SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries. Principal emphasis is placed on transport industries such as automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicles.
SAE International has over 138,000 global members. Membership is granted to individuals, rather than companies. Aside from its standardization efforts, SAE International also devotes resources to projects and programs in STEM education, professional certification, and collegiate design competitions.
SAE is commonly used in North America to indicate United States customary units (USCS or USC) measuring systems in automotive and construction tools. SAE is used as a tool marking to indicate that they are not metric (SI) based tools, as the two systems are incompatible. A common mistake is to use SAE interchangeably with the word "Imperial" units (British), which is not the same as the USCS standard that SAE uses.
SAE is perhaps best known in the United States for its ratings of automobile horsepower. Until 1971-1972 SAE gross power was used. Similar to brake horsepower (bhp), it gave generously unrealistic performance ratings. Since then the more conservative SAE net power, which takes into account engine accessory, emissions, and exhaust drags (but not transmission losses) is the standard.
|Focus||Automotive, Automobile, Aerospace, Commercial vehicle.|
|Method||Industry standards, Membership, Conferences, Publications, Professional Development.|
|Andrew L. Riker|
In the early 1900s there were dozens of automobile manufacturers in the United States, and many more worldwide. Auto manufacturers and parts companies joined trade groups that promoted business. A desire to solve common technical design problems and develop engineering standards was emerging. Engineers in the automobile business expressed a desire to have "free exchange of ideas" to expand their technical knowledge base.
Two magazine publishers, Peter Heldt of The Horseless Age, and Horace Swetland of The Automobile were advocates of the concepts for SAE. Heldt wrote an editorial in June 1902 in which he said, "Now there is a noticeable tendency for automobile manufacturers to follow certain accepted lines of construction, technical questions constantly arise which seek a solution from the cooperation of the technical men connected with the industry. These questions could best be dealt with by a technical society. The field of activity for this society would be the purely technical side of automobiles."
Horace Swetland wrote on automotive engineering concerns and became an original SAE officer. About two years after Heldt's editorial, the Society of Automobile Engineers was founded in New York City. Four officers and five managing officers volunteered. In 1905 Andrew L. Riker served as president, and Henry Ford served as the society's first vice president. The initial membership was engineers with annual dues of US$10.
Over the first 10 years, SAE membership grew steadily, and the society added full-time staff and began to publish a technical journal and a comprehensive compilation of technical papers, previously called SAE Transactions, which still exist today in the form of SAE International's Journals. By 1916 SAE had 1,800 members. At the annual meeting that year, representatives from the American Society of Aeronautic Engineers, the Society of Tractor Engineers, as well as representatives from the power boating industry made a pitch to SAE for oversight of technical standards in their industries. Aeronautics was a fledgling industry at that time. Early supporters of the concept of a society to represent aeronautical engineers were Thomas Edison, Glenn Curtiss, Glenn Martin, and Orville Wright.
Out of the meeting in 1916 came a new organization, to represent engineers in all types of mobility-related professions. SAE member Elmer Sperry created the term "automotive" from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) origins to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. The Society of Automobile Engineers became the Society of Automotive Engineers.
Charles Kettering presided over SAE during World War I and saw membership pass the 5,000 mark. During this time, SAE emphasized the importance of developing member activity through local chapters – called Sections. After World War II, the Society established links with other standards bodies and automotive engineering societies worldwide, and since then has founded sections in countries including Brazil, India, China, Russia, Romania, and Egypt. By 1980, membership surpassed 35,000 and over the next two decades the society, like the industries and individuals it serves, became larger, more global, more diverse, and more electronic.
By the mid-1980s, membership edged close to 50,000; by the end of the 1990s, membership topped 80,000 with members in more than 80 countries.
