Saba

Saba (/ˈsɑːbə/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈsaːbaː])[5] is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.[6] It consists largely of the potentially active volcano Mount Scenery, at 887 metres (2,910 ft) the highest point of the entire Netherlands.

Saba has a land area of 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi). As of January 2013, the population was 1,991 inhabitants, with a population density of 150 inhabitants per square kilometre (390/sq mi).[1] It is the smallest territory or sovereign state by permanent population in the Americas. Its towns and major settlements are The Bottom (the capital), Windwardside, Zion's Hill and St. Johns.

Saba
Motto(s): 
"Remis Velisque" (Latin)
"With oars and sails" (English)
Anthem: "Saba you rise from the ocean"
Location of Saba (circled in red) in the Caribbean
Location of Saba (circled in red)

in the Caribbean

Map showing location of Saba relative to Sint Eustatius and Saint Martin.
Map showing location of Saba relative to Sint Eustatius and Saint Martin.
Coordinates: 17°38′N 63°15′W / 17.633°N 63.250°WCoordinates: 17°38′N 63°15′W / 17.633°N 63.250°W
CountryNetherlands
Incorporated into the Netherlands10 October 2010 (dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)
Capital
(and largest city)
The Bottom
Government
 • Island GovernorJonathan Johnson
Area
 • Total13 km2 (5 sq mi)
Population
 (2013[1])
 • Total1,991
 • Density150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialDutch
 • Recognised regionalEnglish[2]
Time zoneUTC−4 (AST)
Calling code+599-4
ISO 3166 codeBQ-SA, NL-BQ2
CurrencyUnited States dollar ($) (USD)
Internet TLD

History

Saba - Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië-Antilles part 2, bottom right
Map of Saba from the Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië 1914-1917

Christopher Columbus is said to have sighted the island on 13 November 1493. He did not land, being deterred by the island's perilous rocky shores. In 1632 a group of shipwrecked Englishmen landed upon Saba. They stated they found the island uninhabited when they were rescued; however, clear evidence has been found indicating that Caribs and Arawak Native Nations have lived on the island.

In 1635 a stray Frenchman claimed Saba for Louis XIII of France. In the later 1630s, the Dutch Governor of the neighboring island of Sint Eustatius sent several Dutch families over to colonize the island for the Dutch West India Company. In 1664, refusing to swear allegiance to the English crown, these original Dutch settlers were evicted to St. Maarten by Jamaican governors Edward, Thomas, and Henry Morgan; as well as other British pirates that had been convicted to stay on Jamaica; to return within the months and years following.[7] The Netherlands have been in continuous possession of Saba since 1816, after numerous flag changes (British-Dutch-French) during the previous centuries. By 2016 the island had been French for 12 years, English for 18 years, and Dutch for 345 years.

In the 17th and 18th centuries Saba's major industries were sugar, indigo and rum produced on plantations owned by Dutchmen living on St Eustatius, and later fishing, particularly lobster fishing. In the 17th century Saba was believed to be a favorable hideout for Jamaican pirates. England also deported its "undesirable" people to live in the Caribbean colonies, and some of them also became pirates, a few taking haven on Saba. The island of Saba is forbidding and steep, a natural fortress, and so the island became a private sanctuary for the families of smugglers and pirates. The most notable native Saban pirate was Hiram Beakes.

Later, legitimate sailing and trade became important, and many of the island's men took to the sea, during which time "Saba lace", which is pulled thread work, a Spanish form of needlework introduced by a nun from Venezuela, became an important product made by the island's women. Throughout the late 19th century and early 20th century, the primary source of revenue for the island came from the lacework produced by the women. During this period of time, with most of the island's men gone out to sea, the island became known as "The Island of Women".[8]

The remains of the settlements of 1630–1640 can be found on the west side at Tent Bay. These settlements were destroyed by a landslide in the 17th century.

A status referendum was held in Saba on 5 November 2004. 86.05% of the population voted for closer links to the Netherlands.

