Sacred groves of India

Sacred groves of India are forest fragments of varying sizes, which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these patches.[1] Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis. Sacred groves did not enjoy protection via federal legislation in India. Some NGOs work with local villagers to protect such groves. Traditionally, and in some cases even today, members of the community take turns to protect the grove.[2] However, the introduction of the protected area category community reserves under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 has introduced legislation for providing government protection to community held lands, which could include sacred groves.

Indian sacred groves are often associated with temples, monasteries, shrines or with burial grounds. Historically, sacred groves find their mentions in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, from sacred tree groves in Hinduism to sacred deer parks in Buddhism for example.[3] Sacred groves may be loosely used to refer to natural habitat protected on religious grounds. Other historical references to sacred groves can be obtained in Vrukshayurveda an ancient treatise, ancient classics such as Kalidasa's Vikramuurvashiiya. There has been a growing interest in creating green patches such as Nakshatravana grove.

Ancient monoliths in Mawphlang sacred grove
Ancient monoliths in Mawphlang sacred grove, India
A sacred Hindu grove near Chandod on the banks of the Narmada River, drawn by James Forbes, 1782.

Beliefs and practices

Banyan tree at Kanhirathara, Chirakkal
Banyan Tree at a temple in Kannur, India
Mawphlang Sacred Groves2
Sacred grove in Mawphlang, India.

The Hindu tradition considers forests to be of three types - Tapovan, Mahavan and Sreevan. Tapovan are forests associated with penance (Tapas), and are inhabited by saints and rishis. Mahavan refers to the grand natural forests. Tapovan and Mahavan are considered to be a Raksha ("sanctuary") for flora and fauna as ordinary human beings are not allowed to enter these forests. Sreevan, which means, "forests of prosperity", consists of dense forests and groves. From the former, people would collect dry wood, leaves, forest produce and a limited amount of timber, though natural ecosystem would not be unnecessarily disturbed. Groves were considered as spaces of forests from where harvesting could be done. Sometimes, specific trees like mango trees could be planted and nurtured here. Groves were associated with religious rites, festivals and recreation. Typical recreational activities associated with these groves included jhoola/ jhoolan.[4] In the villages, Panchavati, or a cluster of five trees that represented the forests, were maintained. These trees represented the five elements of Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Space.[4]

Planting and nurturing of trees has been a highly evolved practice in ancient India.[5] Vrukshayurveda, the science of plant life and also a 10th-century treatise of that title on the subject ascribed to Surapala, dealt with various species of trees and their growth. Verses 9-23 from this text indicate how mystical beliefs and conservation of ecology was inter-connected.

A person is honored in Vaikuntha for as many thousand years as the days he resides in a house where tulasi is grown.
And if one properly grows bilva, which pleases Lord Siva, in his family, the goddess of riches resides permanently passes on to the sons and grandsons
He who plants even a single asvattha, wherever it may be, as per the prescribed mode, goes to the abode of Hari.
He who has planted dhatri has performed several sacrifices. He has donated the earth. He would be considered a celebate forever.
He who plant a couple of banyan trees as per the prescribed mode would go to the abode of Siva and many heavenly nymphs will attend upon him.
After planting neem trees a person well-versed in dharma attains the abode of Sun. Indeed! He resides there for a long period.
By planting four plaksa trees a person doubtlessly obtains the fruits of Rajasuya sacrifice.
He who plants five or six mango trees attains the abode of Garuda and lives happily forever like gods.
One should plant seven palasa trees or even one. One attains the abode of Brahma and enjoys the company of gods by doing so.
He who himself plants eight udumbara trees or even prompts someone to plant them, rejoices in the lunar world
He who has planted madhuka has propitiated Parvati, has become free from diseases, and has worshipped all deities.
If one plants ksirini, dadimi, rambha, priyala, and panasa, one experiences no affliction for seven births.
He who has knowingly or unknowingly planted ambu is respected as a recluse even while staying in the house.
By planting all kinds of other trees, useful for fruits and flowers, a person gets a reward of thousand cows adorned with jewels.
By planting one asvattha, one picumanda, one nyagrodha, ten tamarind trees, the group of three, viz., kapittha, bilva, and amalaka, and five mango trees, one never visits hell.[5]

