Works Association

American Water Works Association (AWWA) is an international non-profit, scientific and educational association founded to improve water quality and supply. Established in 1881, it has a membership (as of 2012) of around 50,000 members worldwide.In reviewing the success of the Safe Drinking Water Act after 1974, senior EPA officials cite the vital role that AWWA played as kind of a non‐threatening meeting ground, particularly at the local level.AWWA members include: water utilities, treatment plant operators and managers, scientists, environmentalists, manufacturers, academics, regulators, and others with an interest in water supply and public health. AWWA works through advocacy, communications, conferences, education and training, science and technology, and local action among 43 AWWA Sections throughout North America.

AWWA launched AWWAIndia, its first international community, in 2015. AWWAIndia's headquarters office is located in Mumbai, India.

Citizen suit

In the United States, a citizen suit is a lawsuit by a private citizen to enforce a statute. Citizen suits are particularly common in the field of environmental law.Citizen suits come in three forms. First, a private citizen can bring a lawsuit against a citizen, corporation, or government body for engaging in conduct prohibited by the statute. For example, a citizen can sue a corporation under the Clean Water Act (CWA) for illegally polluting a waterway. Second, a private citizen can bring a lawsuit against a government body for failing to perform a non-discretionary duty. For example, a private citizen could sue the Environmental Protection Agency for failing to promulgate regulations that the CWA required it to promulgate. In a third, less common form, citizens may sue for an injunction to abate a potential imminent and substantial endangerment involving generation, disposal or handling of waste, regardless of whether or not the defendant's conduct violates a statutory prohibition. This third type of citizen suit is analogous to the common law tort of public nuisance. In general, the law entitles plaintiffs who bring successful citizen suits to recover reasonable attorney fees and other litigation costs.In 1970, when amending the Clean Air Act, the United States Congress was inspired by similar legislation in the civil rights arena to begin including specific provisions for citizens to bring suit against violators or government agencies to enforce environmental laws. Today, most anti-pollution laws have provisions for citizen suits and they have become a major means of ensuring compliance with environmental laws. Public-interest environmental legal service organizations, such as Earthjustice and the Tulane Environmental Law Clinic, often prosecute citizen suits. Some non-environmental statutes, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act, also contain citizen suit provisions, but the majority of regulatory statutes do not.

Citizens may only bring citizen suits in federal court if they have "standing to sue". To establish standing, the courts have required proof of three elements. First, the plaintiff must have suffered an “injury in fact”—an invasion of a legally protected interest which is (a) concrete and particularized and (b) “actual or imminent, not ‘conjectural’ or ‘hypothetical’”. Second, there must be a causal connection between the injury and the conduct complained of—the injury has to be “fairly ... trace[able] to the challenged action of the defendant, and not ... th[e] result [of] the independent action of some third party not before the court.” Third, it must be “likely”, as opposed to merely “speculative”, that the injury will be “redressed by a favorable decision.”Environmental laws that allow citizen suits include:

Clean Water Act

Safe Drinking Water Act

Clean Air Act 1970

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

Endangered Species Act of 1973

Emergency Planning and Community Right To Know Act of 1986- SARA Title III

Colorado Water Quality Control Division

The Colorado Water Quality Control Division is part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. The Water Quality Control Division implements the federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act in Colorado. It is responsible for water control for the state of Colorado to ensure the protection of both the environment and the public. The division enforces these laws through methods such as implementing local laws and regulations, permits, and routine inspections of public water systems and facilities.

Drinking water quality in the United States

Drinking water quality in the United States is generally good. In 2016, over 90 percent of the nation's community water systems were in compliance with all more-than-90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Over 286 million Americans get their tap water from a community water system. Eight percent of the community water systems—large municipal water systems—provide water to 82 percent of the US population.Most of the systems that are out of compliance are small systems in rural areas and small towns, partly because most public water systems are small ones. Drinking water quality in the U.S. is regulated by state and federal laws and codes, which set Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for some pollutants and naturally occurring constituents, determine various operational requirements, require public notification for violation of standards, provide guidance to state primacy agencies, and require utilities to publish Consumer Confidence Reports.

Drinking water quality legislation of the United States

In the United States, public drinking water is governed by the laws and regulations enacted by the federal and state governments. Certain ordinances may also be created at a more local level. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law. The SDWA authorizes the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create and enforce regulations to achieve the SDWA goals.

Drinking water quality standards

Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water. Despite the truth that every human on this planet needs drinking water to survive and that water may contain many harmful constituents, there are no universally recognized and accepted international standards for drinking water. Even where standards do exist, and are applied, the permitted concentration of individual constituents may vary by as much as ten times from one set of standards to another. The surveillance agency is responsible for an independent (external) and periodic review of all aspects of safety, whereas the water supplier is responsible at all times for regular quality control, for operational monitoring and for ensuring good operating

practice. Guidelines for Water-Drinking Quality. This surveillance holds several water purification companies accountable when water doesn't meet quality standards. This method enforces all policies and encourages proper infrastructure, whether piped or unpiped, treatment plants, storage reservoirs and distribution systems.