Geography and ecology

Saba with cloud cover
Saba island as viewed from the north, with Mount Scenery's peak in the clouds

Saba is the northernmost potentially active volcano in the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc chain of islands. At 887 metres (2,910 ft), Mount Scenery is also the highest point within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The island is composed of a single rhomb-shaped volcano measuring 4.6 kilometres (2.9 mi) east to west and 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) north to south[9] The oldest dated rocks on Saba are around 400,000 years old, and the most recent eruption was shortly before the 1630s European settlement (280 years B.P.).[9][10] Between 1995 and 1997, an increase in local seismic activity was associated with a 7°-12°C (13°-22°F) rise in the temperature of the hot springs on the island's northwest and southeast coasts.[9]

There is a 8.6 hectares (21 acres)[11] cloud forest located at and above 825 metres (2,707 ft)[12] on top of the mountain referred to as the "Elfin Forest Reserve" because of its high altitude mist and mossy appearance.[11] The most dominant tree in the cloud forest is the Mountain Mahogany (Freziera undulate), although hurricanes over the years have destroyed a large number of the mature trees. Despite the name, the mountain mahogany is not related to other mahogany species; although one species of true mahogany tree is found on the island at lower levels, the small-leaved mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). The native mahogany trees are considered to be at risk of becoming extinct on Saba. In the underbrush of the mahogany trees, the Sierran palm (Prestoea montana) and tree ferns dominate, with a large variety of epiphytes and Orchids growing on the trunks and branches of all the trees.[12] Wild raspberries and plantain trees can also be found growing on most of the mountain.[13] All seven of the Lesser Antilles Endemic Bird Area restricted-range birds occur in the Elfin Forest Reserve.[12]

Below the cloud forest is a sub-montane forest, and the variety and average number of species are considerably less. Redwood and Mountain fuchsia tree trees grow wild in this zone, as well as cactus species such as the prickly pear, and Seagrape trees. On the lowest southern and eastern slopes of Saba are grassy meadows and scattered shrubs.[13] Saba National Land Park is a 35 hectares (86 acres) national park located on the north coast of Saba.[14] Formerly owned by the Sulphur Mining Company, the park was established in January 1998 and the property was officially turned over to the Saba Conservation Foundation in 1999.[11] It stretches from the coastline all the way up to the cloud forest, and encompasses all vegetation zones present on Saba.

The coastline of Saba is mostly rubble and rocky cliffs that are 100 metres (330 ft) or taller with no permanent beaches. The steep terrain and sheer bluffs dropping almost straight down to the ocean's edge prevents the formation of mangrove swamps or much vegetation. There are eight bays tucked into the cliffs around the island; Cove Bay, Spring Bay, Core Gut Bay, Fort Bay (location of the island's only port), Tent Bay, Ladder Bay, Wells Bay and Cave of Rum Bay.[12] The shoreline of the island is of particular value to sea birds, and has been designated an Important Bird Area (IBA AN006 "Saba Coastline") by BirdLife International.[15] Saba is home to about sixty species of birds, many of which are sea birds that use the holes and crevices of the steep cliffs and two small islands for breeding and feed in the waters around the island.[13] Saba’s shoreline is home to the Caribbean’s largest breeding colony of Red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus).[12] The Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri) is another common bird, and is the national bird of Saba as well as being featured on their coat of arms.[15]

Being an island, Saba is home to a number of endemic species including the Saba racer (Alsophis rufiventris), the Saban anole (Anolis sabanus), and the Lesser Antillean funnel-eared bat (Natalus stramineus stramineus).[15][13]

About 4.3 kilometres (2.7 mi) southwest of the island is the northeastern edge of the Saba Bank, the largest submarine atoll in the Atlantic Ocean[16] with an especially rich biodiversity. Saba Bank is the top of a sea mount and it is a prime fishing ground, particularly for lobster.

Government

The mayor of Saba
Saba's government house

Relationship with mainland Netherlands

Saba became a special municipality within the country of the Netherlands after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010 and is not part of a Dutch province. The island's constitutional status, as well as those of Sint Eustatius and Bonaire, is set out in the Law on the Public Entities BES (Dutch: Wet op de Openbare Lichamen BES).[17]

Sabans vote for members of the Dutch House of Representatives, the members of which are elected on a party-list proportional method.[18] During the 2017 Dutch general election, a majority of Sabans voted for Democrats 66. 900 of the island's 2,000 residents were eligible to vote, and of those, 40% (or 385 people) voted.[19]

Sabans with Dutch nationality are allowed to vote in elections for the Electoral College to elect the members of the Dutch Senate. The 2019 elections on Saba, held concurrently with the 2019 Island Council Elections resulted in 4 of the 5 Saban seats in the Electoral College going to the Windward Islands People's Movement and one seat going to the Saba Labour Party.[20]