Typically, sacred groves are associated with the concept of a presiding deity. Often these sacred deities are numerous nature spirits and guardians associated with Hindu, Jain and Buddhist deities, such as nature spirits known as Yakshas (numerous nature spirits), Nāgas (serpent guardians) and guardian tutelary deities (like ayyanar and amman) are also known. There are over 1000 deities associated with sacred groves in the states of Kerala and Karnataka alone. In Kodagu district in Karnataka from time immemorial the martial community of Kodavas had maintained over a 1000 "Devakadu" dedicated to Aiyappa the forest god.


Traditional uses: One of the most important traditional uses of sacred groves was that it acted as a repository for various Ayurvedic medicines. Other uses involved a source of replenishable resources like fruits and honey. However, in most sacred groves it was taboo to hunt or chop wood. The vegetation cover helps reduce soil erosion and prevents desertification, as in Rajasthan. The groves are often associated with ponds and streams, and meet water requirements of local communities. They sometimes help in recharging aquifers as well.

Modern uses: In modern times, sacred groves have become biodiversity hotspots, as various species seek refuge in the areas due to progressive habitat destruction, and hunting. Sacred groves often contain plant and animal species that have become extinct in neighboring areas. They therefore harbor great genetic diversity. Besides this, sacred groves in urban landscapes act as "lungs" to the city as well, providing much needed vegetation cover.


Cedrus deodara Manali 2
Deodar Devban grove in Himachal Pradesh, India.

Sacred groves are scattered all over the country, and are referred to by different names in different parts of India. Sacred groves occur in a variety of places – from scrub forests in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan maintained by the Bishnois, to rain forests in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Himachal Pradesh in the north and Kerala in the south are specifically known for their large numbers of sacred groves. The Kodavas of Karnataka alone maintained over 1000 sacred groves in their region.[6] The Gurjar people of Rajasthan have a unique practice of neem (Azadirachta indica) planting and worshipping as abode of God Devnarayan.Thus, a Gurjjar settlement appears like a human-inhabited sacred grove.[7] Similarly Mangar Bani, last surviving natural forest of Delhi is protected by Gurjars of nearby area.[8] 14,000 sacred groves have been reported from all over India, which act as reservoirs of rare fauna, and more often rare flora, amid rural and even urban settings. Experts believe that the total number of sacred groves could be as high as 100,000.[9][10]

It is estimated that around 1000 km² of unexploited land is inside sacred groves. Some of the more famous groves are the kavus of Kerala, which are located in the Western Ghats and have enormous biodiversity; and the law kyntangs of Meghalaya – sacred groves associated with every village (two large groves being in Mawphlang [11] and Mausmai) to appease the forest spirit.

Among the largest sacred groves of India are the ones in Hariyali, near Gauchar in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand, and the Deodar grove in Shipin near Simla in Himachal Pradesh. Kodagu, a small region of about 4000 km² in Karnataka, had over 1000 sacred groves.

State No of groves Local name References
Andhra Pradesh 691 Pavitraskhetralu Kailash C. Malhotra et al.[12]
Arunachal Pradesh 65 Gumpa forests
(since attached
to monasteries)
Dudley et al.[13]
Assam 40 Than, Madaico
Chhattisgarh 600* Sarna, Devlas,
Mandar, Budhadev
Goa NA* SERBC document [14]
Gujarat 29*
Haryana 248 Beed or Bid (बीड़), Bani (बणी), Bann (बण), Janglat (जंगलात), Shamlat (शामलात)
Himachal Pradesh 329 Dev Kothi, Devban, Bakhu Devban [15]
Jharkhand 21* Sarna

more than 500 " Jaherthan" in Godda of Jharkhand

Marine Carrin [16]
Karnataka 1424 Devarakadu,
Gadgil et al.[17]
Kerala 2000 Kavu, Sarpa Kavu M. Jayarajan [18]
Maharashtra 1600 Deorai/Devrai