Many developed countries specify standards to be applied in their own country. In Europe, this includes the European Drinking Water Directive and in the United States the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes standards as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act. For countries without a legislative or administrative framework for such standards, the World Health Organization publishes guidelines on the standards that should be achieved. China adopted its own drinking water standard GB3838-2002 (Type II) enacted by Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2002.Where drinking water quality standards do exist, most are expressed as guidelines or targets rather than requirements, and very few water standards have any legal basis or, are subject to enforcement. Two exceptions are the European Drinking Water Directive and the Safe Drinking Water Act in the USA, which require legal compliance with specific standards.

In Europe, this includes a requirement for member states to enact appropriate local legislation to mandate the directive in each country. Routine inspection and, where required, enforcement is enacted by means of penalties imposed by the European Commission on non-compliant nations.

Countries with guideline values as their standards include Canada, which has guideline values for a relatively small suite of parameters, New Zealand, where there is a legislative basis, but water providers have to make "best endeavours" to comply with the standards, and Australia.

Exemptions for hydraulic fracturing under United States federal law

There are many exemptions for hydraulic fracturing under United States federal law: the oil and gas industries are exempt or excluded from certain sections of a number of the major federal environmental laws. These laws range from protecting clean water and air, to preventing the release of toxic substances and chemicals into the environment: the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, commonly known as Superfund.

Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act

The Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act (H.R. 1084, S. 587, dubbed as the FRAC Act) is a legislative proposal in the United States Congress to define hydraulic fracturing as a federally regulated activity under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The proposed act would require the energy industry to disclose the chemical additives used in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The gas industry opposes the legislation.The bill was introduced to both houses of the 111th United States Congress on June 9, 2009. The House bill was introduced by representatives Diana DeGette, D-Colo., Maurice Hinchey D-N.Y., and Jared Polis, D-Colo. The Senate version was introduced by senators Bob Casey, D-Pa., and Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y. The bill was re-introduced to both houses of the 112th United States Congress on March 15, 2011, by representative Diana DeGette and senator Bob Casey.

List of United States federal environmental statutes

The laws listed below meet the following criteria: (1) they were passed by the United States Congress, and (2) pertain to (a) the regulation of the interaction of humans and the natural environment, or (b) the conservation and/or management of natural or historic resources. They need not be wholly codified in the United States Code.

Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

The Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR" or simply "LT2") is a 2006 regulation promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The rule required public water systems to install more stringent treatment systems to control the microorganism cryptosporidium and other pathogens.

Maximum Contaminant Level

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are standards that are set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water quality. An MCL is the legal threshold limit on the amount of a substance that is allowed in public water systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The limit is usually expressed as a concentration in milligrams or micrograms per liter of water.

State Revolving Fund

A State Revolving Fund (SRF) is a fund administered by a U.S. state for the purpose of providing low-interest loans for investments in water and sanitation infrastructure (e.g., sewage treatment, stormwater management facilities, drinking water treatment), as well as for the implementation of nonpoint source pollution control and estuary protection projects. A SRF receives its initial capital from federal grants and state contributions. It then emits bonds that are guaranteed by the initial capital. It then "revolves" through the repayment of principal and the payment of interest on outstanding loans. There are currently two SRFs, the Clean Water State Revolving Fund created in 1987 under the Clean Water Act, and the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund created in 1997 under the Safe Drinking Water Act.Early in the implementation of the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program, following passage of the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA underwent a process of evaluating the adequacy of state public water systems. The agency’s goal was to devolve primacy for drinking water quality management to states that were prepared to accept the responsibility, and to use the new funds provided by Congress in EPA’s budget to give states financial support.

State health agency

A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States. The position is the chief executive official for the state's state health agency (or equivalent), chief administrative officer for the state's Board of Health (or equivalent), or both.

Following passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, during the first ten years of the program the state health departments were given new and important roles under the law. Due to new grants available, they had enhanced their programs and had many more resources to oversee and help utilities come into compliance with drinking water standards, and they were able to develop other related activities like the capacity for doing risk assessments on new contaminants of concern.

Timeline of major U.S. environmental and occupational health regulation

1916 - National Park Service Organic Act created the National Park Service.

1947 – Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District created; first air pollution agency in the US.

1948 – Federal Water Pollution Control Act

1955 – National Air Pollution Control Act

1959 – California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board created to test automobile emissions and set standards.

