Baron Sadao Araki (荒木 貞夫 Araki Sadao, May 26, 1877 – November 2, 1966) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II. As one of the principal nationalist right-wing political theorists in the Empire of Japan, he was regarded as the leader of the radical faction within the politicized Imperial Japanese Army and served as Minister of War under Prime Minister Inukai. He later served as Minister of Education during the Konoe and Hiranuma administrations. After World War II, he was convicted of war crimes and given a life sentence.
|Born||May 26, 1877|
Komae, Tokyo, Japan
|Died||November 2, 1966 (aged 89)|
|Allegiance||Empire of Japan|
|Service/||Imperial Japanese Army|
|Years of service||1898–1936|
|Commands held||6th Division|
|Other work||Minister of War, Minister of Education|
Araki was born in Komae, Tokyo; his father was an ex-samurai retainer of the Hitotsubashi branch of the Tokugawa family. Araki graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in November 1897, and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in June of the following year.
After the war, Araki returned to graduate from the Army Staff College at the head of his class. He served on the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in April 1908, and served as a language officer stationed in Russia from November 1909 to May 1913, when he was made military attaché to Saint Petersburg during World War I. He was promoted to major in November 1909 and to lieutenant colonel in August 1915 and was assigned to the Kwantung Army.
Promoted colonel on July 24, 1918, Araki served as a Staff Officer at Expeditionary Army Headquarters in Vladivostok between 1918–19 during the Japanese Siberian Intervention against the Bolshevik Red Army, and was commander of the IJA 23rd Infantry Regiment. During this period in Siberia, Araki carried out secret missions in the Russian Far East and Lake Baikal areas.
Promoted to major general on March 17, 1923, Araki was made commander of the IJA 8th Infantry Brigade. He served as Provost Marshal General from January 1924 until May 1925; whereupon he rejoined the Army General Staff as a Bureau Chief. Araki was promoted to lieutenant general in July 1927 and then became Commandant of the Army War College in August of the next year.
Araki served as commander of the IJA 6th Division 1929–1931, when he was appointed Deputy Inspector General of Military Training, one of the most prestigious posts within the Army. He was promoted to the rank of full general in October 1933.
On 31 December 1931, Araki was appointed Minister of War in the cabinet of Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai. But in 1932, in the May 15 Incident. Inukai was assassinated by ultra-nationalist navy officers for resisting the Army's war demands. War Minister Araki supported the assassins, calling them "irrepressible patriots". He also supported General Shiro Ishii and his biological warfare research project, Unit 731.
Prince Saionji, one of the Emperor's closest and strongest advisors, attempted to stop the military take-over of the government. In a compromise, a naval officer, Admiral Makoto Saitō, became Prime Minister on 26 May. Araki remained as War Minister and made further demands on the new government. Later that month, Japan unveiled its new foreign policy, the Amau doctrine; this new policy became a blueprint for Japanese expansionism in Asia.
From September 1932 onwards, Araki became more outspoken in promoting totalitarianism, militarism, and expansionism. In a September 23 news conference Araki first mentioned the philosophy of Kodoha ("The Imperial Way"), which linked the Emperor, the people, land, and morality as one indivisible entity, and which emphasized State Shintoism. Araki also strongly promoted Seishin Kyoiku (spiritual training) for the army.
Araki became a member of the Supreme War Council. But on 23 January 1934, he resigned as War Minister due to ill health. He was ennobled with the title of baron (danshaku) in 1935 under the kazoku peerage system. Then Kodoha-affiliated officers launched another rebellion in the 1936 February 26 Incident. The rebellion failed; this time the rebel leaders were executed, and Kodoha generals were purged from the Army, including Araki. He was forced to retire in March 1936.
Fumimaro Konoe became Prime Minister in 1937. In 1938, Konoe appointed Araki as Education Minister, to offset the influence of the Toseiha ("Control Faction"). This placed him in an ideal position to promote militarism ideals through the national education system and in the general populace. Araki proposed the incorporation of the samurai code in the national education system. He promoted the use of the official academic text Kokutai no Hongi ("Japan's Fundamentals of National Policy"), and the "moral national bible" Shinmin no Michi ("The Path of Subjects"), an effective catechism on national, religious, cultural, social, and ideological topics. Araki continued to serve as Education Minister when Konoe was succeeded as Prime Minister by Kiichiro Hiranuma. Afterwards, he continued to serve as an advisor to the government as a State Councillor.
