Saad Hariri

Saad El-Din Rafik Al-Hariri[5] (Arabic: سعد الدين رفيق الحريري‎; born 18 April 1970) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Prime Minister of Lebanon since December 2016.[6] He was also the Prime Minister from November 2009 to June 2011. He is the second son of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, who was assassinated in 2005. Hariri has also been the leader of the Future Movement party since 2005. He is seen as "the strongest figurehead" of the March 14 Alliance.[7] After three years living overseas, he returned to Lebanon on 8 August 2014[6][8][9] and was designated Prime Minister on 3 November 2016. Hariri's surprise announcement of an intent to resign, broadcast on 4 November 2017 on Saudi state TV, has widely been seen as part of the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict in Lebanon,[10] and triggered a dispute between Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. The resignation was later suspended, following President Michel Aoun's request to "put it on hold ahead of further consultations". Hariri rescinded his resignation on 5 December.

Saad Al Hariri
سعد الحريري
President of Russia Vladimir Putin & Prime Minister Lebanon Saad Hariri in Sochi, 13 September 2017 (3) (Cropped)
33rd Prime Minister of Lebanon
Assumed office
18 December 2016
PresidentMichel Aoun
DeputyGhassan Hasbani
Preceded byTammam Salam
In office
9 November 2009 – 13 June 2011
PresidentMichel Suleiman
DeputyElias Murr
Preceded byFouad Siniora
Succeeded byNajib Mikati
Member of Parliament
Assumed office
28 June 2005
Preceded byRafic Hariri
ConstituencyBeirut
Leader of the Future Movement Party
Assumed office
20 April 2005
Preceded byRafic Hariri
Personal details
Born18 April 1970 (age 48)
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
CitizenshipLebanese[1][2][3]
Saudi[1][2][3]
French[4]
Political partyFuture Movement
Other political
affiliations
March 14 Alliance
Spouse(s)Lara Al Azem (m. 1998)
Children
  • Houssam
  • Loulwa
  • Abdulaziz
FatherRafic Hariri
ResidenceBeirut, Lebanon
Alma materGeorgetown University
WebsiteOfficial website
Official Facebook
Official Twitter

Early years

Saad Hariri was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia[11][12] on 18 April 1970, and is the son of Rafic Hariri and his first wife Nidal Bustani, an Iraqi.[13] In addition to his native Arabic, Hariri speaks English and French. He graduated in 1992 from the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University with a major in business administration.[14] He then returned to Saudi Arabia where he managed part of his father's business in Riyadh until his father's assassination in 2005.

Business activities

Hariri in April 2009
Hariri in 2009

Prior to entering politics, Hariri was the chairman of the executive committee of Oger Telecom, which pursued telecommunication interests in the Middle East and Africa, from 1994 to 2005.[15] In addition, Hariri was the chairman of Omnia Holdings and a board member of Oger International Entreprise de Travaux Internationaux, Saudi Oger, Saudi Investment Bank, Saudi Research and Marketing Group and Lebanese television channel Future TV.[16]

Political career

On 20 April 2005, the Hariri family announced that Saad Hariri would lead the Future Movement, an essentially Sunni movement that was created and led by his late father.[13][17] He was the leader of the March 14 Alliance, a coalition of political groups born out of the Cedar Revolution which, through mass popular demonstrations and Western support, led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon in 2005 after a 29-year presence.

Premiership

Hariri was prime minister from 9 November 2009 until 13 June 2011.

Government collapse

On 12 January 2011, minutes after Hariri posed for pictures with President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, the opposition parties resigned from his unity government cabinet, causing its collapse. The withdrawal of Hezbollah and its allies was due to political tensions arising from investigations into the assassination of Rafic Hariri.[18] Hezbollah operatives had been accused of the assassination of Rafic Hariri.[18]

Hariri continued on for four months as caretaker Prime Minister. The new Lebanese government was formed on 13 June 2011 and headed by Najib Mikati. Mikati created an 8 March-led government coalition.[18]

Syrian arrest warrant

On 12 December 2012, Syria issued a warrant for the arrest of Hariri, Future bloc deputy Okab Sakr and Free Syrian Army official Louay Almokdad on charges of arming and providing financial support for Syrian opposition groups.[19] Hariri released a statement in response, describing Bashar Assad as a "monster".[19]

