STS-31 was the 35th mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit. The mission used the Space Shuttle Discovery (the tenth for this orbiter), which lifted off from Launch Complex 39B on 24 April 1990 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
Discovery's crew deployed the telescope on 25 April, and spent the rest of the mission tending to various scientific experiments in the shuttle's payload bay and operating a set of IMAX cameras to record the mission. Discovery's launch marked the first time since January 1986 that two Space Shuttles had been on the launch pad at the same time – Discovery on 39B and Columbia on 39A.
Discovery deploys the Hubble Space Telescope
|Mission type||Satellite deployment|
|Mission duration||5 days, 1 hour, 16 minutes, 6 seconds|
|Distance travelled||3,328,466 kilometers (2,068,213 mi)|
|Spacecraft||Space Shuttle Discovery|
|Launch mass||117,586 kilograms (259,233 lb)|
|Landing mass||85,947 kilograms (189,481 lb)|
|Payload mass||11,878 kilograms (26,187 lb)|
|Members||Loren J. Shriver|
Charles F. Bolden, Jr.
Bruce McCandless II
Steven A. Hawley
Kathryn D. Sullivan
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||24 April 1990, 12:33:51 UTC|
|Launch site||Kennedy LC-39B|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||29 April 1990, 13:49:57 UTC|
|Landing site||Edwards Runway 22|
|Perigee||585 kilometres (364 mi)|
|Apogee||615 kilometres (382 mi)|
Left to right: Bolden, Hawley, Shriver, McCandless, Sullivan
|Commander||Loren J. Shriver|
|Pilot||Charles F. Bolden, Jr.|
|Mission Specialist 1||Bruce McCandless II|
Second and last spaceflight
|Mission Specialist 2||Steven A. Hawley|
|Mission Specialist 3||Kathryn D. Sullivan|
Seats 1–4 are on the Flight Deck. Seats 5–7 are on the Middeck.
Initially, this mission was to be flown in August 1986 as STS-61-J using Atlantis, but was postponed by the Challenger disaster. John Young was originally assigned to command this mission, which would have been his seventh spaceflight, but was reassigned to an administrative position and was replaced by Loren Shriver in 1988.
STS-31 was launched on 24 April 1990 at 8:33:51 am EDT. A launch attempt on 10 April was scrubbed at T-4 minutes for a faulty valve in auxiliary power unit (APU) number one. The APU was eventually replaced and the Hubble Space Telescope's batteries were recharged. On launch day, the countdown was briefly halted at T-31 seconds when Discovery's computers failed to shut down a fuel valve line on ground support equipment. Engineers ordered the valve closed and the countdown continued.
The primary payload was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), deployed in a 380 statute mile (612 kilometres (380 mi)) orbit. The shuttle's orbit in this mission was its highest orbit up to that date, in order for HST to be released near its operational altitude well outside the atmosphere. Discovery orbited the Earth 80 times during the mission.
The main purpose of this mission was to deploy Hubble. It was designed to operate above the Earth's turbulent and obscuring atmosphere to observe celestial objects at ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The Hubble mission was a joint NASA-ESA effort going back to the late 1970s. The rest of the mission was devoted to photography and onboard experiments. To launch HST into an orbit that guaranteed longevity, Discovery soared to 600 kilometres (370 mi). The record height permitted the crew to photograph Earth's large-scale geographic features not apparent from lower orbits. Motion pictures were recorded by two IMAX cameras, and the results appeared in the IMAX film Destiny in Space. Experiments included a biomedical technology study, advanced materials research, particle contamination and ionizing radiation measurements, and a student science project studying zero gravity effects on electronic arcs. Discovery’s reentry from its higher than usual orbit required a deorbit burn of 4 minutes and 58 seconds, the longest in Shuttle history up to that time.
During the deploy of Hubble, one of the observatory's solar arrays stopped as it unfurled. While ground controllers searched for a way to command HST to unreel the solar array, Mission Specialists McCandless and Sullivan began preparing for a contingency spacewalk in the event that the array could not be deployed through ground control. The array eventually came free and unfurled through ground control, while McCandless and Sullivan were pre-breathing inside the partially depressurized airlock.
Secondary payloads included the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) to document operations outside the crew cabin and a handheld IMAX camera for use inside the orbiter. Also included were the Ascent Particle Monitor (APM) to detect particulate matter in the payload bay; a Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment to provide data on growing protein crystals in microgravity, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III (RME III) to measure gamma ray levels in the crew cabin; Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP) to determine porosity control in the microgravity environment, and an Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment.