In 1924, Araki founded the Kokuhonsha (Society for the Foundation of the State), a secret society containing some of the most powerful generals, admirals and civilians dedicated to his Statist philosophy mixing totalitarianism, militarism, expansionism, and loyalty to the emperor. Araki was also theoretician of the even more radical Sakurakai (Cherry Blossom Society) which actively attempted to bring about a 'Showa Reformation' through coups d'état.
As a colonel, Araki was the principal proponent of the Kodaha political faction (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group) within the Japanese Army, together with Jinzaburo Mazaki, Heisuke Yanagawa and Hideyoshi Obata. Their opposition was the Toseiha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki. The Kodaha represented the radical and ultranationalist elements within the army; the Toseiha attempted to represent the more conservative moderates. These groups had a common intellectual origin in the Double Leaf Society, a 1920s military thinking group, supporting samurai ideals.
The groups were later to merge into the Imperial Way Faction (Kodoha) and incorporated a mixture of right-wing and national socialist ideas, particularly those of Kita Ikki and the pro-fascist philosophies of Nakano Seigo, of which Araki was a leading member.
In January 1939, Araki became involved in the National Spiritual Mobilization Movement and revitalized it by having it sponsor public rallies, radio programs, printed propaganda and discussion seminars at tonarigumi neighborhood associations.
An essential first step in the Hokushin-ron proposal was for Japan to seize control of Manchuria. Araki was a supporter of the unauthorized studies of China and the preparation of war scenarios by radical junior officer cliques within the Army. Through his connections with the Sakurakai, Araki intensified efforts to take the government away from civilian control and isolate the Emperor (Shōwa Reformation), and to unite the many secret societies, as well as to put a close confidant, Shigeru Honjō, in as commander of the Kwantung Army.
The Kwantung Army had 12,000 men available for the invasion of Manchuria at the time of the Mukden Incident, but needed reinforcements. Araki arranged that another protégé, Chōsen Army commander Senjuro Hayashi was briefed to move his forces from Korea north into Manchuria without permission from Tokyo in support of the Kwantung Army.
The plot to seize Manchuria proceeded as planned, and when presented by the fait accompli, all Prime Minister Reijirō Wakatsuki could do was weakly protest and resign with his cabinet. When the new cabinet was formed, Araki, as War Minister, was the real power in Japan.
After World War II, Araki was arrested by the American Occupation authorities and brought before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, where he was tried for Class A war crimes. He was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiracy to wage aggressive war, but was subsequently released from Sugamo Prison in 1955 for health reasons. Like other Japanese peers, he was stripped of his hereditary peerage in 1947 upon the abolition of the Kazoku.
| Education Minister
May 1938 – Aug 1939
| Minister of War
Apr 1931 – Dec 1931
| Commandant, Army War College
Aug 1928 – Aug 1929
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The Blueshirts (Spanish: Camisas Azules) was the Falangist paramilitary militia in Spain. The name refers to the blue uniform worn by members of the militia. The colour blue was chosen for the uniforms in 1934 by the FE de las JONS because it was, according to José Antonio Primo de Rivera, "clear, whole, and proletarian," and is the colour typically worn by mechanics, as the Falange sought to gain support among the Spanish working class. In Francoist Spain the Blueshirts were officially reorganized and officially renamed the Falange Militia of the FET y de las JONS in 1940.Brit HaBirionim
Brit HaBirionim (Hebrew: ברית הבריונים, The Strongmen Alliance (Alliance of Thugs)) was a clandestine, self-declared fascist faction of the Revisionist Zionist Movement (ZRM) in Mandatory Palestine, active between 1930 and 1933. It was founded by the trio of Abba Ahimeir, Uri Zvi Greenberg and Yehoshua Yeivin.Crypto-fascism
Crypto-fascism is the secret support for, or admiration of, fascism. The term is used to imply that an individual or group keeps this support or admiration hidden to avoid political persecution or political suicide. The common usage is "crypto-fascist", one who practices this support.Fascio
Fascio (pronounced [ˈfaʃʃo]; plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. A number of nationalist fasci later evolved into the 20th century Fasci movement, which became known as fascism.Fascism in Canada
Fascism in Canada (French: Fascisme au Canada) consisted of a variety of movements and political parties in Canada during the 20th century. Largely a fringe ideology, fascism has never commanded a large following amongst the Canadian people, and was most popular during the Great Depression. Most Canadian fascist leaders were interned at the outbreak of World War II under the Defence of Canada Regulations and in the post-war period, fascism never recovered its former small influence.
