Sack of Rome (1527)

The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac (1526–1529)—the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.

Sack of Rome
Part of the War of the League of Cognac
Sack of Rome of 1527 by Johannes Lingelbach 17th century

The sack of Rome in 1527, by Johannes Lingelbach, 17th century (private collection).
Date6 May 1527
Location
Result
Belligerents
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg Papal States

Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V (mutinous troops):

Coat of arms of the House of Gonzaga-Guastalla.svg County of Guastalla
Commanders and leaders
Strength
20,000 (mutinous)
Casualties and losses
500 dead, wounded, or captured somewhere in the thousands, 1,000-4,000. (Around 8,000 killed by plague and disease after siege)
45,000 civilians dead, wounded, or exiled (most were casualties of the disease and plague that crippled the city)

Preceding events

The growing power of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V alarmed Pope Clement VII, who perceived Charles as attempting to dominate the Catholic Church and Italy. In effort to free both from Imperial domination, (i.e. from the Habsburg dynasty) Clement VII formed an alliance with Charles V's arch-enemy, King Francis I of France, which came to be known as the League of Cognac.

The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers. The 34,000 Imperial troops mutinied and forced their commander, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France, to lead them towards Rome. Apart from some 6,000 Spaniards under the Duke, the army included some 14,000 Landsknechte under Georg von Frundsberg, some Italian infantry led by Fabrizio Maramaldo, the powerful Italian cardinal Pompeo Colonna and Luigi Gonzaga, and also some cavalry under command of Ferdinando Gonzaga and Philibert, Prince of Orange. Though Martin Luther himself was not in favor of attacking Rome or the Pope, some who considered themselves followers of Luther's Protestant movement viewed the Papal capital as a target for religious reasons, and shared with the soldiers a desire for the sack and pillage of a city that appeared to be an easy target. Numerous bandits, along with the League's deserters, joined the army during its march.

The Duke left Arezzo on 20 April 1527, taking advantage of the chaos among the Venetians and their allies after a revolt broke out in Florence against Pope Clement VII's family, the Medici. In this way, the largely undisciplined troops sacked Acquapendente and San Lorenzo alle Grotte, and occupied Viterbo and Ronciglione, reaching the walls of Rome on 5 May.

Sacks

The imperial troops were 14,000 Germans, 6,000 Spanish, and an uncertain number of Italian infantry.[1] The troops defending Rome were not at all numerous, consisting of 5,000 militiamen led by Renzo da Ceri and 189[2] Papal Swiss Guard. The city's fortifications included the massive walls, and it possessed a good artillery force, which the Imperial army lacked. Duke Charles needed to conquer the city swiftly, to avoid the risk of being trapped between the besieged city and the League's army.

On 6 May, the Imperial army attacked the walls at the Gianicolo and Vatican Hills. Duke Charles was fatally wounded in the assault, allegedly shot by Benvenuto Cellini. The Duke was wearing his famous white cloak to mark him out to his troops, but it also had the unintended consequence of pointing him out as the leader to his enemies. The death of the last respected command authority among the Imperial army caused any restraint in the soldiers to disappear, and they easily captured the walls of Rome the same day. Philibert of Châlon took command of the armies, but he was not as popular or feared, leaving him with little authority.

In the event known as the Stand of the Swiss Guard, the Swiss, alongside the garrison's remnant, made their last stand in the Teutonic Cemetery within the Vatican. Their captain, Kaspar Röist, was wounded and later sought refuge in his house, where he was killed by Spanish soldiers in front of his wife.[3] The Swiss fought bitterly, but were immensely outnumbered and almost annihilated. Some survivors, accompanied by a band of refugees, fell back to the Basilica steps. Those who went toward the Basilica were massacred, and only 42 survived. This group of 42, under the command of Hercules Goldli, managed to stave off the Habsburg troops pursuing the Pope's entourage as it made its way across the Passetto di Borgo, which was a secret corridor that still connects the Vatican City to Castel Sant'Angelo.[3]

Sack of Rome 1527.jpeg
Sack of Rome. 6 May 1527. By Martin van Heemskerck (1527).