1963 – Clean Air Act (amended in 1965, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1977, 1990)

1964 – Wilderness Act

1965 – National Emissions Standards Act

1965 – Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act

1965 – Solid Waste Disposal Act

1967 – California Air Resources Board established; set emissions standards predating EPA.

1967 – Air Quality Act (amendment to CAA)

1969 – Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act

1969 – National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

1970 – Reorganization Plan No. 3 created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by Presidential Executive Order

1970 – Clean Air Act (Extension). Major rewrite of CAA, setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Hazardous Air Pollutant standards, and auto emissions tailpipe standards.

1970 – Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act created OSHA and NIOSH

1970 – Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act

1970 – Environmental Quality Improvement Act

1972 – Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500). Major rewrite.

1972 – Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (amended by Food Quality Protection Act of 1996)

1972 – Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972

1973 – Endangered Species Act

1974 – Safe Drinking Water Act

1975 – Hazardous Materials Transportation Act

1976 – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

1976 – Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

1977 – Clean Water Act. Amended FWPCA of 1972.

1977 – Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

1978 – National Energy Conservation Policy Act

1980 – Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Created the Superfund program.

1980 – Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act

1980 – Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

1982 – Nuclear Waste Policy Act

1986 – Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986

1986 – Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRKA)

1986 – Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)

1987 – Water Quality Act. Amended FWPCA of 1972.

1989 – Basel Convention

1989 – Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting chemicals enters into force.

1990 – Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Set new automobile emissions standards, low-sulfur gas, required Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for toxins, reduction in CFCs.

1990 – Oil Pollution Act of 1990

1991 – Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)

1992 – Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

1993 – North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act

1994 – Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice

1996 – Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (P.L. 104-19)

1996 – Food Quality Protection Act (amended FIFRA)

1996 – Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996

1997 - Kyoto Protocol

1998 – Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21)

2002 – California AB 1493 sets standards for emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases from automobiles and light duty trucks.

2002 – Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (amended CERCLA)

2005 – Energy Policy Act of 2005

2005 – Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA)

2007 – Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA)

2016 -- The Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act

Tom Murt

Thomas P. Murt (born 1960) is a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, representing the 152nd legislative district. He was first elected in 2006.Tom Murt is a native of Hatboro, Pennsylvania and graduated from Archbishop Wood High School. He has a bachelor's degree in Economics from Penn State University and a master's degree in Education from La Salle University. He also earned a Teaching Certificate from Gwynedd-Mercy College. He has completed graduate economics coursework at Temple University, and is currently pursuing a doctorate in education there.Murt served in the U.S. Army Reserve from 1990 to 2008. In 2003, he was called to active duty and served for 14 months with the U.S. Army's 4th Infantry Division in Iraq. Following his deployment in Operation: Iraqi Freedom, Murt returned to the U.S. Army Reserve with the 656th Area Support Group.Prior to elected office, he was assistant coordinator for the Counseling and Advising Center at Penn State Abington, where he also taught business classes. Murt was elected to the Upper Moreland Township Board of Commissioners in 1993 and served for ten years but resigned after he was called to active duty in the Army. He also served on the board of the Upper Moreland School District.In 2006, Tom Murt ran for the Pennsylvania State House against incumbent Sue Cornell in the Republican primary. He benefited from voter anger over the 2005 legislative pay raise. Even though Cornell won the party endorsement and had support from other State Representatives Murt prevailed in the primary with 55% of the vote. Murt went on to defeat Democrat Michael Paston in the general election with 54% of the vote.Before Murt was up for re-election in November 2016, he proposed a bill that would set the standards of drinking water in Pennsylvania, which would especially affect Bucks and Montgomery counties. The bill is an amendment to the 1984 state Safe Drinking Water Act. In the 2016 Pennsylvania House of Representative elections, Tom Murt was re-elected to his seat after defeating Democratic nominee Albert J. DerMovsesian, Sr. Murt won his 2016 re-election with 64.22% of the vote.In April 2019, Murt was highlighted as having introduced or supported more "model legislation", which is written by corporations or special interest groups than any other state legislator in the United States. According to Murt, "he supports good legislation, whether it comes from a constituent, a colleague, or groups that advocate for causes he believes in."

Trihalomethane

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms. Many trihalomethanes find uses in industry as solvents or refrigerants. THMs are also environmental pollutants, and many are considered carcinogenic. Trihalomethanes with all the same halogen atoms are called haloforms. Several of these are easy to prepare through the haloform reaction.

Trihalomethanes were the subject of first drinking water regulations issued after passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974.

Water industry

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy. Typically public utilities operate water supply networks. The water industry does not include manufacturers and suppliers of bottled water, which is part of the beverage production and belongs to the food sector.

Wellhead protection area

A wellhead protection area is a surface and subsurface land area regulated to prevent contamination of a well or well-field supplying a public water system. This program, established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 330f-300j), is implemented through state governments.

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Major
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