Governor

The Island Governor is the head of the government of Saba. The King appoints the Governor for a term of six years, and he falls under the Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. The Island Governor chairs meetings of both the Island Council and the Executive Council.[18] The Island Governor is also responsible for representing the island government both in and out of court, maintaining public order, implementing policy and legislation, coordinating with other governments, and receiving and handling complaints about the island's government.[21]

The current Island Governor is Jonathan G.A. Johnson.[18]

Legislature

Saba's legislative body is the Island Council, of which there are 5 members. Councillors are elected by the citizens of the island every four years.[22]

The Island Council holds the power to[23]

  • appoint and remove Commissioners of the Executive Council
  • pass ordinances to be enforced by the Executive Council
  • ask questions of the Executive Council
  • begin an investigation into the Governor or the Executive Council
  • approve the budget.

Currently, the Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM) holds all 5 seats on the Island Council. The current members of the Island Council are:

Members of the Saba Island Council, 2019–2023[24]
Name Party
Carl Buncamper WIPM
Vito Charles WIPM
Eviton Heyliger WIPM
Hemmie van Xanten WIPM
Esmerelda Johnson WIPM

Executive

The Executive Council, appointed by the Island Council, acts as the executive branch of government.

The Council has the following responsibilities:[25][26]

  • day-to-day administration of the island, except for duties reserved for the Island Council or the Governor
  • executing policies and legislation passed by the Island Council
  • establishing rules regarding the administration of the island, except the Registry
  • appointing, promoting, suspending, or dismissing public officials, except those working for and including the Registrar
  • preparing defense of the island
  • maintaining contact with Dutch Ministries in the Hague
  • executing policies and legislation from the national government

The Council appoints the Island Secretary, currently Tim Muller.[27]

The Council consists of the Island Governor and two Commissioners appointed by the Island Council, currently both members of the WIPM.[26] Each member of the Executive Council is assigned portfolios to oversee.[28]

Executive Council (2019-2023)
Name Title Party Portfolios[28]
Jonathan Johnson Governor N/A Civil Status & Registry, Elections, Personnel Affairs & Organization, Disaster Management, Protocol, Public Safety & Security
Rolando Wilson Commissioner WIPM Archives, Youth Affairs, Gender Affairs, Cadastre & Land Management, Agriculture, Husbandry & Fisheries, Community Development, Culture & Sports, Energy, Public Housing, Public Health & Hygiene, Telecommunication, Social & Labor Affairs, European Union Affairs
Bruce Zagers Commissioner WIPM General Affairs, Finances & Economic Affairs, Education, Planning, Public Works, Constitutional Affairs, Tourism, Water Supply, Harbor, Airport, Communication, Environment & Nature

Society

Typical Saba view
A typical Saba view

The population of Saba (the Sabans) consists of 1,991 people who come from all over the world. Saba's small size has led to a fairly small number of island families, who can trace their last names back to around a half-dozen families. This means that many last names are shared around the island, the most numerous being Hassell and Johnson.

Most families are an intermixing of Africans, Dutch, English, and Scottish. The population is also descended from the Irish who were exiled from that country after the accession of King Charles I of England in 1625. Charles exiled these Irish to the Caribbean in an effort to quell rebellion after he had forcibly procured their lands for his Scottish noble supporters.

Historically, Saba was traded among the many European nations that fought for power in the region. Slaves were also imported to work on Saba. In recent years Saba has become home to a large group of expatriates, and around 250 immigrants who are either students or teachers at the Saba University School of Medicine.

Languages

Both English and Dutch are spoken on the island and taught in schools, and both languages are official. Despite the island's Dutch affiliation, English is the principal language spoken on the island and has been used in its school system since the 19th century.[2] English is the sole medium of instruction in Saba schools. Dutch government policy towards Saba and other SSS islands promoted English medium education.[29] English can therefore be used in communications of and to the government.[2]

Saba English, a form of Virgin Islands Creole English, is the local vernacular.

Religion

Saba is predominantly a Christian territory. The main denominations are Catholics 45%, No denomination 18%, other denomination 11%, Anglicans 9%, Evangelical 4%, and Pentecostal 4%. At least 6% of the population is considered Muslim.[30]

Queen of The Holy Rosary Church in Zions Hill, 1962 (6550006709)
Queen of The Holy Rosary Church in Zions Hill, Saba

Education and health

Saba is home to the Saba University School of Medicine, which was established by American expatriates in coordination with the government of the Netherlands. The school adds over 400 residents when classes are in session, and it is the prime educational attraction. A.M. Edwards Medical Center is the major provider of healthcare for local residents.

