Saarbrücken

Saarbrücken (German pronunciation: [zaːɐ̯ˈbʁʏkn̩] (listen), French: Sarrebruck[6] [saʁbʁyk], Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge [zaːˈbʁɪgə]) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany. Saarbrücken is Saarland's administrative, commercial and cultural centre and is next to the French border.

Saarbrücken was created in 1909 by the merger of three towns, Saarbrücken, St. Johann, and Malstatt-Burbach. It was the industrial and transport centre of the Saar coal basin. Products included iron and steel, sugar, beer, pottery, optical instruments, machinery, and construction materials.

Historic landmarks in the city include the stone bridge across the Saar (1546), the Gothic church of St. Arnual, the 18th-century Saarbrücken Castle, and the old part of the town, the Sankt Johanner Markt (Market of St. Johann).

In the 20th century, Saarbrücken was twice separated from Germany: in 1920–35 as capital of the Territory of the Saar Basin and in 1947–56 as capital of the Saar Protectorate.

Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken in January 2006
Saarbrücken in January 2006
Coat of arms of Saarbrücken

Coat of arms
Location of Saarbrücken within Saarbrücken district
Saarbrücken (district)SaarlandFranceSaarlouis (district)Neunkirchen (German district)Saarpfalz-KreisGroßrosselnVölklingenPüttlingenRiegelsbergHeusweilerQuierschiedFriedrichsthalSulzbachKleinblittersdorfSaarbrückenSB-Rathaus.jpg
Saarbrücken is located in Germany
Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken is located in Saarland
Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
Coordinates: 49°14′N 7°0′E / 49.233°N 7.000°ECoordinates: 49°14′N 7°0′E / 49.233°N 7.000°E
CountryGermany
StateSaarland
DistrictSaarbrücken
Subdivisions20
Government
 • MayorCharlotte Britz (SPD)
Area
 • City167.52 km2 (64.68 sq mi)
Elevation
230.1 m (754.9 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[5]
 • City180,966
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Urban
329,593 [4]
 • Metro
700,000[3]
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
66001–66133
Dialling codes0681, 06893, 06897, 06898, 06805
Vehicle registrationSB
Websitewww.saarbruecken.de

Toponymy

In modern German, Saarbrücken literally translates to Saar bridges (Brücken is the plural of Brücke), and indeed there are about a dozen bridges across the Saar river. However, the name actually predates the oldest bridge in the historic center of Saarbrücken, the Alte Brücke, by at least 500 years.[wp 1]

The name Saar stems from the Celtic word sara (streaming water), and the Roman name of the river, saravus.[7]

However, there are three theories about the origin of the second part of the name Saarbrücken.

Briga (rock)

The most popular theory states that the historical name of the town, Sarabrucca, derived from the Celtic word briga (hill, or rock, big stone[7]), which became Brocken (can mean rock or boulder) in High German. The castle of Sarabrucca was located on a large rock by the name of Saarbrocken overlooking the river Saar.[8]

Brucca (ford)

A minority opinion holds that the historical name of the town, Sarabrucca, derived from the Old High German word Brucca(in German), meaning bridge, or more precisely a Corduroy road, which was also used in fords. Next to the castle, there was a ford allowing land-traffic to cross the Saar.[9]

Bruco (swamp)

A mostly rejected theory claims that the historical name of the town, Sarabrucca, derived from the Germanic word bruco (swamp, marsh). There is an area in St Johann called Bruchwiese (wiese meaning meadow), which used to be swampy before it was developed, and there were flood-meadows along the river, and those are often marshy. However, the Saarbrücken area was first settled by Celts and not by Germanic peoples.[wp 1]

History

Roman Empire

20110418Roemerkastell Saarbruecken10
Ruins of the Roman camp Römerkastell

In the last centuries BC, the Mediomatrici settled in the Saarbrücken area.[10] When Julius Caesar conquered Gaul in the 1st century BC, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire.

Saarbrücken Halberg Mithrashöhle
The Mithras shrine at Halberg hill

From the 1st century AD to the 5th century,[11] there was the Gallo-Roman settlement called vicus Saravus west of Saarbrücken's Halberg hill,[12] on the roads from Metz to Worms and from Trier to Strasbourg.[9] Since the 1st or 2nd century AD,[9] a wooden bridge, later upgraded to stone,[8] connected vicus Saravus with the south-western bank of the Saar, today's St Arnual, where at least one Roman villa was located.[13] In the 3rd century AD, a Mithras shrine was built in a cave in Halberg hill, on the eastern bank of the Saar river, next to today's old "Osthafen" harbor,[14] and a small Roman camp was constructed at the foot of Halberg hill[12] next to the river.[11]