Second tenure

Following more than two years of deadlock in electing a president, Michel Aoun was elected. Shortly after, Aoun signed a decree appointing Hariri as prime minister for the second time[20] and he took office on 18 December 2016.[20]

Dispute with Saudi Arabia

On 4 November 2017, in a televised statement from Saudi Arabia, Hariri tendered his resignation from office, citing Iran’s and Hezbollah's political over-extension in the Middle East region and fears of assassination.[21][22] Iran vehemently rejected Saad Hariri's remarks and called his resignation part of a plot by the United States, Israel, and Saudi Arabia to heighten Middle Eastern tensions.[23] The Lebanese Army responded with a statement that intelligence in its possession in addition to ongoing arrests and investigations had not revealed “the presence of any plan for assassinations in the country.”[24]

Most Iran-leaning or Shia-aligned Lebanese groups, including Hezbollah, were among the first to accuse Saudi Arabia of holding Hariri hostage; Hariri's associates and Saudi officials subsequently denied this. Several Lebanese commentators poked fun at the released pictures of Hariri in Saudi Arabia for their apparent similarity to those taken of hostages. Anti-Hezbollah blogger Michael Young stated that he did not think Hariri was an actual hostage of the Saudi regime, but that the situation confirmed Hariri's close ties with them. However, Lebanese-American political scientist As'ad AbuKhalil claimed that the Saudis had jailed and physically restrained and assaulted Hariri before ordering him to broadcast his resignation.[25] In November, it was announced that Hariri was on his way from Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. Hariri's own party's media outlet reported that he would then move on to Bahrain and later back to Beirut, but both of these trips were subsequently cancelled and he was sent back to Riyadh.[26][27][28] Hariri's allies, who usually aligned with Saudi Arabia, then joined the other parties in their concern for Hariri's freedom being limited by Saudi Arabia. The majority of the Lebanese government requested his return.[29][30] On 11 November, Lebanese President Michel Aoun released the statement: "Lebanon does not accept its prime minister being in a situation at odds with international treaties and the standard rules in relations between states."[31]

Later in November, Hariri left for France to meet French President Emmanuel Macron. Macron specifically requested he take his wife and children along with him. He was able to make such a request due to Hariri's French citizenship.[4] Hariri declared in Beirut on 21 November that he had suspended his resignation. He stated that President Michel Aoun had asked him to "put it on hold ahead of further consultations".[32] He refused to talk about what happened in Saudi Arabia and claimed that events will remain undisclosed.[33] He rescinded his resignation on 5 December and stated that all members of the government had agreed to stay out of conflicts in Arab countries.[34]

Honours

In 2007, French President Jacques Chirac awarded Saad Hariri the Légion d'honneur.[16]

Personal life

2018 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony (2018-06-14) 39
Hariri with Vladimir Putin, Nikol Pashinyan and Shavkat Mirziyoyev at the FIFA World Cup in Russia, 14 June 2018

Saad Hariri born in 1970 in Riyadh is the second son of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri and his first wife Nidal Bustani, an Iraqi. He has an older brother Bahaa Hariri (born 1967) and another brother Houssam Hariri who died young in a traffic accident. After his parents divorced, his father married Nazik Hariri (née Audi) in 1976. Saad Hariri has two half-brothers and one half-sister from his father's second marriage: Ayman Hariri, (born 1978), Fahd Hariri, (born c. 1980/81) and Hind Hariri, a sister (born 1984).

Hariri holds multiple citizenships: Lebanese,[1][2][3] Saudi Arabian[1][2][3] and French.[4] He married Lara Al Azem in 1998, the daughter of Bashir Al Azem, an influential and wealthy Syrian construction magnate.[13] They have three children: Houssam (born 1999), Loulwa (born 2001), and Abdulaziz (born 2005).