The mission marked the flight of an 11-pound human skull, which served as the primary element of "Detailed Secondary Objective 469", also known as the In-flight Radiation Dose Distribution (IDRD) experiment. This joint NASA/DoD experiment was designed to examine the penetration of radiation into the human cranium during spaceflight. The female skull was seated in a plastic matrix, representative of tissue, and sliced into ten layers. Hundreds of thermo-luminescent dosimeters were mounted in the skull's layers to record radiation levels at multiple depths. This experiment, which also flew on STS-28 and STS-36, was located in the shuttle's mid-deck lockers on all three flights, recording radiation levels at different orbital inclinations.
Discovery landed on 29 April 1990 at 6:49:57 am PDT, landing on Runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The rollout distance was 2,705 metres (8,875 ft) and took 61 seconds. This also marked the first use of carbon brakes. Discovery returned to KSC on 7 May 1990.
|Attempt||Planned||Result||Turnaround||Reason||Decision point||Weather go (%)||Notes|
|1||10 Apr 1990, 12:00:00 am||scrubbed||—||technical||(TT-4)||faulty valve in Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) Number One.|
|2||24 Apr 1990, 12:33:51 pm||delayed, successful||14 days, 12 hours, 34 minutes||technical||(TT-31 seconds)||countdown was held at T-31 seconds when a fuel valve line on ground support equipment failed to shut automatically. The valve was shut manually and the countdown was resumed.|
NASA began a tradition of playing music to astronauts during the Gemini program, which was first used to wake up a flight crew during Apollo 15. Each track is specially chosen, often by their families, and usually has a special meaning to an individual member of the crew, or is applicable to their daily activities.
|Day 2||"Space is Our World"||Private Numbers|
|Day 3||"Shout"||Otis Day and the Knights|
|Day 4||"Kokomo"||Beach Boys|
|Day 5||"Cosmos"||Frank Hayes|
|Day 6||"Rise and Shine"||Raffi|
Bruce McCandless II (June 8, 1937 – December 21, 2017) was a U.S. naval officer and aviator, electrical engineer, and NASA astronaut. In 1984, during the first of his two Space Shuttle missions, he made the first untethered free flight by using the Manned Maneuvering Unit.Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph
The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS or HRS) was an ultraviolet spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during its original construction, and it was launched into space as part of that space telescope aboard the Space Shuttle on April 24, 1990 (STS-31). The instrument is named after 20th century rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard.One of the results was the discovery of tenuous atmosphere for Jupiter's moon Europa in 1995. The gas was determined to be mostly of molecular oxygen (O2). The surface pressure of Europa's atmosphere is 0.1 μPa, or 10−12 times that of the Earth.An example GHRS use was to observe the local interstellar medium in the direction towards Capella.GHRS was removed during February 1997 as part of the NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-82, and its position in HST was used by new instrument. That mission was also called SM-2 for Servicing Mission 2 (for the Hubble Space Telescope). During SM2 (STS-82), two new instruments were installed, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The Faint Object Spectrograph was the other original instrument that was replaced during that mission.International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.
For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope (1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year. Spacecraft which do not complete an orbit of the Earth, for example launches which fail to achieve orbit, are not usually assigned IDs.The designation system has been generally known as the COSPAR system, named for the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science.
COSPAR subsumed the first designation system, devised at Harvard University in 1958. That system used letters of the Greek alphabet to designate artificial satellites. For example, Sputnik 1 was designated 1957 Alpha 2. The Harvard designation system continued to be used for satellites launched up to the end of 1962, when it was replaced with the modern system. The first satellite to receive a new-format designator was Luna E-6 No.2, 1963-001B, although some sources, including the NSSDC website, anachronistically apply the new-format designators to older satellites, even those no longer in orbit at the time of its introduction.
The catalog is administered in the United States by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), part of NASA.Kathryn D. Sullivan
Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan (born October 3, 1951) is an American geologist and a former NASA astronaut. A crew member on three Space Shuttle missions, she was the first American woman to walk in space on October 11, 1984. She was Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration after being confirmed by the U.S. Senate on March 6, 2014. Sullivan's tenure ended on January 20, 2017 with the swearing in of President Donald Trump. Following completion of her service at NOAA, she was designated as the 2017 Charles A. Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum., and has also served as a Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.List of astronauts by name
This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
For a list of everyone who has flown in space, see List of space travelers by name.