Toward the end of the 4th century, the Alemanni destroyed the castra and vicus Saravus, removing permanent human presence from the Saarbrücken area for almost a century.[9]

Middle Ages to 18th century

The Saar area came under the control of the Franks towards the end of the 5th century. In the 6th century, the Merovingians gave the village Merkingen, which had formed on the ruins of the villa on the south-western end of the (in those times still usable) Roman bridge, to the Bishopric of Metz. Between 601 and 609, Bishop Arnual founded a community of clerics, a Stift, there. Centuries later the Stift, and in 1046 Merkingen, took on his name, giving birth to St Arnual.[9]

The oldest documentary reference to Saarbrücken is a deed of donation from 999, which documents that Emperor Otto III gave the "castellum Sarabrucca" (Saarbrücken castle) to the Bishops of Metz. The Bishops gave the area to the Counts of Saargau as a fief.[9] By 1120, the county of Saarbrücken had been formed and a small settlement around the castle developed. In 1168, Emperor Barbarossa ordered the slighting of Saarbrücken because of a feud with Count Simon I. The damage cannot have been grave, as the castle continued to exist.[15]

In 1321/1322[8] Count Johann I of Saarbrücken-Commercy gave city status to the settlement of Saarbrücken and the fishing village of St Johann on the opposite bank of the Saar, introducing a joint administration and emancipating the inhabitants from serfdom.[10]

From 1381 to 1793 the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken were the main local rulers. In 1549, Emperor Charles V prompted the construction of the Alte Brücke (old bridge) connecting Saarbrücken and St Johann. At the beginning of the 17th century, Count Ludwig II ordered the construction of a new Renaissance-style castle on the site of the old castle, and founded Saarbrücken's oldest secondary school, the Ludwigsgymnasium. During the Thirty Years' War, the population of Saarbrücken was reduced to just 70 by 1637, down from 4500 in 1628. During the Franco-Dutch War, King Louis XIV's troops burned down Saarbrücken in 1677, almost completely destroying the city such that just 8 houses remained standing.[10] The area was incorporated into France for the first time in the 1680s. In 1697 France was forced to relinquish the Saar province, but from 1793 to 1815 regained control of the region.

Saarbruecken-Ludwigskirche
The Ludwigskirche (Ludwig Church)

During the reign of Prince William Henry from 1741 to 1768, the coal mines were nationalized and his policies created a proto-industrialized economy, laying the foundation for Saarland's later highly industrialized economy. Saarbrücken was booming, and Prince William Henry spent on building and on infrastructure like the Saarkran river crane (1761), far beyond his financial means. However, the famous baroque architect Friedrich Joachim Stengel created not only the Saarkran, but many iconic buildings that still shape Saarbrücken's face today, like the Friedenskirche (Peace Church), which was finished in 1745, the Old City Hall (1750), the catholic St. John's Basilica (1754), and the famous Ludwigskirche (1775), Saarbrücken's landmark.[10]

19th century

Die Gartenlaube (1871) b 753
Lulustein in 1871, commemorating Prince Louis Bonaparte's first cannon shot

In 1793, Saarbrücken was captured by French revolutionary troops and in the treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville, the county of Saarbrücken was ceded to France.[10]

After 1815 Saarbrücken became part of the Prussian Rhine Province. The office of mayor Saarbrücken administrated the urban municipalities Saarbrücken and St Johann, and the rural municipalities Malstatt, Burbach, Brebach, and Rußhütte. The coal and iron resources of the region were developed: in 1852, a railway connecting the Palatine Ludwig Railway with the French Eastern Railway was constructed, the Burbach ironworks started production in 1856, beginning in 1860 the Saar up to Ensdorf was channeled, and Saarbrücken was connected to the French canal network.[10]

At the start of the Franco-Prussian War, Saarbrücken was the first target of the French invasion force which drove off the Prussian vanguard and occupied Alt-Saarbrücken on 2 August 1870. Oral tradition has it that 14-year-old French Prince Napoléon Eugène Louis Bonaparte fired his first cannon in this battle, an event commemorated by the Lulustein memorial in Alt-Saarbrücken. On 4 August 1870 the French left Saarbrücken, driven away towards Metz in the Battle of Spicheren on 6 August 1870.

20th century

In 1909 the cities of Saarbrücken, St Johann und Malstatt-Burbach merged and formed the major city of Saarbrücken with a population of over 100,000.