After the brutal execution of some 1,000 defenders of the Papal capital and shrines, the pillage began. Churches and monasteries, as well as the palaces of prelates and cardinals, were looted and destroyed. Even pro-Imperial cardinals had to pay to save their properties from the rampaging soldiers. On 8 May, Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, a personal enemy of Clement VII, entered the city. He was followed by peasants from his fiefs, who had come to avenge the sacks they had suffered by Papal armies. However, Colonna was touched by the pitiful conditions of the city and hosted in his palace a number of Roman citizens.

The Vatican Library was saved because Philibert had set up his headquarters there.[4][a] After three days of ravages, Philibert ordered the sack to cease, but few obeyed. In the meantime, Clement remained a prisoner in Castel Sant'Angelo. Francesco Maria della Rovere and Michele Antonio of Saluzzo arrived with troops on 1 June in Monterosi, north of the city. Their cautious behaviour prevented them from obtaining an easy victory against the now totally undisciplined Imperial troops. On 6 June, Clement VII surrendered, and agreed to pay a ransom of 400,000 ducati in exchange for his life; conditions included the cession of Parma, Piacenza, Civitavecchia and Modena to the Holy Roman Empire (however, only the last could be occupied in fact). At the same time Venice took advantage of this situation to capture Cervia and Ravenna, while Sigismondo Malatesta returned to Rimini.

Aftermath and effects

El Saco de Roma
Sack of Rome, by Francisco Javier Amérigo Aparicio, 1884. Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer

Often cited as the end of the Italian Renaissance, the Sack of Rome impacted the histories of Europe, Italy, and Catholicism, creating lasting ripple effects throughout world culture and politics.[5]

Prior to the Sack, Pope Clement VII opposed the ambitions of Emperor Charles V and the Spanish, whom he correctly believed wished to dominate Italy and the Church; however, afterward he was no longer able to fight against them, lacking the military and financial resources to do so.[6] To avert more warfare, the Pope adopted a conciliatory policy toward the Emperor. Charles V turned this to his political advantage, exerting increasing Imperial control over the Papacy and much of Italy.[7][8]

The Sack itself had major repercussions for Italian society and culture, and in particular, for Rome. Pope Clement VII's War of the League of Cognac would be the last fight for Italian independence and unity until the nineteenth century.[9] Rome, which had been a center of Italian High Renaissance culture and patronage prior to the Sack, suffered depopulation and economic collapse, causing artists and thinkers to scatter.[10] The city's population dropped from some 55,000 before the attack to 10,000 afterward. An estimated 6,000 to 12,000 people were murdered. Many Imperial soldiers also died in the aftermath, largely from diseases caused by masses of unburied corpses in the streets. Pillaging finally ended in February 1528, eight months after the initial attack, when the city's food supply ran out, there was no one left to ransom, and plague appeared.[11][12] It would take Rome decades to rebuild. Clement VII and later Popes would continue artistic patronage and building projects in the city, but a perceived golden age had passed.[13]

A power shift — away from the Pope, toward the Emperor — likewise produced lasting consequences for Catholicism. The Emperor, for his part, was greatly embarrassed that his troops had imprisoned the Pope; however, he'd sent armies to Italy with the goal of bringing the latter under his control. After doing so, Charles V set about reforming the Church in his own image.[14] Clement VII, attempting to avoid another violent conflict, pursued a policy of acceding to Charles V's wishes, among them naming cardinals nominated by the latter, unworthy from any religious standpoint; crowning Charles Holy Roman Emperor at Bologna in 1530; and refusing to annul the marriage of Charles' beloved aunt, Catherine of Aragon, to King Henry VIII of England, prompting the English Reformation.[15][16][17][18] Likewise, without any conditions, Clement agreed to cede the worldly and political possessions of the bishopric of Utrecht to Charles' family, the Habsburgs. Cumulatively, these actions changed the complexion of the Church, steering it away from Renaissance freethought personified by Clement VII, toward the religious orthodoxy exemplified by the Counterreformation. After Clement's death in 1534, under the influence of Charles V and particularly his son King Phillip II of Spain (1556-1598), the Inquisition became pervasive, and the humanism encouraged by Renaissance culture came to be viewed as contrary to the teachings of the Church.[19][20]

