Sabbatical

A Sabbatical (from Hebrew: shabbat (שבת) (i.e., Sabbath), in Latin: sabbaticus, in Greek: sabbatikos (σαββατικός)) is a rest or break from work.

History

The concept of the sabbatical is based on the Biblical practice of shmita, which is related to agriculture. According to Leviticus 25, Jews in the Land of Israel must take a year-long break from working the fields every seven years. A "sabbatical" has come to mean an extended absence in the career of an individual to fulfill some goal, e.g., writing a book or travelling extensively for research.

Some universities and other institutional employers of scientists, physicians, and academics offer the opportunity to qualify for paid sabbatical as an employee benefit, called sabbatical leave. Some companies offer unpaid sabbatical for people wanting to take career breaks; this is a growing trend in the United Kingdom, with 20% of companies having a career break policy, and a further 10% considering introducing one.[1]

In British and Irish students' unions, particularly in higher education institutions, students can be elected to become sabbatical officers of their students' union, either taking a year out of their study (in the academic year following their election) or remaining at the institution for a year following completion of study.

See also

References

  1. ^ Confederation of British Industry survey, 2005.

Further reading

  • Eells, Walter C. "The Origin and Early History of Sabbatical Leave." Bulletin, American Association of University Professors, XLVIII (1962), 253–56.
  • Kimball, Bruce A. "The Origin of the Sabbath and Its Legacy to the Modern Sabbatical." Journal of Higher Education 49 (1978): 303–15.
  • Zahorski, K.J (1994). The Sabbatical Mentor: A Practical Guide to Successful Sabbaticals. Anker Publishing.

External links

Aberdeen University Students' Association

Aberdeen University Students' Association (often referred to as AUSA) is the students' association of the University of Aberdeen, an ancient university in the city of Aberdeen in North East Scotland. It organises recreational activities; provides welfare and employment services for students; promotes equality and diversity of students; advancement of education; and provide facilities and support for student societie and sports clubs.

Ajith Kumar

Ajith Kumar (born 1 May 1971) is an Indian film actor. He has starred in over 50 films, predominately in Tamil cinema. In addition to his acting, Ajith Kumar in a sabbatical, he is motor car racer and participated in the MRF Racing series (2010) in Chennai.He began his career with a small role in the 1990 Tamil film En Veedu En Kanavar. Singer S. P. Balasubrahmanyam introduced Ajith to Tamil film industry by referring him to play lead role in Amaravathi (1993). Then, Ajith starred in film Prema Pusthakam (1993), and his first critical acclaimed appearance was in the thriller Aasai (1995). He subsequently established himself as a romantic hero with Kadhal Kottai (1996), Aval Varuvala (1998) and Kadhal Mannan (1998). Successful films such as Vaali (1999), Mugavaree (2000), Kandukondain Kandukondain (2000) and Citizen (2001) followed. He established himself as an action hero with films such as Amarkalam (1999), Dheena (2001), Villain (2002), Attahasam (2004), Varalaru (2006), Mankatha (2011), Arrambam (2013), Veeram (2014), Yennai Arindhaal (2015) Vedalam (2015) and Vivegam (2017).

Burlington SC

Burlington SC are a Canadian soccer club based in Burlington, Ontario. The club was formed in 2013, and is a member of the Canadian Soccer League. Their home matches were played at Nelson Stadium. After three seasons in the CSL the club disbanded their CSL senior team in order to become one of the founding members of the CAF LIKA Supergroup Open Division. After a brief sabbatical from the CSL, Burlington returned for the 2017 season to play in the Second Division.

Cambridge University Students' Union

Cambridge University Students' Union (CUSU) is the university-wide representative body for students at the University of Cambridge, England. CUSU is a federal body made up of individual college student unions (known as JCRs and MCRs).

CUSU should not be confused with the Cambridge Union Society (often referred to as simply 'the Union'); membership of both is open to all students at Cambridge, but the Cambridge Union Society is a private society, whereas CUSU is part of, and funded by, the University of Cambridge.