During World War I, factories and railways in Saarbrücken were bombed. The Royal Naval Air Service raided Saarbrücken with 11 DH4s on October 17, 1917, and a week later with 9 HP11s.[16] The Royal Flying Corps raided Saarbrücken's railway station with 5 DH9s on July 31, 1918, on which occasion one DH9 crashed near the town centre.[17]

Saarbrücken became capital of the Saar territory established in 1920. Under the Treaty of Versailles (1919), the Saar coal mines were made the exclusive property of France for a period of 15 years as compensation for the destruction of French mines during the First World War. The treaty also provided for a plebiscite, at the end of the 15-year period, to determine the territory's future status, and in 1935 more than 90% of the electorate voted for reunification with Germany, while only 0.8% voted for unification with France. The remainder wanted to rejoin Germany but not while the Nazis were in power. This "status quo" group voted for maintenance of the League of Nations' administration. In 1935, the Saar territory rejoined Germany and formed a district under the name Saarland.

World War II

Saarbrücken was heavily bombed in World War II.[18] In total 1,234 people (1.1 percent of the population) in Saarbrücken were killed in bombing raids 1942-45.[19] 11,000 homes were destroyed and 75 percent of the city left in ruins.

The Royal Air Force raided Saarbrücken at least 10 times. Often employing area bombing, the Royal Air Force used total of at least 1495 planes to attack Saarbrücken, killing a minimum of 635 people and heavily damaging more than 8400 buildings, of which more than 7700 were completely destroyed, thus dehousing more than 50,000 people.[18] The first major raid on Saarbrücken was done by 291 aircraft of the Royal Air Force on July 29, 1942, targeting industrial facilities. Losing 9 aircraft, the bombers destroyed almost 400 buildings, damaging more than 300 others, and killed more than 150 people.[20] On August 28, 1942, 113 Royal Air Force planes raided Saarbrücken doing comparably little damage due to widely scattered bombing.[20] After the Royal Air Force mistakenly bombed Saarlouis instead of Saarbrücken on September 1, 1942, it raided Saarbrücken with 118 planes on September 19, 1942, causing comparably little damage as the bombing scattered to the west of Saarbrücken due to ground haze.[20] There were small raids with 28 Mosquitos[20] on April 30, 1944, with 33 Mosquitos[20] on June 29, 1944, and with just 2 Mosquitos[20] on July 26, 1944. At the request of the American Third Army, the Royal Air Force massively raided Saarbrücken on October 5, 1944, in order to destroy supply lines, especially the railway. The 531 Lancasters and 20 Mosquitos achieved these goals, but lost 3 Lancasters and destroyed large parts of Malstatt and nearly all of Alt-Saarbrücken.[20] From January 13 to January 14, the Royal Air Force raided Saarbrücken three times, targeting the railway yard. The attacks with 158, 274, and 134 planes, respectively, were very effective.[20]

The 8th US Air Force raided Saarbrücken at least 16 times, from October 4, 1943, to November 9, 1944. Targeting mostly the marshalling yards, a total of at least 2387 planes of the 8th. USAF killed a minimum of 543 people and heavily damaged more than 4400 buildings, of which more than 700 were completely destroyed, thus depriving more than 2300 people of shelter.[18] Donald J. Gott and William E. Metzger, Jr. were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during the bombing run on November 9, 1944.

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-020-24, Westwall, eingebautes MG
Machine-gun emplacement of a bunker. Saarbrücken, 1940.
M24 Chaffee at Spicheren pic01
M24, donated by veterans of the 70th US-Infantry, facing ruins of fortifications at Spicheren Heights

On the ground, Saarbrücken was defended by the 347th Infantry Division commanded by Wolf-Günther Trierenberg in 1945.[21] The US 70th Infantry Division was tasked with punching through the Siegfried Line and taking Saarbrücken. As the fortifications were unusually strong, it first had to take the Siegfried Line fortifications on the French heights near Spicheren overlooking Saarbrücken. This Spichern-Stellung had been constructed in 1940 after the French had fallen back on the Maginot Line during the Phoney War. The 276th Infantry Regiment attacked Forbach on February 19, 1945, and a fierce battle ensued, halting the American advance at the rail-road tracks cutting through Forbach on February 22, 1945.[22] The 274th and 275th Infantry Regiments took Spicheren on February 20, 1945.[22] When the 274th Infantry Regiment captured the Spicheren Heights[22] on February 23, 1945, after a heavy battle on the previous day, the Germans counter-attacked for days, but by February 27, 1945, the heights were fully under American control.[23] A renewed attack on March 3, 1945, allowed units of the 70th Infantry Division to enter Stiring-Wendel and the remainder of Forbach. By March 5, 1945, all of Forbach and major parts of Stiring-Wendel had been taken. However, fighting for Stiring-Wendel, especially for the Simon mine, continued for days.[22] After the German defenders of Stiring-Wendel fell back to Saarbrücken on March 12 and 13, 1945,[24] the 70th Infantry Division still faced a strong segment of the Siegfried Line, which had been reinforced[25] around Saarbrücken as late as 1940. After having the German troops south of the Saar fall back across the Saar at night, the German defenders of Saarbrücken retreated early on March 20, 1945. The 70th Infantry Division flanked Saarbrücken by crossing the Saar north-west of Saarbrücken. The 274th Infantry Regiment entered Saarbrücken on March 20, 1945, fully occupying it the following day, thus ending the war for Saarbrücken.[24]