The Sack also contributed to making permanent the split between European Catholics and Protestants. Prior to the Sack, the Emperor and the Pope disagreed over how to address Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation then growing in the Emperor's German territories. Charles advocated for calling a Church Council, which Clement declined based on ominous historical precedents, fearing he might be deposed or killed, (technically on account of his illegitimate birth, but in truth, out of Charles' desire for a more pliable Pope). [21] Clement advocated for fighting a Holy War to unite Christendom, which Charles declined due to personal convictions — also, other conflicts then occupied his armies and treasury. After the Sack, the Pope relented to Charles' wishes, agreeing to call a Church Council and naming the city of Trent as its site; however, Clement VII did not convene the Council of Trent during his lifetime, fearing the event, under Charles' aegis, would be a dangerous trap and powerplay. In 1545, eleven years after Clement's death, his successor Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent, which as the Emperor predicted, did much to reform the corruption then present in certain orders of the Catholic Church.[22] However, by 1545, the moment for reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants — arguably a possibility during the 1520s, given cooperation between the Pope and Emperor — had passed. In assessing the effects of the Sack of Rome, Martin Luther commented: "Christ reigns in such a way that the Emperor who persecutes Luther for the Pope is forced to destroy the Pope for Luther" (LW 49:169).

In commemoration of the Swiss Guard's bravery in defending Pope Clement VII during the Sack of Rome, recruits to the Swiss Guard are sworn in on 6 May every year.[23]

In popular culture

The defense of Pope Clement by the Swiss Guard during the 1527 Sack of Rome was the inspiration for the 2016 song "The Last Stand" by the Swedish band Sabaton.

See also

  • Sack of Rome for other sacks of Rome

Notes

  1. ^ The library was not, however, undamaged or unmolested. The Sack is thought to have been the occasion of the loss or destruction of Nicolaus Germanus's globes of the terrestrial and celestial spheres, the first modern globes.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Dandeler, "Spanish Rome" New Haven: Yale University Press. 2001 pp57
  2. ^ "The Swiss Guard - History". www.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b "History of the Swiss Guards", Roman Curia, 7 December 2003. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  4. ^ Durant, Will. 1953. The Renaissance. Simon & Schuster.
  5. ^ https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/sack-rome
  6. ^ https://dailyhistory.org/Did_the_Sack_of_Rome_in_1527_end_the_Renaissance_in_Italy%3F
  7. ^ https://dailyhistory.org/Did_the_Sack_of_Rome_in_1527_end_the_Renaissance_in_Italy%3F
  8. ^ Chastel, Andre (1983). The Sack of Rome, 1527. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 73.
  9. ^ http://italianmonarchist.blogspot.com/2015/06/a-case-for-italian-unification.html
  10. ^ Ruggiero, Guido (2017). The Renaissance in Italy: a Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780521719384.
  11. ^ Watson, Peter -- Boorstin, Op. cit., page 180
  12. ^ https://dailyhistory.org/Did_the_Sack_of_Rome_in_1527_end_the_Renaissance_in_Italy%3F
  13. ^ https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/sack-rome
  14. ^ Chastel, Andre (1983). The Sack of Rome, 1527. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 73.
  15. ^ https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/philosophy-and-religion/roman-catholic-popes-and-antipopes/clement-vii
  16. ^ https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/modern-europe/wars-and-battles/sack-rome
  17. ^ Holmes (1993). p192
  18. ^ Froude (1891), p35, pp90-91, pp96-97 Note: the link goes to page 480, then click the View All option
  19. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Spanish-Inquisition
  20. ^ https://dailyhistory.org/Did_the_Sack_of_Rome_in_1527_end_the_Renaissance_in_Italy%3F
  21. ^ http://madmonarchist.blogspot.com/2012/07/papal-profile-pope-clement-vii.html
  22. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11579a.htm
  23. ^ https://www.papalartifacts.com/may-6-the-swiss-guard-induction-ceremony/