(Pune, Ratnagiri,
Raigarh, Kolhapur

Waghchaure et al.[19]
Manipur 365 Gamkhap, Mauhak
(sacred bamboo
Khumbongyam et al.[20]
Meghalaya 79 Law Kyntang,
Law Lyngdoh
Upadhyay et al.[21]
Orissa 322* Jahera, Thakuramma
Puducherry 108 Kovil Kadu Ramanujam et al.[22]
Rajasthan 9* Oran (Jaiselmer,
Jodhpur, Bikaner),
Kenkri (Ajmer),
Vani (Mewar),
Shamlat deh, Devbani
(Alwar), Jogmaya
Sikkim 56 Gumpa forests
(since attached
to monasteries)
S. S. Dash [23]

Dudley et al.[13]

Tamil Nadu 503 Kovil Kadu M. Amrithalingam [24]
Telangana 65 Kailash C. Malhotra et al.[12]
Uttarakhand 18* Devbhumi, Baun, Bugyal
(sacred alpine
Anthwal et al.[25]
West Bengal 670* Garamthan, Harithan,
Jahera, Sabitrithan,
R. K. Bhakat [26]

All numbers are quoted from the records of the C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre of the Government of India. Starred numbers are likely to increase. The centre also maintains a complete list of identified sacred groves in India, most of which is online.[27]

Sarpa Kavu

A Sarpakkavu or Snake Grove is a kind of holy grove found in Kerala.

Mannan Purath Kavu, Nileshwaram

Kavu is the traditional name given for Sacred groves across the Malabar Coast in Kerala, South India.[28] Kavus are notable for Theyyam, the centuries-old ritual dance.


Threats to the grove include urbanization, over-exploitation of resources (like overgrazing and excessive firewood collection), and environmental destruction due to religious practices. Other threats to the sacred groves include invasion by invasive species, like the invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora.


A large number of distinct local art forms and folk traditions are associated with the deities of sacred groves, and are an important cultural aspect closely associated with sacred traditions. Ritualistic dances and dramatizations based on the local deities that protect the groves are called Theyyam in Kerala and Nagmandalam, among other names, in Karnataka. Often, elaborate rituals and traditions are associated with sacred groves,[29] as are associated folk tales and folk mythology.