As of 2017, the society serves over 138,000 global members, with more than a quarter from outside of North America.
|1904||Edward Tracy Birdsall, charter member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, invites others to the Automobile Club of America at 753 5th Ave., New York, NY to organize a society of engineers concerned with all aspects of automobiles. Those invited included Horace Swetland, publisher of the trade journal The Automobile, and seven others. Henry Ford, though invited, did not attend.|
|1905||30 founding members of the society of automobile engineers meet in New York to elect officers. They were: |
|1906||Membership listed at 52; 32 attend meeting from nine different states. Volume 1, no. 0, of SAE Transactions printed with three papers.|
|1907||Membership listed at 100.|
|1908||Membership listed at 150.|
|1909||Society is incorporated, debut of original SAE logo. Membership approaches 400.|
|1911||SAE is formally incorporated in New York. The Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers effectively dissolves following court ruling. SAE takes over ALAM's technical section, beginning SAE's standardization program. SAE opens associate membership to anyone "in a responsible commercial or financial capacity." The SAE Bulletin is founded.|
|1912||SAE publishes its first standard. ALAM officially dissolves.|
|1913||Membership exceeds 1700.|
|1914||Initial publication of SAE's annual compilation of standards in the SAE Data Book.|
|1915||SAE moves headquarters to the Engineering Societies Building. SAE standardization efforts reduces the different types of lock washers used in vehicles by 90% (originally 300), reduced 1600 sizes of seamless steel tubing to 221. First student branch is formed at Cornell University.|
|1916||SAE opens a Detroit office. Admits members of the American Society of Aeronautical Engineers, the Society of Tractor Engineers, National Association of Engine and Boat Manufacturers, the National Gas Engine Association, and the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. The National Gas Engine Association and the National Association of Engine and Boat Manufacturers merge their standards work with SAE. SAE publishes first aeronautical standard.|
|1917||Elmer Sperry coins the word automotive; SAE changes its name to Society of Automotive Engineers in February. National Automobile Chamber of Commerce begins to support standards work. Found Washington DC Office in the Munsey Trust Building. Cooperated with the Quartermaster Corps to produce the liberty truck and with the U.S. Navy department and the Signal Corps to produce the Liberty airplane engine, the Liberty L-12. SAE's Journal is founded.|
|1918||Orville Wright writes to Charles Witteman of the Witteman – Lewis Aircraft Company. It begins: "My dear Mr. Witteman: as your name does not appear on the roster of the Society of automotive engineers, I suspect the advantages of membership have not been presented to you. The work covered by the S.A.E. is of such value that everybody identified with the industry should take out membership." :24|
|1919||Membership exceeds 4300.|
|1920||Membership reaches 5000, including SAE's first woman member Nellie M. Scott, treasurer of the Bantam Ball Bearing company of Bantam, Connecticut.|
|1921||SAE standards number 224. Automotive Industries estimates SAE standards save $750 million, or 15% of the retail value of all automobiles sold.|
|1922||Membership exceeds 5000.|
|1926||Membership exceeds 6000.|
|1927||The first SAE award is created – the Wright Brothers medal – for the best paper on the topic of aircraft.|
|1930||25th Anniversary. Membership exceeds 7000.|
|1933||Fuels and Lubricants Meetings Committee is formed.|
|1935||Tractor and Industrial Power Equipment Meetings Committee is formed.|
|1936||SAE's first National Aircraft Production Meeting is held.|
|1939||The SAE War Engineering Board is established to evaluate problems defined by the military and to assign committees of specialists to ascertain prompt solutions.|
|1940||Membership reaches 5855.|
|1942||The War Activity Council is formed to coordinate efforts for the Allied forces.|
|1943||The War Activity Office is established in Detroit.|
|1944||The Special Publication Department is formed.|
|1945||Membership exceeds 12,000.|
|1946||The Technical Board is formed, creating standards for design, manufacturing, testing, quality control, and procurement.|
|1947||Formal Engineering Meetings structure established. The Engineering Materials Meetings Committee is formed.|
|1958||The Sections Board is formed to guide SAE's local sections and keep the SAE board of directors informed.|
|1961||SAE Aerospace standards number 1000.|
|1966||SAE publications gain international coverage.|
|1967||The phrase "land, sea, air, and space" is added to the SAE logo.|
|1973||SAE launches first design competition for college students called the Recreational-Ecological Vehicle contest.|
|1974||SAE moves headquarters to a new location on Thorn Hill in Warrendale, PA, 20 miles north of Pittsburgh, PA. Warrendale is christened SAE World Headquarters.|
|1976||SAE officially launches its Collegiate Design Series.|
|1977||The SAE Fellow award is established to recognize achievements in technology and engineering.|
|1978||The SAE Women Engineers Committee is formed.|