Bibliography

  • Buonaparte, Jacopo (1830). Sac de Rome, écrit en 1527 par Jacques Bonaparte, témion oculaire: traduction de l'italien par N. L. B. (Napoléon-Louis Bonaparte). Florence: Imprimerie granducale.
  • Arborio di Gattinara, Mercurino (Marchese) (1866). Il sacco di Roma nel 1527: relazione. Ginevra: G.-G. Fick.
  • Carlo Milanesi, ed. (1867). Il Sacco di Roma del MDXXVII: narrazione di contemporanei (in Italian). Firenze: G. Barbèra.
  • Schulz, Hans (1894). Der Sacco di Roma: Karls V. Truppen in Rom, 1527-1528. Hallesche Abhandlungen zur neueren Geschichte (in German). Heft 32. Halle: Max Niemeyer.
  • Lenzi, Maria Ludovica (1978). Il sacco di Roma del 1527. Firenze: La nuova Italia.
  • Chamberlin, E. R. (1979). The Sack of Rome. New York: Dorset.
  • Pitts, Vincent Joseph (1993). The man who sacked Rome: Charles de Bourbon, constable of France (1490-1527). American university studies / 9, Series 9, History, Vol. 142. New York: P. Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-2456-9.
  • Gouwens, Kenneth (1998). Remembering the Renaissance: Humanist Narratives of the Sack of Rome. Leiden-New York: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10969-2.
  • Gouwens, Kenneth; Reiss, Sheryl E. (2005). The Pontificate of Clement VII: History, Politics, Culture ((collected papers) ed.). Aldershot (UK); Burlington (Vt.): Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-0680-2.

External links

Coordinates: 41°50′N 12°30′E / 41.833°N 12.500°E

Baldassare Peruzzi

Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481 – 6 January 1536) was an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena (in Ancaiano, frazione of Sovicille) and died in Rome. He worked for many years with Bramante, Raphael, and later Sangallo during the erection of the new St. Peter's. He returned to his native Siena after the Sack of Rome (1527) where he was employed as architect to the Republic. For the Sienese he built new fortifications for the city and designed (though did not build) a remarkable dam on the Bruna River near Giuncarico. He seems to have moved back to Rome permanently by 1535. He died there the following year and was buried in the Rotunda of the Pantheon, near Raphael.He was a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni (Chapel of St John the Baptist) in the Duomo of Siena.

His son Giovanni Sallustio was also an architect. Another son, Onorio, learned painting from his father, then became a Dominican priest in the convent of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome. He then stopped painting until requested by his superiors at San Romano di Lucca to paint the organ doors of the church.

Dago (comics)

Dago (real name Cesare Renzi) is a comics character created in 1981 by Paraguayan writer Robin Wood and Argentine artist Alberto Salinas for Argentine magazine Nippur Magnum. It has been published in South America, Spain and Italy, among other places.

Danese Cattaneo

Danese Cattaneo (c1512? - 1572) was an Italian sculptor and medallist, active mainly in the Veneto Region.

Danese was Tuscan in origin, born in either Massa di Carrara or Colonnata. He produced primarily sculptures of religious and historical subjects and portrait busts. From an early age he was a pupil of Jacopo Sansovino in Rome, and left the city, as Sansovino and many other artists did, after the Sack of Rome (1527).

In Sansovino's circle at Venice, he made a reputation in 1530 with his St Jerome at the base of the organ in San Salvador.

He was invited to Padua in 1533 to take part in the stucco decorations for the Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua. He also sculpted the sepulchre there of Alessandro Contarini, a Venetian general. Once again in Venice, he was part of the collaborative team providing architectural enrichments for Sansovino's great projects.In Venice he sculpted the statue of Apollo over the well in the centre of the court of the Zecca. According to Giorgio Vasari, Danese composed the rich iconographic program himself: Apollo is a young man, sitting on a globe, his head radiant; in the right hand are metal rods, and in the left a sceptre, at the top of which is an eye. A serpent, with his tail in his mouth (ouroboros), encircles the globe.