Hariri lived in Paris from 2011 to 2014 for safety reasons, and returned to Lebanon on 8 August 2014.[7][35]

In 2011, he was said to have a net worth of $2 billion. As of May 2018, his net worth is estimated to be $1.36 billion.[36]

In 2018, Hariri's name was mentioned in legal papers filed in South Africa regarding a gift of US$15 million that he reportedly made to a South African swimwear model in 2013.[37]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Rola el Husseini (15 October 2012). Pax Syriana: Elite Politics in Postwar Lebanon. Syracuse University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-8156-3304-4. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Hubbard, Ben; Saad, Hwaida (22 November 2017). "Saad Hariri Steps Back From Resignation in Lebanon". Retrieved 1 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
  3. ^ a b c d CNN, Chandrika Narayan,. "Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri resigns". cnn.com. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Fisk, Robert. "Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri accepts exile in France as Saudi Arabia no longer feels like a home away from home". The independent. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  5. ^ "سعد الدين الحريري… رئيس شركة سعودي اوجيه المحدودة". Armsal.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Hariri Back in Lebanon for First Time in 3 Years His nephew's name is Sultan Al Shaikh". Lebanon News.Net. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Lebanon and Syria: Peering into the abyss". The Economist. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  8. ^ "News article". Al Hadath. Al Arabiya. 8 August 2014.
  9. ^ News presenter (8 August 2014). Prime Time News - 08/08/2014 (Video). MTVLebanonNews via YouTube. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  10. ^ Lebanon's Hariri visits UAE as home crisis escalates, Reuters, "[Saad Hariri's] resignation has thrust Lebanon back into the frontline of the regional rivalry that pits a mostly Sunni bloc led by Saudi Arabia and allied Gulf monarchies against Shi‘ite Iran and its allies."
  11. ^ "His Excellency Deputy Saadeddine Rafiq Hariri". Arab Decision.
  12. ^ "The world's billionaires 2008: #334 Saad Hariri". Forbes. 3 May 2008.
  13. ^ a b c Vloeberghs, Ward (July 2012). "The Hariri Political Dynasty after the Arab Spring". Mediterranean Politics. Taylor and Francis. 18 (2): 241–248. doi:10.1080/13629395.2012.694046. Pdf.
  14. ^ "Hind Hariri is world's youngest billionaire". The Daily Star. 11 March 2006.
  15. ^ "سعد الحريري" (in Arabic). Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  16. ^ a b Salihovic, Elnur (5 October 2015). Major Players in the Muslim Business World. Univedrsal Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 9781627340526.
  17. ^ Mallat, Chibli. Lebanon's Cedar Revolution An essay on non-violence and justice (PDF). Mallat. p. 122. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2012.
  18. ^ a b c Simon, Kevin (2012). "Hezbollah: Terror in Context". Olin College of Engineering. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  19. ^ a b Dakroub, Hussein (13 December 2012). "Hariri calls Assad 'monster,' rejects warrants". The Daily Star. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  20. ^ a b "New Cabinet in Lebanon vows to 'preserve stability'". Gulf News. Beirut. AFB. 19 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  21. ^ CNN, Chandrika Narayan,. "Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri resigns". CNN. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Lebanon's prime minister just resigned 'over plot to target his life'". The Independent. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  23. ^ "PressTV-Hariri resignation, US-Saudi-Zionist plot: Iran". Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  24. ^ "PressTV-Lebanon army: No assassination plots uncovered". Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  25. ^ AbuKhalil, As'ad (15 June 2018). "The Meaning of the Recent Lebanese Election (and How Hariri Suffered a Stinging Defeat)". consortiumnews.com. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  26. ^ Barnard, Anne (7 November 2017). "Where's Saad Hariri? Lebanon Wants to Know". Retrieved 1 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
  27. ^ Lebanon PM under house arrest in Saudi Arabia: pro-Hezbollah paper 7 November, Reuter
  28. ^ "Saad Hariri's resignation as Prime Minister of Lebanon is not all it seems". independent.co.uk. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  29. ^ CNN, Tamara Qiblawi, Angela Dewan and Schams Elwazer,. "Lebanese PM's allies believe Saudi Arabia is restricting his movement". CNN. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  30. ^ "Exclusive: Lebanon believes Saudi holds Hariri, demands his return". Reuters. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  31. ^ "Lebanese president presses Saudi to say why Hariri has not returned". Reuters. 11 November 2017.
  32. ^ "Saad Hariri: Lebanon PM 'suspends' resignation". BBC. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Hariri: What happened in Saudi stays in Saudi". Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  34. ^ "Lebanese prime minister Hariri rescinds his resignation". Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  35. ^ "Hassan Nasrallah answers Saad Hariri's speech: "Saad Hariri insulted his own father"". Iloubnan. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  36. ^ Saad Hariri profile - Forbes Retrieved April 2011.
  37. ^ Hancke, Hendrik (4 December 2018). "Model Sues Finance Minister for R1bn for Soured Relationship". City Press. Retrieved 4 December 2018.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Rafic Hariri
Leader of the Future Movement Party
2005–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Fouad Siniora
Prime Minister of Lebanon
2009–2011
Succeeded by
Najib Mikati
Preceded by
Tammam Salam
Prime Minister of Lebanon
2016–present
Incumbent
2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute

The 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute began when Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri abruptly announced his resignation while he was in Saudi Arabia on 4 November 2017. Shortly thereafter, the foreign relations between both countries and allied regional neighbors became increasingly strained. On 6 November, Saudi Arabia claimed Lebanon declared war between the two states, despite leaders of Lebanon stating otherwise. On 9 November, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates asked their citizens to leave Lebanon. The conflict is thought to be part of the larger Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict.

Lebanon's president and some Lebanese officials believe that Hariri's abrupt resignation was made under coercion by Saudis and have claimed that the Saudis have kept him hostage. Iran, Hezbollah and some analysts also believe that this was to create a pretext for war against Hezbollah. On 21 November, Hariri resigned in Beirut but he immediately suspended it, then he rescinded the resignation completely on 5 December.

2017 in Lebanon

The following lists events in the year 2017 in Lebanon.

Ali Qanso

Ali Khalil Qanso (Arabic: علي قانصوه‎) was a Lebanese politician who served as a minister for parliamentary affairs in the second cabinet of Saad Hariri. He was the president of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party and he served as minister of state in Najib Mikati government and previously minister of labor in the cabinet of Rafik Hariri.

Bahaa Hariri

Bahaa Hariri (Arabic: بهاء الحريري) (born 1966) is a Lebanese-Saudi billionaire. He is the eldest son of assassinated former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri from his father's first marriage with Nidal Bustani, an Iraqi. He is the brother of Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri. As of 2011 his wealth was estimated at $2.5 billion, making him the 459th richest person in the world. In the 2015 fiscal year, he donated over one million dollars to the Atlantic Council, an American think tank.

Charles Debbas

Charles Debbas (Arabic: شارل دباس‎) (16 April 1885 - 7 November 1935) was an Eastern Orthodox Lebanese political figure. He was the first President of Lebanon (before independence) and served from September 1, 1926 till January 2, 1934, under the French Mandate of Lebanon (known as Greater Lebanon). He also served as the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon from January 1934 to October 1934.

Fouad Siniora

Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Sinyora, Fouad Sanioura, Fouad Seniora, Fuad Siniora) (Arabic: فؤاد السنيورة‎, Fu'ād as-Sanyūrah) (born 22 November 1943) is a Lebanese politician, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he held from 19 July 2005 to 25 May 2008. He stepped down on 9 November 2009 in favor of Saad Hariri, the late Rafik Hariri's son. He is the leader of the parliamentary group of the Future Movement.

Habib Pacha Es-Saad

Habib Pacha El-Saad (1867–1942) was a Lebanese Maronite politician who was born in Ain Trez, Aley. He served as the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon from May 1922 to October 1923. Initially the 3rd Prime Minister of Lebanon from August 10, 1928 to May 9, 1929 he was named President under the French Mandate on January 30, 1934 and served in this capacity to January 20, 1936.

Hariri

Hariri is a surname and derivative of harir (Arabic for silk) which indicates a mercantile background at one point in that field.

HistoricAl-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122), Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk EmpireEgyptAbu Al-Izz Al-Hariri (1946–2014), Egyptian politician and member of parliamentIraqFawzi Hariri (born 1958), Iraqi Minister of Industry and Minerals (since 2006)

Franso Hariri (1937–2001), Iraqi politicianLebanonBahia Hariri, Lebanese politician; elected to the Lebanese Parliament for the city of Sidon; sister of Rafic Hariri.

Bahaa Hariri (born 1966), international Lebanese business tycoon; eldest son of Rafic Hariri.

Hind Hariri, daughter and youngest child of Rafic Hariri.

Nazik Hariri, widow of Rafic Hariri.

Rafic Hariri (1944–2005), Lebanese business tycoon and former Lebanese Prime Minister (1992–1998; 2000–2004); assassinated.