After World War II

In 1945, Saarbrücken temporarily became part of the French Zone of Occupation. In 1947, France created the nominally politically independent Saar Protectorate and merged it economically with France in order to exploit the area's vast coal reserves. Saarbrücken became capital of the new Saar state. A referendum in 1955 came out with over two thirds of the voters rejecting an independent Saar state. The area rejoined the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 January 1957, sometimes called Kleine Wiedervereinigung (little reunification). Economic reintegration would, however, take many more years. Saarbrücken became capital of the Bundesland (federal state) Saarland. After the administrative reform of 1974, the city had a population of more than 200,000.

20111230Saarkran Saarbruecken07
Saarkran, reconstructed next to William-Henry-Bridge in 1991

From 1990 to 1993, students and an arts professor from the town first secretly, then officially, created an invisible memorial to Jewish cemeteries. It is located on the fore-court of the Saarbrücken Castle.

On March 9, 1999 at 4:40am, there was a bomb attack on the controversial Wehrmachtsausstellung exhibition next to Saarbrücken Castle, resulting in minor damage to the Volkshochschule building housing the exhibition and the adjoining Schlosskirche church; this attack did not cause any injuries.[26]

Geography

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[27]

Region

Some of the closest cities are Trier, Luxembourg, Nancy, Metz, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Saarbrücken is connected by the city's public transport network to the town of Sarreguemines in France, and to the neighboring town of Völklingen, where the old steel works were the first industrial monument to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994 — the Völklinger Hütte.

Demographics

Largest groups of foreign residents[31]
Country of birth Population (2014)
 Italy 3,851
 France 2,292
 Turkey 2,245
 Romania 1,555
 Poland 1,000

Infrastructure

The city is served by Saarbrücken Airport (SCN), and since June 2007 ICE high speed train services along the LGV Est line provide high speed connections to Paris from Saarbrücken Hauptbahnhof. Saarbrücken's Saarbahn (modelled on the Karlsruhe model light rail) crosses the French–German border, connecting to the French city of Sarreguemines.

Science and Education

Saarbrücken is also the home of the main campus of Saarland University (Universität des Saarlandes). Co-located with the University are several research centres including:

The Saarland University also has a Centre Juridique Franco-Allemand, offering a French and a German law degree program.

The Botanischer Garten der Universität des Saarlandes (a botanical garden) was closed in 2016 due to budget cuts.

The main campus of the Saarland University also houses the office of the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik computer science research and meeting center.

Furthermore, Saarbrücken houses the administration of the Franco-German University (Deutsch-Französische Hochschule), a French-German cooperation of 180 institutions of tertiary education mainly from France and Germany but also from Bulgaria, Canada, Spain, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Great Britain, Russia and Switzerland, which offers bi-national French-German degree programs and doctorates as well as tri-national degree programs.

Saarbrücken houses several other institutions of tertiary education as well:

  • the University of Applied Sciences Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes,
  • the University of Arts Hochschule der Bildenden Künste Saar,
  • the University of Music Hochschule für Musik Saar, and
  • the private Fachhochschule for health promotion and physical fitness Deutsche Hochschule für Prävention und Gesundheitsmanagement
  • The [(Höhere Berufsfachschule für Wirtschaftsinformatik]] (HBFS-WI) providing higher vocational education and awarding the degree "Staatlich geprüfte(r) Wirtschaftsinformatiker(in)" (English: "state-examined business data processing specialist")

Saarbrücken also houses a Volkshochschule.

With the end of coal mining in the Saar region, Saarbrücken's Fachhochschule for mining, the Fachhochschule für Bergbau Saar, was closed at the beginning of the 21st century. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier's Katholische Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit, a Fachhochschule for social work, was closed in 2008 for cost cutting reasons. The Saarland's Fachhochschule for administrative personnel working for the government, the Fachhochschule für Verwaltung des Saarlandes, was moved from Saarbrücken to Göttelborn in 2012.

Saarbrücken houses several institutions of primary and secondary education. Notable is the Saarland's oldest grammar school, the Ludwigsgymnasium, which was founded in 1604 as a latin school. The building of Saarbrücken's bi-lingual French-German Deutsch-Französisches Gymnasium, founded in 1961 and operating as a laboratory school under the Élysée Treaty, also houses the École française de Sarrebruck et Dilling, a French primary school which offers bi-lingual German elements. Together with several Kindergartens offering bi-lingual French-German education, Saarbrücken thus offers a full bi-lingual French-German formal education.