In the church of Sant'Anastasia of Verona, he sculpted a memorial to Giano Fregoso. He also participated in four statues for Doge Leonardo Loredan's monument in the church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo.

Giorgio Vasari owed to conversations with Danese many details of Venetian artists in his Vite. He died in Padua in 1572.

Florentine Histories

Florentine Histories (Italian: Istorie fiorentine) is a historical account by Italian Renaissance political philosopher and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, first published posthumously in 1532.

Francesco Ruviali

Francesco Ruviali (mid-16th century) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period.

Also known as Il Polidorino due to his attachment to the style of Polidoro da Caravaggio. His life was noted by Bernardo de' Dominici, the biographer of Neapolitan artists, where Ruviali, a native of Spain, was brought up and where he flourished about the year 1540. Ruviali fled to Naples after the Sack of Rome (1527). His principal works at Naples are a Dead Christ, with the Virgin Mary and St. John in the chapel of the Courts of Justice; and the Descent from the Cross painted for the Castel Capuano.

Giacomo Mazzocchi

Giacomo Mazzocchi, in Latin on his titlepages Jacobus Mazochius, (active 1505 — 1527) was a learned bookseller, printer, and noted antiquarian in papal Rome during the High Renaissance. A native of Bergamo, Mazzocchi is first heard of in 1505 as provider of finance for an edition of Vibius Sequester De fluminibus printed by J. Besicken of Rome. By 1509 Mazzocchi was himself in business as a printer. For humanists he might publish such scholarly works as the first printed repertory of Roman inscriptions, Epigrammata Antiquae Urbis (April 1521), a folio of some 3,000 inscriptions, mostly of epitaphs, in which his collaborator was the Florentine priest Francesco Albertini This work includes inscriptions ranging from Roman Republican times to the age of Justinian I and is illustrated with somewhat stylised woodcuts showing some of the buildings and monuments of Rome, such as the Pantheon, the Arch of Constantine and the Pyramid of Cestius.

Mazzocchi's other books include Latin translations of Greek texts, among them Byzantine authors little known at the time such as the historians Procopius and Agathias. For even more limited circulation he published ephemera that have become bibliographical rarities, but that show him as a trusted printer for the inner circle of Roman humanists: a tract on Roman calendars (1509), a letter on sculptures in the Cortile del Belvedere by the nephew of the famous Pico della Mirandola (1513), or twelve panegyrics composed by Petrus Franciscus Justulus of Spoleto, honouring the Papal nephew Cesare Borgia (1510).At the same time, under the title Carmina Apposita Pasquino, Mazzocchi published annual collections of satirical pasquinades that were circulating in Rome, which had been applied furtively by night to the Pasquino or other talking statues of Rome. Presumably Mazzocchi omitted any of these that were too critical of the Pope or the curia, for Mazzocchi, under papal privilege, also published many papal bullae including those of the Third Lateran Council, 1512.Mazzocchi's scholarly standing was high enough for him to be appointed, in 1515, one of the Papal Commissioners for Antiquities alongside the artist Raphael and the scholars Marco Fabio Calvo and Andrea Fulvio.Typographically Mazzocchi's work is of interest for his very early use of a large-format upper-case roman typeface for title-pages, headings and other prominent lines. This is present in the Epigrammata but existed at least as early as 1513. Early printers in roman type generally set titles and headings in the same size and style as the text, and it was mainly German-speaking printers such as Johann Froben who developed the use of display-sized fonts from about 1516 onwards, so that Mazzocchi's type may well have been the first of its kind.

He disappeared during the Sack of Rome (1527) and nothing subsequent is known of him.

Giovanni Gaddi (priest)

For the painter of this name, see Giovanni Gaddi (painter).