|1981||The collegiate design competition Formula SAE begins. The first volume of Aerospace Engineering Magazine is published.|
|1983||SAE begins its Professional Development Program to educate and certify mobility engineers.|
|1986||SAE creates the SAE Foundation to fund and promote education in math and science.|
|1990||SAE foundation launches A World in Motion, "with the specific aim of bringing a new style of pedagogy to physical sciences in grades four, five, and six." SAE establishes the Performance Review Institute, a nonprofit affiliate, to develop performance standards and certify systems accordingly. SAE forms its first international affiliation with SAE Brazil :132|
|2002||SAE recognizes its second organizational affiliate, SAE India.|
|2004||The Institute of Vehicle Engineers, UK, merges with the United Kingdom's Midlands SAE Section to form SAE UK. SAE membership reaches 84,000.|
|2005||SAE Aerospace standards number 6200. SAE celebrates its 100-year anniversary with SAE 100.|
|2006||SAE officially changes its name from Society of Automotive Engineers to SAE International to reflect the increasingly international scope of its activities and membership.|
|2010||SAE membership reaches 120,000.|
|2012||SAE International acquires Tech Briefs Media Group.|
|2014||SAE International Completes Asset Purchase of ARINC Industry Activities – Expands Aerospace Portfolio.|
SAE International provides a forum for companies, government agencies, research institutions and consultants to devise technical standards and recommended practices for the design, construction, and characteristics of motor vehicle components. SAE documents do not carry any legal force, but are in some cases referenced by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Transport Canada.
SAE has long provided standards for rating automobile horsepower. Until 1971-1972 SAE gross power was used. Similar to brake horsepower (bhp), it gave generously unrealistic performance ratings. Since then the more conservative SAE net power, which takes into account engine accessory, emissions, and exhaust drags (but not transmission losses) is the standard.
SAE publishes technical documents for the aerospace industry. Aerospace Recommended Practices are recommendations for engineering practice, and Aerospace Information Reports contain general accepted engineering data and information.
SAE International has been publishing technical information since 1906. Industry magazines published monthly include: Automotive Engineering International, Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing, Off Highway Engineering, Truck & Bus Engineering, SAE Vehicle Engineering, e-newsletters, Momentum magazine for student members, and various journals. SAE also produces the monthly Update newsletter for its members and publishes more than 100 books a year in print and electronic formats. Ranging from compilations on various technical subjects, to textbooks, to historical and enthusiast-oriented books, SAE’s titles cater to a variety of readers.
In April 2007, MIT canceled its subscription to SAE because of required Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology implemented on SAE web-based database of technical papers. SAE International removed the DRM restrictions for colleges, universities, and other academic institutions.
In 1986, SAE International established the SAE Foundation to support science and technology education. One of the most pressing issues facing industry today is the decline of students enrolling in science and technology programs. This decline and its impact threaten the ability to meet future workforce demands. The SAE Foundation encourages and supports the development of skills related to mathematics, technology, engineering and science.
A World In Motion is a teacher-administered, industry volunteer-assisted program that brings science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education to life in the classroom for students in Kindergarten through Grade 12. Benchmarked to the national standards, AWIM incorporates the laws of physics, motion, flight and electronics into age-appropriate hands on activities that reinforce classroom STEM curriculum.
The SAE Collegiate Design Series provides an opportunity for college students to go beyond textbook theory and replicates the process of engineering design and manufacturing. In the CDS program, a company wants to sell a product for a specific market segment, for example a radio controlled airplane, a single seat off-road vehicle, or a single seat Formula style race car. Instead of doing all the design, manufacturing and testing in house, the customer chooses to contract out those processes to a supplier, and sends their requirements out for bid. Student teams act as the suppliers and design, build and test a prototype vehicle that they believe meets the customer's specifications. Each team then presents its prototype to the customer at the annual competitions and is judged on several criteria. The team with the highest points essentially wins the contract.
The SAE Collegiate Design Series competitions include the following:
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This trend is not limited to computer science programs, but extends to all technology centric programs.