Graduate students at Cambridge University are eligible for membership of CUSU as well as the University of Cambridge Graduate Union, specifically for graduate student affairs.

Career break

A career break is a period of time out from employment. Traditionally, this is for women to raise children, but it is sometimes used for people taking time out of their career for personal development and/or professional development.

Chitrangada Singh

Chitrangada Singh (born 30 August 1976) is an Indian film actress who works primarily in Hindi cinema. She has starred in films like Yeh Saali Zindagi, Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi, Desi Boyz, Inkaar, I, Me Aur Main and Baazaar.

Gap year

A gap year, also known as a sabbatical year, is typically a year-long break between high school and college/university. During the gap year a student normally travels or maintains some type of regular work. Students who take gap years typically undergo a growth in maturity and are better prepared to benefit from higher education or decide the form of education they wish to pursue. Students can also take gap years after graduating from undergraduate study and before entry into graduate school. These students might take advanced courses in math or language studies, learn a trade, study art, volunteer, travel, take internships, play sports, or get involved in cultural exchanges. Studies indicate that students who take a gap year perform better academically than those who do not. Many parents worry their students will deter continuation of their education.

Hull University Union

Hull University Union (HUU) is the students' union for the University of Hull in Kingston upon Hull, England. It is run as a completely separate entity to the university itself. There is a Union Executive Committee (UEC) chaired by the President, which consists of six full-time sabbatical officers, and the Chief Executive as an advisor to the Sabbatical Officers.

Union Council is the major scrutinizing body of Hull University Union, meeting every 3 weeks to scrutinize the decisions of the UEC.

HUU has a presence on both the Hull and Scarborough campuses.

On Tuesday 24 May 2016, Hull University Union announced its intention to disaffiliate from the National Union of Students following a referendum where 811 students voted to leave against 476 to stay.

Imperial College Union

Imperial College Union is the students' union of Imperial College London. It is host to many and varied societies, and has student bars situated around Albertopolis. The Union is based in the north wing of the Beit Quadrangle on Prince Consort Road.

Jubilee (biblical)

The Jubilee (Hebrew: יובל yōḇel; Yiddish: yoyvl) is the year at the end of seven cycles of shmita (Sabbatical years), and according to Biblical regulations had a special impact on the ownership and management of land in the Land of Israel; there is some debate whether it was the 49th year (the last year of seven sabbatical cycles, referred to as the Sabbath's Sabbath), or whether it was the following (50th) year. Jubilee deals largely with land, property, and property rights. According to Leviticus, slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven, and the mercies of God would be particularly manifest. Leviticus 25:8-13 states:

You shall count off seven Sabbaths of years, seven times seven years; and there shall be to you the days of seven Sabbaths of years, even forty-nine years. Then you shall sound the loud trumpet on the tenth day of the seventh month. On the Day of Atonement you shall sound the trumpet throughout all your land. You shall make the fiftieth year holy, and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee to you; and each of you shall return to his own property, and each of you shall return to his family. That fiftieth year shall be a jubilee to you. In it you shall not sow, neither reap that which grows of itself, nor gather from the undressed vines. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy to you. You shall eat of its increase out of the field. In this Year of Jubilee each of you shall return to his property. (WEB)

The biblical rules concerning Sabbatical years (shmita) are still observed by many religious Jews in Israel, but the regulations for the Jubilee year have not been observed for many centuries. According to the Torah, observance of Jubilee only applies when the Jewish people live in the land of Israel according to their tribes. Thus, with the exile of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh (about 600 BCE), Jubilee has not been applicable.

Luca Baldisserri

Luca Baldisserri (born 11 December 1962) is an Italian engineer, formerly the chief track engineer for the Ferrari Formula One team, then the chief of the Ferrari Driver Academy. He was born in Bologna.

Following Ross Brawn's decision to take a year's sabbatical leave at the end of 2006, Baldisserri was chosen to temporarily replace Ross Brawn in the hope that he would return to Ferrari from his sabbatical in 2007. This however was not the case, and when it was announced that Ross Brawn would be joining the Honda F1 team as team principal, Baldisserri's position as chief track engineer became permanent.