Sport

The city is home to several different teams, most notable of which is association football team based at the Ludwigsparkstadion, 1. FC Saarbrücken, which also has a reserve team and a women's section. In the past a top-flight team, twice the country's vice-champions, and participant in European competitions, the club draws supporters from across the region.

Lower league SV Saar 05 Saarbrücken is the other football team in the city.

The Saarland Hurricanes are one of the top American football teams in the country, with its junior team winning the German Junior Bowl in 2013.

Various sporting events are held at the Saarlandhalle, most notable of which was the badminton Bitburger Open Grand Prix Gold, part of the BWF Grand Prix Gold and Grand Prix tournaments, held in 2013 and 2012.

International relations

Tbilisser-platz-saarbruecken
Tbilisser Platz, Saarbrücken named after Tbilisi, Georgia

Saarbrücken is a fellow member of the QuattroPole union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Metz, and Trier (formed by cities from three neighbouring countries: Germany, Luxembourg and France).

Twin towns – Sister cities

Saarbrücken is twinned with:

Saarbrücken has a Städtefreundschaft (city friendship) with:

Some boroughs of Saarbrücken are also twinned:

Borough Twinned with
Dudweiler
Altenkessel

Notable people

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F046120-0035, Peter Altmeier
Peter Altmeier
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F008145-0002, Gerhard Schröder (cropped)
Gerhard Schröder in 1980

Honorary citizens

Gallery

Friedenskirche03

Friedenskirche, seen from Ludwigsplatz

SaarbrückenStJohann1

St. John's Basilica

Saarbrucken saar 0126

The Wilhelm-Heinrich-Bridge with the reconstructed Saarkran river crane

Saarbruecken-alte-brucke2

The Alte Brücke (Old Bridge)

Saarbruecken-StaatsTheater

The Staatstheater (theatre)