Monsignor Giovanni Gaddi or Giovanni di Taddeo di Agnolo Gaddi (25 April 1493 in Florence – 18 October 1542 in Rome) was an Italian cleric, descending from the noted Gaddi family of bankers and painters (Gaddo Gaddi, his son Taddeo (a pupil of Giotto) and grandsons Agnolo and Giovanni, active during the 14th century). His parents were Taddeo di Agnolo Gaddi and Antonia di Bindo Altoviti. His brother was cardinal Niccolò Gaddi and his nephew cardinal Taddeo Gaddi.

Giovanni was close to Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours. They were both members of the Compagnia della Cazzuola; a society that put on theatrical plays. He became a dean of the Camera apostolica and took on several posts in the papal court. Gaddi inherited a collection of illuminated manuscripts and codices from his grandfather. He was associated with many writers, particularly his secretary Annibal Caro, and appeared in Benvenuto Cellini's autobiography. After the Sack of Rome (1527) he became one of Sebastiano del Piombo’s close friends.

Ilario Cao

Ilario Cao (Hilarius Caius) was a Sardinian ecclesiastic active in Rome during the first thirty years of the eleventh century, often retrospectively called a Cardinal. He was born in Cagliari. He urged Pope Benedict VIII to organise an expedition to free his native land from Muslim pirates, who were establishing themselves in the south of the island, based out of Cagliari. A Pisan–Genoese expedition (1016) resulted, which expelled the Muslims.

Ilario had two sons: Costantino (Constantinus) and Atanagio or Anastasio (Anastasius). The former built a hospital in Trastevere for poor Sardinians, which was destroyed in the later sack of Rome (1527). In 1068 Anastasio's son Benedetto erected a tombstone in the church of San Crisogono over his father's sepulchre bearing this inscription:

HIC SEPULTVS EST

CONSTANTINVS CAO CALARITANVS

CVM HILARO PATRE ET ANASTASIO FRATRE

QVI HOSPITALE PRO SARDINIAE PAVPERIBVS

FVNDAVIT

CVI AEDES ATTRIBVIT ET CENSVS APPLICVIT

HILARI PRECIBVS SARDINIAM

A SARACENIS

PAPA LIBERARI CVRAVIT

ANASTASIVS FVIT LITTERARVM PERITISSIMVS

PONTIFICIBVS CARVS ET PIETATE CLARVS

BENEDICTVS CAIVS ANASTASII FILIVS

POSVIT MLXVII

Knight of the Golden Spur (Holy Roman Empire)

The Knights of the Golden Spur (Latin equites aurati Sancti Romani Imperii, literally "Golden Knights of the Holy Roman Empire"; short equites aurati or milites aurati, "golden [decorated] knights/soldiers") were a public official elite of the Holy Roman Empire which consisted mainly of members of the gentry, but also from members of the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. The term should not be confused with the English knight bachelor, who is frequently termed Eques Auratus in Latin monumental inscriptions, especially from the 17th century, denoting the privilege held by him of being allowed to gild his armour.The honorees were awarded the accolade not necessarily for their knighthood, but because of special services. It was a personal honour for services rendered, which was not hereditary. The knight had the right to wear, contrary to existing regulations, golden spurs, or even a gold-plated armor. More practically, he enjoyed the right to wear a gold collar around the neck.

Besides the Holy Roman Emperor himself, an eques auratus could also be a particularly privileged Count Palatine (Comes palatinus Caesareus), entitled to carry (other) noble titles and appoint equites aurati in turn.

In the free imperial cities, this honor was also increased to the families of the bourgeois patriciate consisting of long-distance trade merchants, bankers and the Council members to access as there was no competition on the part of the nobility to this form of giving.

The Order of the Golden Spur had its origins in the title Count palatine of the Lateran Palace, which was in the gift of the Holy Roman Emperor in the 14th century: Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor conferred the title on one Fenzio di Albertino di Prato, 15 August 1357, at Prague. The Order began to be associated with the inheritable patent of nobility in the form of count palatinate during the Renaissance; Emperor Frederick III named Baldo Bartolini, professor of civil law at the University of Perugia, a count palatinate in 1469, entitled in turn to confer university degrees. "Bartolini also received the Knighthood of the Golden Spur, a title that sometimes accompanied the office of count palatinate in the Renaissance", according to the historian of universities Paul F. Grendler; the Order of the Golden Spur, linked with the title of count palatinate, was widely conferred after the Sack of Rome, 1527, by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; the text of surviving diplomas conferred hereditary nobility to the recipients.