ARP4754, Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) ARP4754A (Guidelines For Development Of Civil Aircraft and Systems), is a guideline from SAE International, dealing with the development processes which support certification of Aircraft systems, addressing "the complete aircraft development cycle, from systems requirements through systems verification." Revision A was released in December 2010. It was recognized by the FAA in AC 20-174 published November 2011. EUROCAE jointly issues the document as ED–79.ARP4761
ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment is an Aerospace Recommended Practice from SAE International. In conjunction with ARP4754, ARP4761 is used to demonstrate compliance with 14 CFR 25.1309 in the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness regulations for transport category aircraft, and also harmonized international airworthiness regulations such as European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) CS–25.1309.
This Recommended Practice defines a process for using common modeling techniques to assess the safety of a system being put together. The first 30 pages of the document covers that process. The next 140 pages give an overview of the modeling techniques and how they should be applied. The last 160 pages give an example of the process in action.
Some of the methods covered:
Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA)
Preliminary System Safety Assessment (PSSA)
System Safety Assessment (SSA)
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Failure Modes and Effects Summary (FMES)
Common Cause Analysis (CCA), consisting of:
Zonal Safety Analysis (ZSA)
Particular Risks Analysis (PRA)
Common Mode Analysis (CMA)Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Avinash Kumar Agarwal (born 22 August 1972) is an Indian mechanical engineer, tribologist and a professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He is known for his studies on internal combustion engines, Emissions, alternate fuels and CNG engines and is an elected fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (2013), Society of Automotive Engineers, USA (2012), National Academy of Science, Allahabad (2018), Royal Society of Chemistry, UK (2018), International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2016), and Indian National Academy of Engineering (2015). The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards for his contributions to Engineering Sciences in 2016.Board track racing
Board track racing was a type of motorsport popular in the United States during the 1910s and 1920s. Competition was conducted on circular or oval race courses with surfaces composed of wooden planks. This type of track was first used for motorcycle competition, wherein they were called motordromes, before being adapted for use by various different types of racing cars. The majority of the American national championship races were contested at such venues during the 1920s.
Board tracks proliferated in part because they were inexpensive to construct, but they lacked durability and required a great deal of maintenance to remain usable. Many of the tracks survived for as little as three years before being abandoned.
With the onset of the Great Depression in the early 1930s, board track racing disappeared rapidly. However, several of its most notable aspects have continued to influence American motorsports up to the present day, including: A technical emphasis on raw speed produced by the steep banking; ample track width to allow steady overtaking between competitors; and the development of extensive grandstands or stadium-style spectator seating surrounding many of the courses.Centro Universitário da FEI
Centro Universitário da FEI is a higher education facility in São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil, offering undergraduate degrees in engineering, business administration, and computer sciences as well as master's degrees in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and administration; specialization courses are also offered. It is often ranked among the best Brazilian private engineering colleges and best overall in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science.FEI is an abbreviation for Fundação Educacional Inaciana (Portuguese for Educational Foundation of Ignatius), but had meant in the past Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial (Portuguese for Faculty of Industrial Engineering).Formula SAE
Formula SAE is a student design competition organized by SAE International (previously known as the Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE). The competition was started in 1980 by the SAE student branch at the University of Texas at Austin after a prior asphalt racing competition proved to be unsustainable.Horsepower
Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower (or imperial horsepower), which is about 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts.
The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit.Internal combustion engine cooling
Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines, cooling using air from the atmosphere makes for a lightweight and relatively simple system. Watercraft can use water directly from the surrounding environment to cool their engines. For water-cooled engines on aircraft and surface vehicles, waste heat is transferred from a closed loop of water pumped through the engine to the surrounding atmosphere by a radiator.
Water has a higher heat capacity than air, and can thus move heat more quickly away from the engine, but a radiator and pumping system add weight, complexity, and cost. Higher-power engines generate more waste heat, but can move more weight, meaning they are generally water-cooled. Radial engines allow air to flow around each cylinder directly, giving them an advantage for air cooling over straight engines, flat engines, and V engines. Rotary engines have a similar configuration, but the cylinders also continually rotate, creating an air flow even when the vehicle is stationary.