Saad Hariri (born 1970), Lebanese politician, business tycoon, Lebanese Prime Minister (2009–2011) and (2016-present); second son of Rafic Hariri.LibyaOmar El-Hariri (c. 1944–2015), Libyan politician, minister, leading figure of the National Transitional Council of LibyaSyriaLamia Al Hariri, Syrian diplomat

Wahbi al-Hariri (1914–1994), Syrian-American architect, artist and author

Ziad Hariri, Syrian Army chief of staff (1963)

Iraq–Lebanon relations

Iraqi-Lebanese relations have been close throughout history, both politically and culturally. Iraq and Lebanon have maintained diplomatic relations since 1943. Both countries have refused to recognize Israel and have recognized the State of Palestine.

During the regime of Saddam Hussein, the leader of the Ba'ath Party had strong relations with Bachir, and Amine Gemayel; relations grew even stronger when Iraqi officials verbally lashed out against Israel's actions in the 2006 War.

Lebanon's prime minister traveled to Baghdad on August 2008, which was the only third such visit by a top Arab leader since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003. Fuad Saniora called his one-day trip an opportunity to renew contact after more than a decade of chilly relations between Beirut and Baghdad. At a news conference alongside Saniora, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki said the two countries would sign several agreements soon, including one on Iraq exporting oil to Lebanon.Lebanon's parliamentary majority leader, Saad Hariri (also, of partial Iraqi origin), visited Iraq in July 2008, followed by Jordan's King Abdullah II, the first Arab head of state to fly to Baghdad since the 2003 war.Some figures in the Shiite political party and paramilitary group Hezbollah have close personal ties with the religious hierarchy in Najaf, and some Lebanese Shiites trace their family origins back to Iraq. Relations between Lebanon and Iraq soured in the mid-1990s after Iraqi agents killed a dissident in Beirut. But the two maintained embassies in each other's capitals even after the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.Both countries are members of the Arab League and the Group of 77.

Khalil al-Hibri

Khalil al-Hibri (Arabic: خليل الهبري‎) was a Lebanese politician and businessman.

Khayreddin al-Ahdab

Khayr al-Din al-Ahdab was a Lebanese politician. In 1937, al-Ahdab became the first Muslim Prime Minister of Lebanon. He served as prime minister for slightly more than one year, from January 5, 1937, to March 18, 1938. Before this, he published a pan-Arab newspaper. He was a Sunni Muslim.

Lebanese government of December 2016

On 18 December 2016, a new Cabinet was formed under Prime Minister Saad Hariri. There are 30 ministers in this cabinet.

Lebanese government of January 2019

On 31 January 2019, a new Lebanese government was formed, headed by Prime Minister Saad Hariri. The government took nine months to form, following extended negotiations with various political factions. It is a national unity cabinet, and is composed of 30 ministers.

It has the highest number of women in a Lebanese cabinet, as it has four, occupying various ministries.

List of Cabinets of Lebanon

The Council of Ministers of Lebanon, known informally as the Cabinet of Lebanon, is the chief executive body of the Republic of Lebanon.

List of Lebanese people in Saudi Arabia

The list includes:

Al-Waleed bin Talal: business magnate and investor. He is a member of the Saudi royal family.

Mona Al Solh: former wife Prince Talal and mother of Al-Waleed bin Talal.

Rafic Hariri: Lebanese-Saudi business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004.

Saad Hariri: Lebanese-Saudi billionaire who served as the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 2009 until 2011.

Bahaa Hariri, Lebanese-Saudi billionaire

List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon (officially titled President of the Council of Ministers) since the creation of the office in 1926.

March 14 Alliance

The March 14 Alliance (Arabic: تحالف 14 آذار‎, translit. taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian government stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance. It is led by Saad Hariri, second son of Rafic Hariri, as well as other prominent figures.

Nureddine Rifai

Nureddin Rifai (1899-1980) (نور الدين الرفاعي) was director of Lebanon's Internal Security Forces and the 25th Prime Minister of Lebanon.

Rifai was appointed to be Prime Minister by Suleiman Frangieh during Lebanon's short-lived military government. He served only three days before resigning his post in the face of tremendous protest.

Shafik Wazzan

Shafik Al-Wazzan (Arabic: شفيق الوزان‎, January 16, 1925 – July 8, 1999) was the 27th Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1980 until 1984. In December 1991, Wazzan was wounded when a car bomb exploded in the Beirut neighborhood of Basta Al Fouka (where he lived) as he was passing through in an armored car.

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