The Canadian Union of Fascists, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, was modeled on Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists. Its leader was Chuck Crate.
Parti National Social Chrétien was founded in Quebec in February 1934 by Adrien Arcand. In October 1934, the party merged with the Canadian Nationalist Party, which was based in the prairie provinces. In June 1938, it merged with Nazi groups from Ontario and Quebec (many of which were known as Swastika clubs), to form the National Unity Party.Fascist concepts and policies, such as eugenics, formulated in the US, found a friendly reception in Canada in some provinces, such as Alberta, where, under a Social Credit government, alleged mental defectives and other 'non-producers' were involuntarily sterilized to prevent the birth of more similar people. Social democrat Tommy Douglas, Premier of Saskatchewan, wrote his 1933 master thesis paper endorsing some of the ideas of eugenics, but later abandoned and rejected such notions.Heroic capitalism
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The Kōdōha or Imperial Way Faction (皇道派) was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army active in the 1920s and 1930s. The Kōdōha sought to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and aggressive expansionist ideals, and was largely supported by junior officers. The radical Kōdōha rivaled the moderate Tōseiha (Control Faction) for influence in the army until the February 26 Incident in 1936, when it was de facto dissolved and many supporters were disciplined or executed.
The Kōdōha was never an organized political party and had no official standing within the Army, but its ideology and supporters continued to influence Japanese militarism into the late 1930s.Japanese veterans in overseas interventions (1894–1927)
This is a list of Japanese veterans (Navy or Army) who took part in overseas interventions from 1894 to 1927.List of fascist movements by country
This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.
This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:
List of fascist movements by country A–F
List of fascist movements by country G–M
List of fascist movements by country N–T
List of fascist movements by country U–ZNational Fascist Party (Argentina)
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Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class struggle, it identified "class struggle between nations" and sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it identified Germany as a proletarian nation fighting against plutocratic nations.Sakurakai
Sakurakai, or Cherry Blossom Society (桜会, Sakurakai) was an ultranationalist secret society established by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930, with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, via a military coup d'état if necessary. Their avowed goal was a Shōwa Restoration, which they claimed would restore the Emperor Hirohito to his rightful place, free of party politics and evil bureaucrats in a new military dictatorship.The Sakurakai was led by Imperial Japanese Army Lieutenant Colonel Kingoro Hashimoto, then chief of the Russian section of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff and Captain Isamu Cho with the support of Sadao Araki. The society began with about ten members, active-duty field grade officers of the Army General Staff, and expanded to include regimental-grade and company-grade officers, so that its membership increased to more than 50 by February 1931, and possibly up to several hundred by October 1931. One prominent leader was Kuniaki Koiso, future Prime Minister of Japan.
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In African political science, tropical fascism is a type of post-colonial state which is either considered fascist or is seen to have strong fascist tendencies. Gnassingbé Eyadéma dictator of Togo and leader of the Rally of the Togolese People, Mobutu Sese Seko dictator of Zaire and leader of the Popular Movement of the Revolution and Idi Amin dictator of Uganda have all been considered an example of tropical fascism in Africa. The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic and larger Hutu Power movement, a Hutu ultranationalist and supremacist movement that organized and committed the Rwandan Genocide aimed at exterminating the Tutsi people of Rwanda, has been regarded as a prominent example of tropical fascism in Africa. Pol Pot and The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia has been called a tropical fascist regime, as they officially renounced communism in 1981.Young Egypt Party (1933)
The Young Egypt Party (Arabic: حزب مصر الفتاة, Misr El-Fatah) was an Egyptian political party.