Same-sex marriage

In Saba (as in Bonaire and Sint Eustatius), marriage is open to same sex and opposite sex couples[31] following the entering in force of a law enabling same-sex couples to marry on 10 October 2012.[32] The first same-sex marriage was performed on Saba on 4 December 2012 between a Dutch man and a Venezuelan man, both residing in Aruba, where same-sex marriage is not performed.[33][34][35]

Economy

Since 2011 the U.S. dollar has been the official currency,[36] replacing the Netherlands Antillean guilder.

Agriculture on Saba is primarily livestock and vegetables, especially potatoes. Saba lace, also known as "Spanish work", is actually drawn thread work, and as of 2013, it is still produced on the island.

Tourism

Playground on Saba
A playground on Saba

The tourism industry now contributes more to the island's economy than any other sector. There are about 25,000 visitors each year. Saba has a number of inns, hotels, rental cottages and restaurants. Saba is known as the "Unspoiled Queen" of the Caribbean.[37] Saba is especially known for its ecotourism, having exceptional scuba diving, climbing and hiking.

The Juancho E. Yrausquin Airport offers flights to and from the nearby islands of St. Maarten and Sint Eustatius. There is also a ferry service from St. Maarten; the ferry boats "Dawn II ~ The Saba Ferry" and "The Edge" both travel to Saba three times a week. In addition, there are anchorages for private boats.[37]

About 150 species of fish have been found in Saba's waters.[38] A main draw for divers are the pinnacle dive sites, where magma pushed through the sea floor to create underwater towers of volcanic rock that start at about 300 feet (91 m) down and rise to about 85 feet (26 m) beneath the surface.[38] The waters around Saba were designated as the Saba National Marine Park in 1987, and are subject to government regulation to preserve the coral reefs and other marine life. The Saba Conservation Foundation has operated a hyperbaric chamber in case of diving emergencies, since 1991.[39]

Transport

View from Mt Scenery, Saba
A view of the village of Windwardside, taken from Mount Scenery

There is one main road, known as "The Road". Its construction was masterminded by Josephus Lambert Hassell who, contrary to the opinion of Dutch and Swiss engineers, believed that a road could be built.[40] He took a correspondence course in civil engineering and started building the road with a crew of locals in 1938.[41]

After five years of work the first section of the road from Fort Bay to The Bottom was completed. It was not until 1947 that the first motor vehicle arrived. In 1951 the road to Windwardside and St. Johns was opened and in 1958, the road was completed. Driving "The Road" is considered to be a daunting task, and the curves in Windwardside are extremely difficult to negotiate. Driving is on the right hand side.

In 1963 Saba residents built the Juancho E. Yrausquin Airport. This 400-metre (1,300 ft) landing strip is reputed to be the shortest commercial runway in the world,[42] and is restricted. Only trained pilots flying small STOL airliners, such as the Twin Otter and the Britten-Norman Islander may land there, as well as helicopters.

In 1972, a pier was completed in Fort Bay to access the island. Travel is also provided by ferry services to and from Sint Maarten with the Dawn II and The Edge.

Of note are 800 steps carved from stone that reach from Ladder Bay to the settlement known as The Bottom. Until the late 20th century, everything that was brought to the island in boats and ships was carried up by hand using these steps. The steps are now often used by tourists who wish to experience an intense climb.

Energy

Like many Caribbean islands, Saba is dependent on fossil fuels imports, which leaves it vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations that directly impact the cost of electricity.[43] Electricity supply depends on a diesel power plant to supply 60% of the island's demand.[44]

According to a report by the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), the Government of Saba made the decision to transform the island to 100% sustainable energy to eventually eliminate dependence on fossil fuel-generated electricity. This new energy policy is defined by the ‘Social development plan 2014–2020’ and ‘Saba's energy sector strategy’. Intermediate targets are 20% renewable electricity by 2017, which was reached in 2018; and 40% by 2020, which is expected to be reached by March 2019.[44]

Culture

Saba's houses have a cottage look with red roofs. The lifestyle is slow and old-fashioned with little nightlife, even with the emergence of an ecotourism industry in the last few decades. Sabans are proud of their history of environmental conservation, calling Saba "The Unspoiled Queen."

Saba Lace 2012
Saba Lace, Harry L Johnson Museum, Windwardside

Saban women continue to make two traditional island products, Saba Lace and Saba Spice. Saba Lace is handstitched lace, which the island's women began making in the late 19th century and built into a thriving mail-order business with the United States. Saba Spice is a rum drink, brewed with a combination of spices.