After Baldisseri's performance as strategist during the 2008 and 2009 years, Ferrari's management has decided to remove Baldisseri from his strategist's role in the organisation. Since the 2009 Chinese Grand Prix, Baldisseri has moved to a different role, in Ferrari's factory. From 2010 to 2015, he was the Ferrari Driver Academy Manager. He left Ferrari altogether in 2015.In 2015, Baldisseri left the Ferrari Driver Academy and joined the Stroll family to mentor Lance Stroll.

In 2018, he became Stroll's race engineer alongside James Urwin at Williams F1.

Sabbath

Sabbath () (Hebrew: שַׁבָּת‎) is a day set aside for rest and worship. According to the Book of Exodus the Sabbath is a day of rest on the seventh day, commanded by God to be kept as a holy day of rest, as God rested from creation. It is observed differently among the Abrahamic religions and informs a similar occasion in several other practices. Although many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition of: "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy".

The term has been used to describe a similar weekly observance in any of several other traditions; the first crescent or new moon; any of seven annual festivals in Judaism and some Christian traditions; any of eight annual pagan festivals (usually "sabbat"); an annual secular holiday; and a year of rest in religious or secular usage, the sabbath year, originally every seventh year.

Sabbatical officer

A sabbatical officer is a full-time officer elected by the members of a students' union (or similar body such as students' association, Students' Representative Council or guild of students), commonly at a higher education establishment such as a university. Sabbatical officers are usually trustees of their students' union, in its capacity as a charity, and may also sit on or form the board of directors of the union.Sabbatical officers (or "sabbs") are normally elected annually, for a one-year term, i.e. a "sabbatical year". Some students' unions allow their sabbatical officers stand for re-election for a second year. Terms of more than two years are not permitted in the UK, under the Education Act 1994. Typically, the primary requirement for candidacy (and election) is that a candidate be a member of the body of the relevant association at the time of their candidacy.

Sabbatical years are either taken in between years of study (for example between year two and three of a typical degree, sitting the third year twelve months later than would have normally been the case) or else immediately after graduation. They are almost always paid positions, with funds coming from the students' union itself, or directly from the educational institution. The officer generally retains student status during their time in office.

A university students' union may have one or more sabbatical officers, with as many as eight being not unheard of. Each generally has a specific job description and title, such as President, Education Officer, Societies Officer, Sports Officer (often both Sports and Societies are overseen by one Students Activities Officer), Services Officer, Welfare Officer or Communications Officer. Together they form all or part of the "executive" or "executive committee" (or equivalent) of their organisation. They are generally supported by unpaid part-time officers who fulfil their roles while continuing their studies. In some cases, sabbaticals may work for separate bodies within a larger students' association at their institution; for example a sabbatical president of an athletics union when there are other officer working for the main students' union.

Some Further Education colleges also have small numbers of sabbatical officers but these are rare, partly due to funding restrictions. Often the executive members of the students' association of these bodies will do the job whilst still studying.

Student organisations outside of individual educational institutions, such as the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom, sometimes have their own sabbatical officers drawn from one of their member institutions.

Shabbaton

The Hebrew term shabbaton (Hebrew: שבתון‎) may be translated into English to mean sabbatical. The concept of a sabbatical year (shmita) has a source in several places in the Bible (e.g. Leviticus 25), where there is a commandment to desist from working the fields in the seventh year.

In contemporary Israel, when one takes a shabbaton, one takes the year off in search of other pursuits. It is an extended rest from work, a hiatus, typically 2 months plus. This period is called (a) sabbatical.

In English-speaking countries, the term shabbaton is often employed to mean an event or program of education, and usually celebration, that is held on a Shabbat (Jewish sabbath). Sometimes a shabbaton is an entire weekend with the main focus on the Shabbat. Many communities have such events, including youth groups, singles groups, synagogues, schools, social groups, charitable groups or even family reunions. These events can be multi-generational and wide open, or limited to a small specific group. A shabbaton can be held where a group usually meets, or at an off-site location. By calling such a program a shabbaton, rather than just a "retreat", one signifies recognition of the importance of Shabbat in the event or program.