More than 560 people have been trained as astronauts. Until recently, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. However, with the advent of suborbital flight starting with privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.
While the term astronaut is sometimes applied to anyone who trains for travels into space—including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists—this article lists only professional astronauts, those who have been selected to train professionally. This includes national space programs, industry and commercial space programs which train and/or hire their own professional astronauts.
Names in italic are astronauts who have left Low Earth orbit, names in bold are astronauts who have walked on the moon. The flags indicate the astronaut's primary citizenship during his or her time as an astronaut. The symbol identifies female astronauts.Mystic Mountain
Mystic Mountain is a photograph and a term for a region in the Carina Nebula imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. The view was captured by the then-new Wide Field Camera 3, though the region was also viewed by the previous generation instrument. The new view celebrated the telescope's 20th anniversary of being in space in 2010. Mystic Mountain contains multiple Herbig-Haro objects where nascent stars are firing off jets of gas which interact with surrounding clouds of gas and dust.This region is about 7,500 light-years (2,300 pc) away from Earth. The pillar measures around three light-years in height (190,000 astronomical units).NASA Astronaut Group 8
NASA's Astronaut Group 8 was a group of 35 astronauts announced on January 16, 1978. It was the first selection in nine years of astronaut candidates since Group 7 in August 1969, and also included NASA's first female astronauts. Due to the long delay between the last Apollo lunar mission in 1972 and the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981, few astronauts from the older groups stayed with NASA. Since then, a new group of candidates has been selected roughly every two years.In Astronaut Group 8, two different astronaut groups were formed: pilots and mission specialists. (With shuttle classes, NASA stopped sending non-pilots for one year of UPT.) Of the 35 selected, six were women, three were male African Americans, and one was a male Asian American.National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Mississippi
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Mississippi.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Adams County, Mississippi, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a map.There are 120 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 13 National Historic Landmarks. Another 2 properties were once listed but have been removed.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Butler County, Alabama
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Butler County, Alabama.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Butler County, Alabama, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a Google map.There are 31 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Clarke County, Alabama
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Clarke County, Alabama.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Clarke County, Alabama, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a Google map.There are 21 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Glynn County, Georgia
This is a list of properties and districts in Glynn County, Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Limestone County, Texas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Limestone County, Texas.
This is intended to be a complete list of properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Limestone County, Texas. There are four properties listed on the National Register in the county.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Mitchell County, Georgia
This is a list of properties and districts in Mitchell County, Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Rapides Parish, Louisiana
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Rapides Parish, Louisiana.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Rapides Parish, Louisiana, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 79 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the parish. Another 6 properties were once listed but have been removed.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Sabine Parish, Louisiana
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Sabine Parish, Louisiana.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Sabine Parish, Louisiana, United States. The locations of National Register properties for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 8 properties listed on the National Register in the parish.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.National Register of Historic Places listings in Ware County, Georgia
This is a list of properties and districts in Ware County, Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.STS-109
STS-109 (SM3B) was a Space Shuttle mission that launched from the Kennedy Space Center on 1 March 2002. It was the 108th mission of the Space Shuttle program, the 27th flight of the orbiter Columbia and the fourth servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. It was also the last successful mission of the orbiter Columbia before the ill-fated STS-107 mission, which culminated in the Columbia disaster.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was placed in orbit during mission STS-31 on 25 April 1990. Initially designed to operate for 15 years, plans for periodic service and refurbishment were incorporated into its mission from the start. After the successful completion of the second planned service mission (SM2) by the crew of STS-82 in February 1997, three of HST's six gyroscopes failed. NASA decided to split the third planned service mission into two parts, SM3A and SM3B. A fifth and final servicing mission, STS-125 (SM4) launched on 11 May 2009. The work performed during SM4 is expected to keep HST in operation through 2014.STS-61
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission launched on 2 December 1993 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The mission restored the spaceborne observatory's vision, marred by spherical aberration, with the installation of a new main camera and a corrective optics package. This correction occurred more than three and a half years after the Hubble was launched aboard STS-31 in April 1990. The flight also brought instrument upgrades and new solar arrays to the telescope. With its very heavy workload, the STS-61 mission was one of the most complex in the Shuttle's history. It lasted almost 11 days, and crew members made five spacewalks (EVAs), an all-time record. Even the re-positioning of Intelsat VI on STS-49 in May 1992 required only four. The flight plan allowed for two additional EVAs, which could have raised the total number to seven. The final two contingency EVAs were not made. In order to complete the mission without too much fatigue, the five extravehicular working sessions were shared between two pairs of different astronauts alternating their shifts. During the flight, Hoffman also spun a driedel for the holiday of Chanukah.Steven Hawley
Steven Alan Hawley (born December 12, 1951) is a former NASA astronaut who flew on five U.S. Space Shuttle flights. He is professor of physics and astronomy and director of engineering physics at the University of Kansas.
Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103)
|Space Shuttle missions|
|Special fields and images|
Skynet 4A · JCSAT-2 | STS-32 (Leasat 5) | Kosmos 2055 | Kosmos 2056 | SPOT-2 · UoSAT-3 · UoSAT-4 · Pacsat · DOVE · Webersat · LUSat | Molniya-3 No.53L | Hiten · Hagoromo | USA-50) | Kosmos 2057 | Kosmos 2058 | Zhongxing 3 | Kosmos 2059 | Momo 1b · Orizuru · Fuju 1b | Soyuz TM-9 | USA-51 · USA-52 | Gran' No.35L | Superbird B · BS 2x | Nadezhda No.405 | Okean-O1 No.5 | STS-36 (USA-53) | Progress M-3 | Intelsat 603 | Kosmos 2060 | Kosmos 2061 | Kosmos 2062 | USA-54 | Kosmos 2063 | Ofek-2 | Unnamed | Pegsat · USA-55 | Kosmos 2064 · Kosmos 2065 · Kosmos 2066 · Kosmos 2067 · Kosmos 2068 · Kosmos 2069 · Kosmos 2070 · Kosmos 2071 | AsiaSat 1 | USA-56 · USA-57 · USA-58 | Foton No.6L | Kosmos 2072 | Palapa B2R | Kosmos 2073 | Kosmos 2074 | STS-31 (Hubble) | Kosmos 2075 | Molniya-1 No.71 | Kosmos 2076 | Progress 42 | Kosmos 2077 | MacSat 1 · MacSat 2 | Kosmos 2078 | Kosmos 2079 · Kosmos 2080 · Kosmos 2081 | Kosmos 2082 | Resurs-F1 No.50 | Kristall | ROSAT | USA-59 · USA-60 · USA-61 · USA-62 | INSAT-1D | Molniya 3 No.47L | Kosmos 2083 | Gorizont No.30L | Kosmos 2084 | Intelsat 604 | Meteor-2 No.23 | Unnamed | Gamma | Badr-1 · Optus-MFS | Resurs-F2 No.5 | Kosmos 2085 | Kosmos 2086 | TDF-2 · DFS Kopernikus 2 | Kosmos 2087 | CRRES | Kosmos 2088 | Soyuz TM-10 | USA-63 | Kosmos 2089 | Kosmos 2090 · Kosmos 2091 · Kosmos 2092 · Kosmos 2093 · Kosmos 2094 · Kosmos 2095 | Ekran-M No.14L | Molniya-1T No.68 | Progress M-4 | Resurs-F1 No.49 | Marco Polo 2 | Kosmos 2096 | Kosmos 2097 | Yuri 3a | Kosmos 2098 | Skynet 4C · Eutelsat II F-1 | Kosmos 2099 | Fengyun I-02 · Qiqiuweixing 1 · Qiqiuweixing 2 | Resurs-F1 No.51 | Kosmos 2100 | Molniya-3 No.54L | Progress M-5 | Meteor-2 No.25 | Kosmos 2101 | USA-64 | Unnamed | FSW-1 No.3 | STS-41 (Ulysses) | SBS 6 · Westar 6S | Kosmos 2102 | Inmarsat-2F1 | Gorizont No.32L | USA-65 | Kosmos 2103 | STS-38 (USA-67 · Prowler) | Kosmos 2104 | Kosmos 2105 | Satcom C1 · GStar 4 | Molniya 1T No.70 | Gorizont No.33L | USA-66 | Kosmos 2106 | USA-68 | STS-35 | Soyuz TM-11 | Kosmos 2107 | Kosmos 2108 | Kosmos 2109 · Kosmos 2110 · Kosmos 2111 | Kosmos 2112 | Gran' No.37L | Kosmos 2113 | Kosmos 2114 · Kosmos 2115 · Kosmos 2116 · Kosmos 2117 · Kosmos 2118 · Kosmos 2119 | Kosmos 2120 | Globus No.12
Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in (brackets).