As in other Caribbean locations, Sabans throw an annual Carnival. Saba's Carnival takes place the last week in July and includes parades, steel bands, competitions, and food.

Another event held in the capital The Bottom is 'Saba Day'. This is the national day of the island in which all offices, schools and stores are closed. The island celebrates its diversity and culture through various activities and parades. The Bottom holds host to a concert at the sports field where local and other Caribbean artists come to perform.

There is one radio station on Saba, "Saba Radio" broadcasts on 93.9 FM and 1410 AM.[45][46]

Sports

The most popular sports on Saba are football, futsal,[47][48] softball,[49] basketball, swimming and volleyball. Due to the small population, there are few sport associations. One of them, the Saba Volleyball Association, is a member of ECVA and NORCECA.

Education

The primary school is Sacred Heart Primary School in St. John's.[50]

There is one secondary and vocational school in Saba the Saba Comprehensive School in St. John's.[51]

Saba University School of Medicine is a for-profit medical school located in the Saba capital The Bottom. Saba University confers upon its graduates the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. Saba University School of Medicine was founded in 1992 as an international alternative to U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Since its founding, more than 2500 students have earned their medical degree at Saba.[52] Saba University's graduates practice primarily in the United States and Canada. The Saba website features graduates who have gone on to appointments at medical centers in the US and Canada including the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, the University of Toronto, Yale University and more.[53] In recent years, 99% of Saba's students have passed the USMLE Step 1 exam on their first attempt.[52] Class sizes are 80-100 students per matriculating class. Students complete the first 20 months (five semesters) of basic science medical education on the campus on Saba and return to the US and Canada to complete clinical rotations at hospitals affiliated with the school.

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.[3][4] Like the rest of the Netherlands, .nl is primarily in use.

References

  1. ^ a b "Population of Dutch Caribbean (1 January); sex, age: Saba". Statistics Netherlands. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c English can be used in relations with the government
    "Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch). wetten.nl. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
  3. ^ "BQ - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba". ISO. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Delegation Record for .BQ". IANA. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  5. ^ Mangold, Max. Duden – Das Aussprachewörterbuch. In: Der Duden in zwölf Bänden, Band 6. 7. Auflage. Berlin: Dudenverlag; Mannheim : Institut für Deutsche Sprache, 2015, Seite 747.
  6. ^ "Wet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba
    (Law on the public bodies of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba)"
    . Dutch Government (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  7. ^ Johnson, Will (2014-12-18). "Driving out the Dutch". The Saba Islander. The Saba Herald. Retrieved 2019-03-11. Sir Henry Morgan, famous pirate, and Governor of Jamaica. His two uncles, Edward (also his father-in-law) and Thomas, captured St. Eustatius and Saba in 1665 and drove out the Dutch. …
  8. ^ "Preserving Tradition on the Island of Women and Lace". Brigham Young University. 2015-09-21. Retrieved 2017-06-12.
  9. ^ a b c The Geology of Saba. 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  10. ^ Saba. Oregon State University - Volcano World. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Hiking Trails. Saba Conservation Foundation. Retrieved 9 November, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e Saba Coastline. Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d Flora & Fauna. Saba Conservation Foundation. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  14. ^ Saba National Park. Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  15. ^ a b c AN006 Data Sheet. BirdLife International. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  16. ^ Saba Bank. Saba Conservation Foundation. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  17. ^ "About Saba - Constitutional Status". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  18. ^ a b c "Island Governor - Introduction". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  19. ^ "Many Sabans vote for first time in the Second Chamber election". Saba News. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  20. ^ "Landslide victory for WIPM". Saba News. 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  21. ^ "Island Governor - Functions". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  22. ^ "Island Council - Council Members". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  23. ^ "Island Council Functions". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  24. ^ "Public Entity Saba". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  25. ^ "Executive Council Functions". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  26. ^ a b "Executive Council - Members". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  27. ^ "Government of Saba Departments - Contact Info". www.sabagovernment.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  28. ^ a b "Division of portfolios in new Executive Island Council". Saba News. 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  29. ^ Dijkhoff, Marta, Silvia Kowenberg, and Paul Tjon Sie Fat. Chapter 215 "The Dutch-speaking Caribbean Die niederländischsprachige Karibik." In: Sociolinguistics / Soziolinguistik. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2006. ISBN 3110199874, 9783110199871. Start: p. 2105. CITED: p. 2108.
  30. ^ "Religion in Caribbean Netherlands". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
  31. ^ "Burgerlijk wetboek BES, boek 1" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  32. ^ "Aanpassingswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  33. ^ "Saba records first gay marriage on Tuesday". St. Maarten Time. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  34. ^ "First Gay Marriage In Dutch Caribbean". Curaçao Chronicle. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  35. ^ "First same-gender wedding in Caribbean Netherlands". Dutch Caribbean Legal Portal. 5 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  36. ^ "Plein". Pleinplus.nl. 2009-12-02. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
  37. ^ a b "Welcome to Saba!". Saba Tourist Bureau. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  38. ^ a b Witte, Brian (13 July 2013). "Diving off Saba, the Caribbean's unspoiled queen". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  39. ^ "SCF to receive subsidies for refurbishment of hyperbaric chamber and mooring system". SabaNews. 23 November 2012. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  40. ^ "Saba Dutch Caribbean Travel Guide". LukeTravels.com. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
  41. ^ Slawych, Diane (16 November 2006). "Saba's road less travelled". Canoe.ca. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  42. ^ Tweddle, Andy (20 January 2011). "Five of the smallest airports in the world". Business Traveller. Panacea Publishing. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  43. ^ "Energy Snapshot Saint Martin & Sint Maarten" (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  44. ^ a b "Towards 100% sustainable energy on the Caribbean island of Saba". Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP). Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  45. ^ Saba Radio Stations. RadioStationWorld.com. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  46. ^ Q93.9 FM. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  47. ^ "Cruyff Courts Saba/Sint Maarten/Sint Eustatius". Windward Roads B.V. 1 January 2007.
  48. ^ "1st Cruyff Court Dutch Caribbean Futsal Championship 2007 (Aruba)". RSSSF. 6 February 2008.
  49. ^ "Saba and St. Eustatius compete in softball". Pearl FM Radio – Pearl of the Caribbean. 27 June 2011.
  50. ^ Home. Sacred Heart Primary School. Retrieved on February 28, 2018.
  51. ^ Home. Saba Comprehensive School. Retrieved on February 28, 2018.
  52. ^ a b "About Saba University". Saba.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
  53. ^ "Saba - Alumni Profiles". www.saba.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-11-30.