Shmita

The sabbath year (shmita Hebrew: שמיטה, literally "release") also called the sabbatical year or shǝvi'it (שביעית, literally "seventh") is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel, and still observed in contemporary Judaism.

During shmita, the land is left to lie fallow and all agricultural activity, including plowing, planting, pruning and harvesting, is forbidden by halakha (Jewish law). Other cultivation techniques (such as watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, trimming and mowing) may be performed as a preventive measure only, not to improve the growth of trees or other plants. Additionally, any fruits or herbs which grow of their own accord and where no watch is kept over them are deemed hefker (ownerless) and may be picked by anyone. A variety of laws also apply to the sale, consumption and disposal of shmita produce. All debts, except those of foreigners, were to be remitted.Chapter 25 of the Book of Leviticus promises bountiful harvests to those who observe the shmita, and describes its observance as a test of religious faith. There is little notice of the observance of this year in Biblical history and it appears to have been much neglected.

Sunday school

A Sunday school is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christian in character. They were first set up in the 1780s in England to provide education to working children. Today, Sunday school has become the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued and conducted on Sundays by various denominations.

William King started a Sunday school in 1751 in Dursley, Gloucestershire, and suggested that Robert Raikes start a similar one in Gloucester. Raikes was editor of the Gloucester Journal. He wrote an article in his journal, and as a result many clergymen supported schools, which aimed to teach the youngsters reading, writing, cyphering (doing arithmetic) and a knowledge of the Bible.In 1785, 250,000 English children were attending Sunday school. There were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1835, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books, 24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles. The Sunday school movement was cross-denominational. Financed through subscription, large buildings were constructed that could host public lectures as well as provding classrooms. Adults would attend the same classes as the infants, as each was instructed in basic reading. In some towns, the Methodists withdrew from the large Sunday school and built their own. The Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as Sunday schools and day schools. These schools were the precursors to a national system of education.The role of the Sunday schools changed with the Education Act 1870 which provided universal elementary education. In the 1920s they also promoted sports, and ran Sunday School Leagues. They became social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday school could refer to the building and rarely to education classes. By the 1970s even the largest Sunday school had been demolished.

University College Dublin Students' Union

University College Dublin Students' Union (UCDSU; Irish: Aontas na Mac Léinn COBÁC) is the students' union of University College Dublin. It is the largest students' union in Ireland.The Union was founded in 1975 as the successor of the Student Representative Council, with Enda Connolly acting as the organisation's first president. Its primary role is to represent its members views and defend their interests.All students of UCD who are studying for a degree or postgraduate diploma of the National University of Ireland are, on registration at the university, members. The Union is funded by a membership fee paid at the same time as the student services levy ("registration fee") at the start of the academic year. In addition to its campaign work the Union also provides many services, such as three shops; welfare and education services such as an online second-hand bookshop; and the provision of a full-time Accommodation Officer. UCDSU has offices in the Student Centre and hosts clinics down in Smurfit once a week.

Visiting scholar

In US academia, a visiting scholar, visiting researcher, visiting fellow, visiting lecturer or visiting professor is a scholar from an institution who visits a host university and is projected to teach, lecture, or perform research on a topic the visitor is valued for. In many cases the position is not salaried because the scholar typically is salaried by their home institution (or partially salaried, as in some cases of sabbatical leave from US universities), while some visiting positions are salaried.

Typically, a position as visiting scholar is for a couple of months or even a year, though it can be extended. It is not unusual that host institutions provide accommodation for the visiting scholar. Typically, a visiting scholar is invited by the host institution. Being invited as a visiting scholar is often regarded as a significant accolade and recognition of the scholar's prominence in the field. Attracting prominent visiting scholars often allows the permanent faculty and graduate students to cooperate with prominent academics from other institutions, especially foreign ones.

In the UK, a visiting scholar or visiting academic usually has to pay a so-called bench fee to the university, which will give them access to a shared office space and other university facilities and resources (such as the library). Bench fee amounts vary across the UK universities.

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