Among the recipients was Titian (1533), who had painted an equestrian portrait of Charles, and Niccolò Paganini by Pope Leo XII (1827).Close on the heels of the Emperor's death in 1558, its refounding in Papal hands is attributed to Pope Pius IV in 1559.After the end of the Holy Roman Empire, the winner of the title in Austria have been recognized as Knights (May 14, 1817), the leadership title "Knight of the Holy Roman Empire" was banned (10 April 1816, October 6, 1847). The award was presented to the end of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

In the UK, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries, a Knight Bachelor could be entitled "Eques auratus" (eq. aur.), for example, Thomas Bodley, Henry Spelman, Isaac Newton, and Christopher Wren. Originally, this was also associated with the award, the privilege to gild the armor.

In 1748, Sweden established the Order of the Knights of the North Star, described as "De stella Eques auratus" such as Carl von Linné.

The Holy Roman Empire's Order of the Golden Spur is often confused with the second highest order of the Roman Catholic Church, the Order of the Golden Spur.

Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi

Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi (1475–1527) was a papal scribe and type designer in Renaissance Italy.

Very little is known of the circumstances of his life. He may have started his career as a writing master in Venice, although this has been disputed.

Around 1510 he was a bookseller in Rome.

He was employed as a scribe at the Apostolic Chancery in 1515. His experience in calligraphy led him to create an influential pamphlet on handwriting in 1522 called La Operina, which was the first book devoted to writing the italic script known as chancery cursive. This work, a 32-page woodblock printing, was the first of several such publications.

He turned to printing in 1524 and designed his own italic typefaces for his work, which were widely emulated. His last printing was dated shortly before the sack of Rome (1527), during which he was probably killed.

His letterforms were revived in the 20th century by designers such as Stanley Morison, Frederic Warde, Robert Slimbach (for example Adobe Jenson italic) and Jonathan Hoefler (in his Requiem Text typeface.) The italic script presented in La Operina was also revived in the 20th century with Alfred Fairbank's book A Handwriting Manual (1932), Getty-Dubay italic script, and the work of Gunnlauger SE Briem.

Niccolò Gaddi

Niccolò Gaddi (1499–1552) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.

Palazzo Colonna

The Palazzo Colonna (Italian pronunciation: [paˈlattso koˈlɔnna]) is a palatial block of buildings in central Rome, Italy, at the base of the Quirinal Hill, and adjacent to the church of Santi Apostoli. It is built in part over the ruins of an old Roman serapeum, and it has belonged to the prominent Colonna family for over twenty generations.

Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne

The Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy. The palace was designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi in 1532-1536 on a site of three contiguous palaces owned by the old Roman Massimo family and built after arson destroyed the earlier structures during the Sack of Rome (1527). In addition the curved façade was dictated by foundations built upon the stands for the stadium (odeon) of the emperor Domitian. It fronts the now-busy Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a few hundred yards from the front of the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle.

The entrance is characterized by a central portico with six Doric columns, paired and single. Inside there are two courtyards, of which the first one has a portico with Doric columns as a basement for a rich loggia, which is also made of Doric columns. The column decorations gave the name to the palace, alle Colonne. The façade is renowned as one of the most masterful of its time, combining both elegance with stern rustication. The recessed entrance portico differs from typical palazzo models such as exemplified by the Florentine Palazzo Medici. In addition, there is a variation of size of windows for different levels, and the decorative frames of the windows of the third floor. Unlike the Palazzo Medici, there is no academic adherence to superimposition of orders, depending on the floor. On the opposite façade of this palace, opening onto the Piazzetta dei Massimo, the palace connects with the frescoed façade of the conjoined annex, the Palazzetto Massimi (or Palazzetto Istoriato). For many centuries, this used to be the central post office of Rome, a Massimo family perquisite. To the left of the palace is the Palazzo di Pirro, built by a pupil of Antonio da Sangallo.