Further reading

  • Bolles, Joshua K. (2013). Johnson, Will (ed.). Caribbean Interlude: The Story of Saba the Rock. Will Johnson. ISBN 978-1-4675-6637-7.. A first-person account by an American journalist of the eleven months he spent on Saba in 1931, illustrated with photographs of Saba at that time.
  • Nielsen, Suzanne; Schnabel, Peter. Folk Remedies on a Caribbean Island, the Story of Bush Medicine on Saba. ISBN 9789990407594. Aguide to many of the plants of Saba, including their medicinal properties.
  • Shrout, Richard Neil (1989). "The mysterious island of Saba" (PDF). South Florida History Magazine (2). pp. 3–7 – via HistoryMiami.

External links

Caribbean Netherlands

The Caribbean Netherlands (Dutch: Caribisch Nederland, pronounced [kaːˌribis ˈneːdərlɑnt]) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea. They consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, although the term "Caribbean Netherlands" is sometimes used to refer to all of the islands in the Dutch Caribbean. In legislation, the three islands are also known as the BES islands (an acronym of their names). The islands are currently classified as public bodies in the Netherlands and as overseas countries and territories of the European Union; thus, EU law does not automatically apply.

Bonaire (including the islet of Klein Bonaire) is one of the Leeward Antilles and is located close to the coast of Venezuela. Sint Eustatius and Saba are in the main Lesser Antilles group and are located south of Sint Maarten and northwest of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Hapoel Kfar Saba F.C.

Hapoel Kfar Saba F.C. (Hebrew: מועדון כדורגל הפועל כפר סבא‎, Moadon Kaduregel Hapoel Kfar Saba) are an Israeli football club based in Kfar Saba. The club is currently a member of the Liga Leumit and plays its home matches at Levita Stadium.

Hassan-i Sabbah

Hassan-i Sabbāh (Persian: حسن صباح Hasan-i Sabbāh) or Hassan as-Sabbāh (Arabic: حسن الصباح Ḥasan aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ) (full name:Hassan bin 'Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja'far bin al-Husayn bin Muhammad bin al-Sabbah al-Himyari) (circa 1050–1124) was the leader of the Nizārī Ismā‘īlītes military and the founder of the order known as Assassins. Assassins, who are often referred to as the Hashshashin, was a group of fedayeen.Hassan-i Sabbāh was a missionary who converted the Nizari in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Persia. He later seized a mountain fortress called Alamut.