See also



  1. ^ Gadgil, M. and Vartak, V.D. ; Sacred groves of India : A plea for continued conservation Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 72 : 314-320, 1975
  2. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2007-06-10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  3. ^ Sen, Dr. A. (2008). Buddhist remains in India. Calcutta: Maha Bodhi Book Agency. pp. 30–34. ISBN 81-87032-78-2.
  4. ^ a b Ranchor Prime, Vedic Ecology: Practical Wisdom for Surviving the 21st Century, Mandala Publishing, Novato, CA, 2002
  5. ^ a b Vrukshayurveda, authored by Surapala, translated by Nalini Sadhale, Agri-History Bulletin No.1, Asian Agri-History Foundation, Secunderabad
  6. ^ A series Archived 2007-02-03 at the Wayback Machine of articles in the journal Down to Earth on sacred groves
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-05-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)<
  9. ^ Malhotra, K. C., Ghokhale, Y., Chatterjee, S. and Srivastava, S., Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves in India, INSA, New Delhi, 2001
  10. ^ Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods, University of California Press, 2000 (ISBN 978-0520222359)
  11. ^ Eco Destination . Mawphlang Sacred Forest
  12. ^ a b Kailash C. Malhotra, Yogesh Gokhale, Sudipto Chatterjee, and Sanjeev Srivastava (2001). Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves in India. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, and Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2014-07-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ a b Ed. N. Dudley, L. Higgins-Zogib, and S. Mansourian; The Arguments for Protection Series - Beyond Belief: Linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation, pp. 91-95; World Wide Fund for Nature, 2005 (ISBN 2-88085-270-6)
  14. ^ Website of the Sacred Grove Restoration Project, Society for Ecological Restoration
  15. ^
  16. ^ Marine Carrin, Santal autonomy as a social ecology, 16th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies, Edinburgh, 2000
  17. ^ "Sacred Groves and Sacred Trees of Uttara Kannada". 2017-03-31. Archived from the original on 2017-03-31. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  18. ^ M. Jayarajan, Sacred Groves of North Malabar Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram (ISBN 81-87621-95-8)
  19. ^ Waghchaure, Chandrakant K.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Gunale, Venkat R.; Antia, Noshir H.; Birdi, Tannaz J., Sacred Groves of Parinche Valley of Pune District of Maharashtra, India and their Importance, Anthropology & Medicine, Volume 13, Number 1, April 2006, pp. 55-76(22)
  20. ^ Khumbongmayum, M.D., Khan, M.L., and Tripath, R.S, Sacred groves of Manipur – ideal centres for biodiversity conservation, Current Science, Vol 87, No 4, 25 Aug 2004
  21. ^ Upadhaya, K.; Pandey, H.N. 2; Law, P.S.; Tripathi, R.S; Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India, Biodiversity and Conservation, Volume 12, Number 3, March 2003, pp. 583-597(15)
  22. ^ M.P. Ramanujam and K. Praveen Kumar Cyril, Woody species diversity of four sacred groves in the Pondicherry region of South India, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 12, Number 2 / February, 2003, Springer Netherlands
  23. ^ S. S. Dash, Kabi sacred grove of North Sikkim Current Science, Vol 89, No 3, 10 Aug 2005
  24. ^ M. Amirthalingam, Sacred Groves of Tamil Nadu – A Survey, CPR Environmental Education Centre, Chennai, India, p. 191, 1998
  25. ^ Ashish Anthwal, Ramesh C. Sharma, and Archana Sharma, Sacred Groves: Traditional Way of Conserving Plant Diversity in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal Archived 2007-07-06 at the Wayback Machine, The Journal of American Science, 2(2), 2006, Anthwal et al., Sacred Groves: Conserving Plant Diversity
  26. ^ Ram Kumar Bhakat, Socio-religious and ecological perspective of a sacred grove from Midnapore district, West Bengal, Science and Culture (Sci. Cult.), 2003, vol. 69, no 11-12, pp. 371-374
  27. ^ Database at the CPR Environmental Education Centre
  28. ^ M. Jayarajan, Sacred Groves of North Malabar Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram (ISBN 81-87621-95-8)
  29. ^ Chris A. Gregory, The Oral Epics of the Women of the Dandakaranya Plateau: A Preliminary Mapping, J. Soc. Sci., 8(2): 93-104 (2004)

Further reading

Animal sacrifice

Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity. Animal sacrifices were common throughout Europe and the Ancient Near East until Late Antiquity, and continue in some cultures or religions today. Human sacrifice, where it existed, was always much more rare.

All or only part of a sacrificial animal may be offered; some cultures, like the ancient and modern Greeks, eat most of the edible parts of the sacrifice in a feast, and burnt the rest as an offering. Others, including the ancient Hebrews, burnt the whole animal offering, called a holocaust.

Animal sacrifice should generally be distinguished from the religiously-prescribed methods of ritual slaughter of animals for normal consumption as food.

During the Neolithic Revolution, early humans began to move from hunter-gatherer cultures toward agriculture, leading to the spread of animal domestication. In a theory presented in Homo Necans, mythologist Walter Burkert suggests that the ritual sacrifice of livestock may have developed as a continuation of ancient hunting rituals, as livestock replaced wild game in the food supply.