Saarbahn johanniskirche

The Saarbahn tramway

Saarbruecken-campus

The campus of the Saarland University

DFKI 2

The Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence

Saarbrücken Hbf 001

The central station

Saarbrücken Hafenstraße

Saarbrücken, Harbour Road

References

Notes
  1. ^ https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Aktuell/05Staedte.html.
  2. ^ "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Euro District Saar-Moselle". saarmoselle.org.
  4. ^ "Fläche, Bevölkerung in den Gemeinden am 30.06.2017 nach Geschlecht, Einwohner je km 2 und Anteil an der Gesamtbevölkerung (Basis Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Saarland.de.
  5. ^ "Fläche und Bevölkerung - Stand: 31.12.2017 (Basis Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Statistisches Amt des Saarlandes (in German). September 2018.
  6. ^ http://www.saarbruecken.de/fr
  7. ^ a b Dr. Andreas Neumann. "Saarbrücken hat nichts mit Brücken zu tun?" (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  8. ^ a b c Krebs, Gerhild; Hudemann, Rainer; Marcus Hahn (2009). "Brücken an der mittleren Saar und ihren Nebenflüssen [Bridges in the middle Saar and its tributaries]". Stätten grenzüberschreitender Erinnerung – Spuren der Vernetzung des Saar-Lor-Lux-Raumes im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert [Places of transnational memory - traces of crosslinking of the Saar-Lor-Lux area in the 19th and 20th centuries] (in German) (3rd ed.). Saarbrücken: Johannes Großmann. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Sander, Eckart (1999), "Meine Geburt war das erste meiner Mißgeschicke", Stadtluft macht frei (in German), Stadtverband Saarbrücken, Pressereferat, pp. 8–9, ISBN 3-923405-10-3
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Chronik von Saarbrücken" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Archived from the original on 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
  11. ^ a b "Das Römerkastell in Saarbrücken" (in German). Interessengemeinschaft Warndt und Rosseltalbahn (IGWRB) e. V. Archived from the original on 2013-02-13. Retrieved 2012-04-04. External link in |publisher= (help)
  12. ^ a b "Röerkastell in Saarbrücken". Saarlandbilder (in German). Andreas Rockstein. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  13. ^ Jan Selmer (2005). "Ausgrabungen im Kreuzgangbereich des ehem. Stiftes St. Arnual, Saarbrücken 1996–2004" (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  14. ^ "Mithras-Heiligtum Saarbrücken" (in German). Tourismus Zentrale Saarland GmbH. Archived from the original on 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
  15. ^ Behringer, Wolfgang; Clemens, Gabriele (20 July 2011). "Hochmittelalterlicher Landesausbau". Geschichte des Saarlandes [History of the Saarland] (in German). München: C.H.Beck. p. 21. ISBN 978-3-406-62520-6. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  16. ^ "Development of the Strategic Bomber". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 2006-03-13. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  17. ^ "No. 99 Squadron". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 2006-03-13. Archived from the original on 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  18. ^ a b c Klaus Zimmer (2012-07-27). "air raids". The results of the air war 1939–1945 in the Saarland. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
  19. ^ After the Battle Magazine, Issue 170, November 2015, page 34
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h "Campaign Diary". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. 2006-03-13. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
    1942: July, August, September,
    1944: April, June, July, October,
    1945: January
  21. ^ After the Battle Magazine, Issue 170, November 2015, page 36
  22. ^ a b c d 70th Regional Readiness Command (2004-11-10). "Abbreviated History of the 70th Infantry Division" (PDF). taken from "The 50th Anniversary program book of the 70th Division (Training)". Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  23. ^ Charlie Pence (2013-02-01). "The Battle for Spicheren Heights". taken from "Trailblazer" magazine, Fall 1997, pp. 10–12. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  24. ^ a b Headquarters 274th Infantry – APO 461 US Army. "Period from 1 Mar 1945 to 31 Mar 1945". Narrative Report of Operations. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  25. ^ "Die Höckerlinie in St. Arnual". Operation Linsenspalter- Der Westwall im Saarland (in German). 2005-05-15. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  26. ^ Karl-Otto Sattler (1999-03-10). "Sprengstoffanschlag auf Wehrmachtsausstellung". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  27. ^ Climate Summary for Saarbrücken from Weatherbase.com
  28. ^ "Klima Deutschland, Saarbrücken". Retrieved June 22, 2014.
  29. ^ "Sonnenscheindauer: langjährige Mittelwerte 1981 - 2010". Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
  30. ^ "Weather Information for Saarbruecken". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  31. ^ Waespi-Oeß, Rainer. "Die Bevölkerung Saarbrückens im Jahr 2013". Amt für Entwicklungsplanung, Statistik und Wahlen. Retrieved 2015-09-01.
  32. ^ "Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research : About HIPS". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  33. ^ "Intel Visual Computing Institute: Bridging Real and Virtual Worlds". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  34. ^ "About CISPA | CISPA". Archived from the original on 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  35. ^ a b c "Town Twinnings". Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  36. ^ "Our twin cities – Cottbus". http://www.cottbus.de/. Retrieved 2013-06-24. External link in |publisher= (help)
  37. ^ "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall. Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05. External link in |work= (help)
  38. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  39. ^ Tauchert, Wolfgang. "Saarbrücken – Diriamba". Saarland:Parnterschaftsprojekte (in German). Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  40. ^ "Tzvi Avni Saarbrücker Ehrenbürger" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  41. ^ "Neuer Ehrenbürger Max Braun" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
Non-English Wikipedia links
  1. ^ a b Saarbrücken#Stadtname (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013
  2. ^ Dudweiler#Partnerschaften/Patenschaft (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013
  3. ^ Duttweiler (Neustadt)#Politik (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013
  4. ^ a b Saarbrücken#Städtepartnerschaften (in German), Retrieved June 11, 2013

External links

1. FC Saarbrücken

1. FC Saarbrücken (German: 1. Fußball-Club Saarbrücken e. V.) is a football club based in Saarbrücken, Saarland. The club play in the Regionalliga Südwest, which is the fourth tier of football in the country. The club began its existence as the football department of Turnverein Malstatt formed in 1903. That department split off in 1907 to form the independent football club FV Malstatt-Burbach and on 1 April 1909 was renamed FV Saarbrücken.

1. FC Saarbrücken (women)

1. FC Saarbrücken (women) is women's association football team from Saarbrücken, Germany. It is part of the 1. FC Saarbrücken club.

Bundesautobahn 620

Bundesautobahn 620 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 620, short form Autobahn 620, abbreviated as BAB 620 or A 620) is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Saarlouis with Saarbrücken. Together with the BAB8, it serves as part of the connection between Luxembourg and Germany. As the major part of the BAB 620 is alongside the river Saar, one section in Saarbrücken, the so-called "Stadtautobahn" is subject to flooding several times a year. As a joke, locals call it "Bundesschifffahrtsstrasse" (Federal water lane) and "Nebenfluss der Saar mit 13 Buchstaben" (tributary of the Saar with 13 letters) because of that. A tunnel is being discussed to circumvent that problem.

Bundesautobahn 623

Bundesautobahn 623 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 623, short form Autobahn 623, abbreviated as BAB 623 or A 623) is an autobahn in Germany.