Kafr Saba

Kafr Saba (Arabic: كفر سابا‎) was a Palestinian Arab village famous for its shrine dating to the Mamluk period and for a history stretching back for more than a millennium. The village was depopulated of its Arab residents by Jewish forces on May 13, 1948, one day before the new State of Israel was declared.Presently the remains of the villages consists of two domed shrines located on either side of Route 55 between Kfar Saba and Qalqiliyya. The larger of the two is called Nabi Yamin, situated on the east side. About 40 meters (44 yd) away, on the west side of the road, is a much smaller shrine named Nabi Serakha. The Nabi Yamin shrine was later taken over by a Haredi Jewish sect.

Kfar Saba

Kfar Saba (Hebrew: כְּפַר סָבָא), officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel. In 2017 it had a population of 100,039.

Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa () is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora in the Americas and lasts a week. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and gift-giving. Kwanzaa has seven core principles (Nguzo Saba). It was created by Maulana Karenga and was first celebrated in 1966–67.

Meri Zaat Zarra-e-Benishan

Meri Zaat Zarra-e-Benishan (Urdu: ميرى ذات ذرہ بے نشاں‎) is a Pakistani drama serial directed by Babar Javed and produced by Abdullah Kadwani and Humayun Saeed. It is based on Umera Ahmad's novel of the same name. It is an emotional story of a girl named Saba and her daughter Sara. The drama became very popular upon its release in 2009. The serial featured an ensemble cast consisting of Samiya Mumtaz, Samina Peerzada, Sarwat Gillani, Mehreen Raheel, Faisal Qureshi, Adnan Siddiqui, Imran Abbas, Ismat Zaidi and Humayun Saeed.Meri Zaat Zarra-e-Benishan has also been broadcast in India by Zindagi under the title Kaisi Ye Qayamat, premiering on 15 December, 2014 and ending on 6 January, 2015.

National Register of Historic Places listings in San Saba County, Texas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in San Saba County, Texas.

This is intended to be a complete list of properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places in San Saba County, Texas. There are three properties listed on the National Register in the county. One property is both a State Antiquities Landmark and a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted May 17, 2019.

Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba (Hebrew: מלכת שבא‎ Arabic: الملكة بلقيس‎, romanized: al-Malikah Balqis) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for King Solomon. This tale has undergone extensive Jewish, Islamic, and Ethiopian elaborations, and has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Orient.Modern historians identify Sheba with the South Arabian kingdom of Saba in present-day Yemen. The queen’s existence is disputed and has not been confirmed by historians.

SABA Championship

The SABA Championship is a basketball tournament national teams organized by the South Asia Basketball Association, a sub-zone of the FIBA Asia. It serves as a qualifier for various FIBA Asia events such as the FIBA Asia Championship and the FIBA Asia Cup.

Saba Hameed

Saba Hameed (Urdu: صبا حميد‎) is a Pakistani television actress.

Saba Qamar

Sabahat Qamar Zaman (born on 5 April 1984) credited as Saba Qamar is a Pakistani actress and television personality. One of Pakistan's most popular and highest paid actresses, Qamar is the recipient of several accolades, including the Lux Style Award, Hum Award, and a Filmfare Award nomination. She was honoured by the Government of Pakistan with the Tamgha-e-Imtiaz in 2012 and Pride of Performance in 2016. She made her acting debut with a role in the television series Mein Aurat Hoon (2005). Currently, Qamar is playing the main lead as Mannat in ARY Digital's courtroom drama Cheekh (2019).

The 2010 pre partition drama Dastaan proved to be Qamar's first success in which she played the parallel female lead, earning her the Pakistan Media Award, and starring roles in the drama Pani Jaisa Piyar and the socio drama Thakan (both 2011) established her as a leading actress in Urdu television. She earned wide critical praise for her portrayal of a manipulative and self-obsessed women in the 2011 romantic series Maat, a middle class girl in the 2011 series Jo Chale To Jaan Se Guzar Gaye, a character Sarwat in the 2012 telenovela Shehryar Shehzadi, and as orphan in the 2013 drama Kaash Aisa Ho. Khan's greatest commercial success came with the 2016 rom-com Lahore Se Aagey. Internationally, she received critical acclaim for her portrayal in the comedy-drama Hindi Medium (2017), which was ranked among the highest-grossing Indian films of all time and earned her the nomination for Filmfare Best Actress Award.