Animal sacrifice in Hinduism

Practices of Hindu animal sacrifice are mostly associated with Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local tribal traditions. Animal sacrifices were carried out in ancient times in India, and are mentioned in scriptures such as the Yajurveda. Hindu scriptures such as the Gita, and some Puranas forbid animal sacrifice.

Communal forests of India

An "Important Common Forest" in India is a forest governed by local communities in a way compatible with sustainable development. Such forests are typically called village forests or panchayat forests, reflecting the fact that the administration and resource use of the forest occurs at the village and panchayat (an elected rural body) levels. Hamlets, villages and communities of villages may actually administer such a forest. Such community forests are usually administered by a locally elected body, usually called the Forest Protection Committee, Village Forest Committee or the Village Forest Institution. Such committees are known as Van Panchayats in the Kumaon Division of Uttarakhand, Forest Co-operative Societies in Himachal Pradesh and Van Samrakshan Samitis in Andhra Pradesh. Legislation pertaining to communal forests vary from state to state, but typically the state government retains some administrative control over matters like staff appointment, and penalization of offenders. Such forests typically conform to the IUCN Category VI Protected Areas, but protection may be enforced by the local communities or the government depending on local legislation.

Maharashtra is the state with the most forest land while Haryana has the least.


Kavu is the traditional name given for sacred groves across the Malabar Coast in Kerala, South India. Kavus are notable for Theyyam, the centuries-old ritual dance.

List of forests in India

This is an incomplete list of forests in India.

List of types of formally designated forests

This is a list of types of formally designated forests, as used in various places around the world. It is organized in three sublists: by forest ownership, protection status, and designated use.


Meghalaya (UK: , US: ) is a state in northeastern India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. The population of Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be 3,211,474. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1.The state is bounded to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of Rangpur, and to the north and east by India's State of Assam. The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong. During the British rule of India, the British imperial authorities nicknamed it the "Scotland of the East". Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Garo, Pnar, Biate Hajong, Assamese and Bengali. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits all wealth and she also takes care of her parents.The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 12,000 mm (470 in) of rain a year. About 70% of the state is forested. The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants.

Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant commercial forestry industry. The important crops are potatoes, rice, maize, pineapples, bananas, papayas, spices, etc. The service sector is made up of real estate and insurance companies. Meghalaya's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹16,173 crore (US$2.3 billion) in current prices. The state is geologically rich in minerals, but it has no significant industries. The state has about 1,170 km (730 mi) of national highways. It is also a major logistical center for trade with Bangladesh.In July 2018, the International Commission on Stratigraphy divided the Holocene epoch into three, with the late Holocene being called the Meghalayan stage/age, since a speleothem in Mawmluh cave indicating a dramatic worldwide climate event around 2250 BC had been chosen as the boundary stratotype.

Wildlife of South Asia

The wildlife of South Asia encompasses that of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

Wildlife of India

Wildlife of Pakistan

Wildlife of Bhutan

Wildlife of Bangladesh

Wildlife of Sri Lanka

Wildlife of Maldives

Wildlife of Afghanistan

Wildlife conservation

Fauna of India

Flora of India

List of fish in India

Ecoregions of India

The study of natural history in India

Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project

List of Zoos in India

Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA)

Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO), India is an NGO

Wildlife Institute of India (WII)

Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM)

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

India Nature Watch (INW) spreading the love of nature and wildlife in India through photography

Geological Survey of India (GSI) also maintains 2 fossil parks currently.

Fossil Parks of India

Protected areas of India

List of protected areas in India

National parks of India

Biosphere reserves of India

Conservation areas of India

Wildlife sanctuaries of India

Reserved forests and protected forests of India

Conservation reserves and community reserves of India

Communal forests of India, including

Sacred groves of India

Social forestry in India

Private protected areas of India

Environmental policy of the Government of India

Indian Forest Act, 1927

Wildlife Protection Act of 1972

Project Tiger

Project Elephant

Ministry of Environment and Forests (India)

Main topics
Sacred animals
Sacred plants
See also

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