The interior ceilings and vestibules are elaborately ornamented with rosettes and coffered roofs. The entrance ceiling is decorated with a fresco by Daniele da Volterra, who represented scenes from the Life of Fabio Massimo, the supposed Roman founder of the Massimo family.

The chapel on the second floor was a room where the 14-year-old Paolo Massimo, son of Fabrizio Massimo, was recalled briefly to life by Saint Philip Neri on March 16, 1583. The interior of the palace is open to the public annually only on that day. Other notable events in the palace of the 16th century including various intrafamilial murders.

Paolo Emilio Cesi

Paolo Emilio Cesi (1481–1537) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.

Pastorale officium

Pastorale officium was a Apostolic Brief issued by Pope Paul III, May 29, 1537, to Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera which declares that anyone who enslaved or despoiled indigenous Americans would be automatically excommunicated.The harsh threat of punishment (Latae sententiae) contained in Pastorale officium made the Conquistadors complain to the Spanish king and Emperor. Charles V went on to argue that the letter was injurious to the Imperial right of colonization and harmful to the peace of the Indies. The urging of Charles V to revoke the briefs and bulls of 1537 and exemplifies the tension of the concern for evangelisation as manifested in the teachings of 1537 and the pressure to honor the system of royal patronage. The weakened position of the pope and the memory of the Sack of Rome (1527) a decade earlier by imperial troops, made the ecclesiastical authorities hesitant in engaging in any possible confrontation with the Emperor. Under mounting pressure Pope Paul III succumbed and removed the ecclesiastical censures in the letter titled "Non Indecens Videtur ".

The annulling of the ecclesiastical letter was not a denial of the doctrinal teaching of the spiritual equivalence of all human beings. The annulation gave rise to the subsequent

papal encyclical Sublimis Deus promulgated by Pope Paul III on June 2, 1537 Thus the Pastorale officium has been seen as a companion document for the encyclical Sublimis Deus.Stogre (1992) notes that "Sublimus Dei" is not present in Denzinger compendium of theological-historical source texts.

Renzo da Ceri

Renzo da Ceri, true name Lorenzo dell'Anguillara (1475 or 1476 – January 1536) was as an Italian condottiero. He was a member of the Anguillara family.

Born in Ceri, a small village in Lazio (now part of Cerveteri), he was the son of Giovanni degli Anguillara.

He fought for the Orsini family against the Papal States and Cesare Borgia. In 1503 he was hired by Spain and took part to the Battle of Garigliano of that year. In 1507 he was at the service of Julius II.

In 1510 he fought for the Republic of Venice in the Italian Wars. He defeated Silvio Savelli but was in turn beat by Prospero Colonna, whom he had harassed during the siege of Crema. In 1523 he attacked Rubiera and Reggio Emilia.

He led Clement VII's troops in his feudal war against the Colonna family and was present at the Sack of Rome (1527).

Renzo da Ceri died following a fall from his horse in 1536.

Rocca Priora

Rocca Priora is a small town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio, Italy. It is one of the Castelli Romani on the Alban Hills about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Rome, situated in the Regional Park known as the "Parco Regionale dei Castelli Romani".

Sant'Andrea in Via Flaminia

Sant'Andrea in Via Flaminia (English: Saint Andrew on Via Flaminia) is a Roman Catholic church dedicated to St Andrew the Apostle in Rome, Italy. The edifice is also known as Sant'Andrea del Vignola, after its architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola.

It was commissioned by Pope Julius III, to commemorate Pope Clement VII’s escape from prison following the Sack of Rome, 1527. The small church on the Via Flaminia, scarcely more than a chapel, was designed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola in 1552 and completed the following year, while Vignola was also employed by Julius nearby at the Villa Giulia.

Sant'Andrea was the first church with an elliptical dome and the first step toward the Baroque world of elliptical forms.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.