Saba Qom F.C.

Saba Qom Football Club (Persian: باشگاه فوتبال صبای قم‎) was an Iranian football team based in Qom, Iran. The club was dissolved in 2018. The team is a former part of Saba Battery Club, owned by Saba Battery Co., and was moved to Qom in 2007, although they were formerly registered as a team from Tehran playing at Shahid Derakhshan Stadium of Robat Karim.

Saba won the 2005 edition of the Hazfi Cup and the 2005 edition of the Iranian Super Cup.

Saba banana

Saba banana is a triploid hybrid (ABB) banana cultivar originating from the Philippines. It is primarily a cooking banana, though it can also be eaten raw. It is one of the most important banana varieties in Philippine cuisine. It is also sometimes known as the cardaba banana, though the latter name may be more correctly applied to a very similar cultivar also classified within the saba subgroup.

Sabaeans

The Sabaeans or Sabeans (Sabaean: 𐩪𐩨𐩱, S¹Bʾ; Arabic: ٱلسَّبَئِيُّوْن‎, as-Sabaʾiyyūn; Hebrew: שבא) were an ancient people speaking Sabaean, an Old South Arabian language, and living in the southern Arabian Peninsula.The identification of the kingdom of Sabaʾ (Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎) with the biblical land of Sheba is disputed. The view that the biblical kingdom of Sheba was the ancient Semitic civilization of Saba in Southern Arabia is controversial: Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman write that "the Sabaean kingdom began to flourish only from the eighth century BC onward" and that the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba is "an anachronistic seventh-century set piece meant to legitimize the participation of Judah in the lucrative Arabian trade." The British Museum states that there is no archaeological evidence for such a queen but that the kingdom described as hers was Saba, "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms". Kenneth Kitchen dates the kingdom to between 1200 BCE until 275 CE, with its capital Ma'rib. The Kingdom fell after a long but sporadic civil war between several Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship; from this the late Himyarite Kingdom arose as victors.

Sabaeans are mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible. In the Quran, they are described as either Saba’, or as the People of Tubba' (Arabic: قَـوْم تُـبَّـع‎, romanized: Qawm Tubbaʿ).

San Saba, Texas

San Saba is a city located in Central Texas. It was settled in 1854 and named for its location on the San Saba River. The population was 3,099 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of San Saba County.

San Saba County, Texas

San Saba County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in western Central Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,131. Its county seat is San Saba. The county is named after the San Saba River, which flows through the county.

Sheba

Sheba (; Ge'ez: ሳባ, Saba, Arabic: سبأ‎, Sabaʾ, South Arabian 𐩪𐩨𐩱 S-b-ʾ, Hebrew: שבא, Šəḇā) is a kingdom mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the Quran. Sheba features in Jewish, Muslim, and Christian, particularly Ethiopian Christian, traditions. It was the home of the biblical "Queen of Sheba", who is left unnamed in the Bible, but receives the names Makeda in Ethiopian and Bilqīs in Arabic tradition.

The predominant scholarly view is that the biblical narrative about the kingdom of Sheba was based on the ancient civilization of Saba in South Arabia, in contradiction to several local traditions from different countries. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman write that "the Sabaean kingdom began to flourish only from the eighth century BCE onward" and that the story of Solomon and Sheba is "an anachronistic seventh-century set piece meant to legitimize the participation of Judah in the lucrative Arabian trade." The British Museum states that there is no archaeological evidence for such a queen but that the kingdom described as hers was Saba, "the oldest and most important of the South Arabian kingdoms". Kenneth Kitchen dates the kingdom to between 1200 BCE until 275 CE with its capital, Ma'rib. The kingdom fell after a long but sporadic civil war between several Yemenite dynasties claiming kingship, resulting in the rise of the late Himyarite Kingdom.

Tony Atlas

Anthony White (born April 23, 1954) better known by his ring name Tony Atlas is an American bodybuilder, powerlifter, and professional wrestler who has held multiple titles and championships in each sport. He is also known by his bodybuilding title, "Mr. USA" (a distinction he earned three times), the nom de guerre the "Black Superman", as well as an alter ego named Saba Simba. He returned as an on screen manager for WWE, appearing on its now-defunct ECW brand. He re-signed with WWE in a Legends deal in mid-2012.

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