The A 623 is a spur connecting the A 8 to Saarbrücken. As with the A 1 to the west, the A 623 does not enter the inner city. Connections to arteries into Saarbrücken are made at the final two junctions. Junction 7 offers a connection to the Camphauser Straße expressway, which leads to the B 268 and the B 51. The road also continues past junction 8 into Saarbrücken, but as the B 41. The section of B 41 immediately after junction 8, about 1.2 km, is a short Kraftfahrstrasse (expressway).

The entirety of the A 623 was once part of the B 41. When the road was designated as an autobahn, the B 41 designation remained. The concurrency is indicated on all distance signs along the A 623, a rarity for German roads. The concurrency continues a further three junctions to the east along the A 8.

There is no junction 6 along the A 623. This was to be the connection point with a proposed alignment of the A 1 into Saarbrücken. The planned route of the A 1 would have diverged from a location near that road's present-day junction 148 (Saarbrücken-Von der Heydt), then connecting with the A 623, continuing down the Camphauser Straße expressway, through Saarbrücken, and across the Westspange bridge to end at the A 620. For the same reason, the A 1 has no junction 149.

Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken

Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (12 August 1704 – 25 March 1774) was Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken by marriage.

County of Nassau-Saarbrücken

The County of Saarbrücken was an Imperial State in the Upper Lorraine region, with its capital at Saarbrücken. From 1381 it belonged to the Walram branch of the Rhenish House of Nassau.

Dzsenifer Marozsán

Dzsenifer Marozsán (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒɛnifɛr ˈmɒroʒaːn]; born 18 April 1992) is a footballer who plays professionally for Olympique Lyon in France and captains the German national team. She previously played for 1. FC Saarbrücken and 1. FFC Frankfurt in Germany's Frauen Bundesliga.

Born in Hungary, she plays for Germany at the international level.At the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Marozsán led unified Germany to its first-ever Olympic gold medal in football, four decades after the East German men won in 1976. In 2015, her cross to Mandy Islacker in stoppage time resulted in a UEFA Women's Champions League win for 1. FFC Frankfurt. She scored the game-winning goal during the UEFA Women's Euro 2013 semifinal against Sweden ultimately helping Germany win the title.

Fedor Holz

Fedor Holz (born 25 July 1993) is a German professional poker player from Saarbrücken who focuses on high roller tournaments. He was ranked by Pocketfives as best online MTT player in 2014 and 2015. In July 2016, he won his first World Series of Poker bracelet in the $111,111 High Roller For One Drop, winning $4,981,775.

Ludwigsparkstadion

Ludwigsparkstadion is a multi-purpose stadium in Saarbrücken, Germany. It was built in 1953 and holds 35,303 people. After renovation from 2016 to 2017 which costs about € 16 million, the capacity is reduced to around 16,000 seats.It is currently used mostly for football matches and concerts.

It served as the home ground for the Saarland national football team, which existed 1950–56, during the era of the Saar Protectorate.

Michael Preetz

Michael Preetz (born 17 August 1967) is a retired German footballer who played as a forward. He spent his whole career in Germany, playing for Fortuna Düsseldorf, 1. FC Saarbrücken, MSV Duisburg and SG Wattenscheid 09, but he is mostly remembered for his seven-year spell at Hertha BSC where he ended his career. After retiring from active play, he stayed with the club, going directly into management.

Nahe Valley Railway

The Nahe Valley Railway (German: Nahetalbahn) is a two-track, partially electrified main line railway in the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, which runs for almost 100 kilometres along the Nahe. It was built by the Rhine-Nahe Railway Company and connects Bingen am Rhein on the Left Rhine line with Saarbrücken. It was opened between 1858 and 1860 and is one of the oldest railways in Germany. The section south of Bad Kreuznach is part of the regionally important transport corridor between the two major cities of Mainz and Saarbrücken.

Nassau-Usingen

Nassau-Usingen was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Upper Rhenish Circle that became a principality in 1688.

The origin of the county lies in the medieval county of Weilnau that was acquired by the counts of Nassau-Weilburg in 1602.

That county was divided in 1629 into the lines of Nassau-Weilburg, Nassau-Idstein and Nassau-Saarbrücken that was divided only 30 years later in 1659.

The emerging counties were Nassau-Saarbrücken, Nassau-Ottweiler and Nassau-Usingen. At the beginning of the 18th century, 3 of the Nassau lines died out and Nassau-Usingen became their successor (1721 Nassau-Idstein, 1723 Nassau-Ottweiler und 1728 Nassau-Saarbrücken).

In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken.

On July 17, 1806, the counties of Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Under pressure from Napoleon both counties merged to become the Duchy of Nassau on August 30, 1806, under joint rule of Prince Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen and his younger cousin Prince Frederick William of Nassau-Weilburg. As Frederick August had no heirs, he agreed that Frederick William should become sole ruler after his death. However, Frederick William died from a fall on the stairs at Schloss Weilburg on 9 January 1816, and it was his son William who became duke of a unified Nassau.

The title has been carried in pretense by Prince Frederick August's half-brother Karl Philip's line.

SV Saar 05 Saarbrücken

SV Saar 05 Saarbrücken is a German sports association based in Saarbrücken, Saarland. The largest club in the state, it is best known for its athletics department, and also fields an association football team.

Saarbahn

The Saarbahn is a regional Stadtbahn operating on the tram-train principle in the German state of the Saarland. It consists of a core line in Saarbrücken and Riegelsberg operating under tram operating procedures (BOStrab), connected to two lines that are operated under railway operating procedures (EBO), the Lebach–Völklingen railway to the north and the Saarbrücken–Sarreguemines railway in the south. Stadtbahn Saar GmbH is responsible for the infrastructure of the central section of line, while the outer tracks are operated by the national railway infrastructure companies, DB Netz AG in Germany and Réseau Ferré de France in France. Saarbahn GmbH is the train operating company for the whole system.

The route of the new line of the Saarbahn that was opened in central Saarbrücken in 1997 is essentially line 5 of the Saarbrücken tramway, which was closed in 1965. This line ran between Rastpfuhl and Schafbrücke and was the last line of the old metre-gauge network.

As of 2015, the current network operates on 44.0 kilometres (27.3 mi) of route, and serves 43 stations.

Saarbrücken Airport

Saarbrücken Airport (IATA: SCN, ICAO: EDDR), or Flughafen Saarbrücken or Ensheim Airport in German, is a minor international airport in Saarbrücken, the capital of the German state of Saarland. It features flights to major cities throughout Germany as well as some leisure routes.

Saarbrücken Hauptbahnhof

Saarbrücken Hauptbahnhof or Saarbrücken Central Station also called Eurobahnhof Saarbrucken, is the principal railway station in the German city of Saarbrücken and the largest station in the Saarland, a German state on the border with France. Around 10 million passengers use the station annually. The station is operated by DB Station&Service as a category 2 station, served by regional and long-distance trains.

Saarland University

Saarland University (German: Universität des Saarlandes) is a modern research university located in Saarbrücken, the capital of the German state of Saarland. It was founded in 1948 in Homburg in co-operation with France and is organized in six faculties that cover all major fields of science. The university is particularly well known for research and education in computer science, computational linguistics and materials science, consistently ranking among the top in the country in those fields. In 2007, the university was recognized as an excellence center for computer science in Germany.

Thanks to bilingual German and French staff, the University has an international profile, which has been underlined by its proclamation as "European University" in 1950 and by establishment of Europa-Institut as its "crown and symbol" in 1951.

Nine academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at Saarland University.

Slobodan Čendić

Slobodan Ćendić (Kragujevac, 28 August 1938) is a former Yugoslavian/Serbian football manager resident in Germany since 1970.

He was among others the manager of FC Schalke 04, 1. FC Saarbrücken, Alemannia Aachen, and Hannover 96.

Theater Saarbrücken

Theater Saarbrücken, officially Saarländisches Staatstheater is the state theatre of Saarland in its capital Saarbrücken, Germany. It has several division (opera, drama, dance, concert) and offers annually around 30 new productions in around 700 events for more than 200,000 people. Its venues are Großes Haus (Great House), Alte Feuerwache, Congresshalle and sparte4.

Climate data for Saarbrücken
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.6
(40.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.7
(54.9)
19.2
(66.6)
20.2
(68.4)
25.0
(77.0)
25.7
(78.3)
19.8
(67.6)
13.5
(56.3)
7.1
(44.8)
3.6
(38.5)
12.8
(55.0)
Average low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
1.1
(34.0)
3.9
(39.0)
7.8
(46.0)
10.8
(51.4)
12.5
(54.5)
12.4
(54.3)
9.8
(49.6)
6.2
(43.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69
(2.7)
59
(2.3)
66
(2.6)
60
(2.4)
81
(3.2)
83
(3.3)
72
(2.8)
73
(2.9)
62
(2.4)
71
(2.8)
84
(3.3)
83
(3.3)
863
(34.0)
Average precipitation days 13 10 12 11 12 11 9 10 9 10 12 12 130
Average rainy days 12.2 9.8 11.3 10.0 11.0 11.3 9.3 8.5 9.4 11.2 11.7 12.7 128.4
Average relative humidity (%) 88 83 77 71 71 72 70 73 78 84 87 88 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 77 119 171 201 214 234 212 153 100 48 34 1,607
Source #1: Wetterkontor [28]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst [29] World Weather Information Service [30]
Capitals of area states
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Capitals of former states
Cities in Germany by population
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500,000+
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100,000+
Towns and municipalities in Saarbrücken (district)

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