Aircraft design more strongly favors lower weight and air-cooled designs. Rotary engines were popular on aircraft until the end of World War I, but had serious stability and efficiency problems. Radial engines were popular until the end of World War II, until gas turbine engines largely replaced them. Modern propeller-driven aircraft with internal-combustion engines are still largely air-cooled. Modern cars generally favor power over weight, and typically have water-cooled engines. Modern motorcycles are lighter than cars, and both cooling fluids are common. Some sport motorcycles were cooled with both air and oil (sprayed underneath the piston heads).List of corporations in Pittsburgh
This is a list of major corporations headquartered in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Louis Schwitzer Award
The Louis Schwitzer Award is presented annually to an engineer, or a team of engineers, for excellence in the design, development and implementation of new, innovative motorsports technology concepts for use in the Indianapolis 500 Mile Race. The focus of this award is on those concepts that improve the performance, safety, or energy efficiency of racing cars, related components and systems, or driver and race track support equipment.SAE 304 stainless steel
SAE 304 stainless steel is the most common stainless steel. The steel contains both chromium (between 18–20%) and nickel (between 8–10.5%) metals as the main non-iron constituents. It is an austenitic stainless steel. It is less electrically and thermally conductive than carbon steel and is essentially non-magnetic. It has a higher corrosion resistance than regular steel and is widely used because of the ease in which it is formed into various shapes.The composition was developed by W. H. Hatfield at Firth-Vickers in 1924 and was marketed under the trade name “Staybrite 18/8”.It is specified by SAE International as part of its SAE steel grades.
Outside of the US it is commonly known as A2 stainless steel, in accordance with ISO 3506 for fasteners.
In the commercial cookware industry it is known as 18/8 stainless steel.
In the unified numbering system it is UNS S30400.
The Japanese equivalent grade of this material is SUS304.
It is also specified in European norm 1.4301.SAE Aerodesign
SAE Aero Design, also called the SAE Aero Design Collegiate Design Series, is a series of competitive mechanical engineering events held in the United States and Brazil every year. It is conducted by the SAE International. It is generally divided into three categories: Regular class, Advanced class and Micro class.SAE India
SAEINDIA is an affiliate society of SAE International, registered as an Indian non profit engineering and scientific society dedicated to the advancement of mobility community in India. As an individual member driven society of mobility practitioners, SAEINDIA comprises members who are individuals from the mobility community, which includes engineers, executives from industry, government officials, academics and students. Principal emphasis is placed on transport industries such as automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicles.SAE J1708
SAE J1708 is a standard used for serial communications between ECUs on a heavy duty vehicle and also between a computer and the vehicle. With respect to Open System Interconnection model (OSI), J1708 defines the physical layer. Common higher layer protocols that operate on top of J1708 are SAE J1587 and SAE J1922. The protocol is maintained by SAE International.SAE J300
SAE J300 is a standard that defines the viscometric properties of mono- and multigrade engine oils, maintained by SAE International. Key parameters for engine oil viscometrics are the oil's kinematic viscosity, its high temperature-high shear viscosity measured by the tapered bearing simulator, and low temperature properties measured by the cold-cranking simulator and mini-rotary viscometer. This standard is commonly used throughout the world, and standards organizations that do so include API and ILSAC, and ACEA.SAE J306
SAE J306 is a standard that defines the viscometric properties of automotive gear oils, maintained by SAE International. Key parameters for this standard are the kinematic viscosity of the gear oil, the maximum temperature at which the oil has a viscosity of 150,000 cP, and a measure of its shear stability through the KRL test.Unified numbering system
The unified numbering system (UNS) is an alloy designation system widely accepted in North America. It consists of a prefix letter and five digits designating a material composition. For example, a prefix of S indicates stainless steel alloys, C indicates copper, brass, or bronze alloys, T indicates tool steels, and so on. The first 3 digits often match older 3-digit numbering systems, while the last 2 digits indicate more modern variations. For example, Stainless Steel Type 310 in the original 3-digit system became S31000 in the UNS System. The more modern low-carbon variation, Type 310S, became S31008 in the UNS System. Often, the suffix digit is chosen to represent a material property specification. For example, "08" was assigned to UNS S31008 because the maximum allowed carbon content is 0.08%. The UNS is managed jointly by the ASTM International and SAE International. A UNS number alone does not constitute a full material specification because it establishes no requirements for material properties, heat treatment, form, or quality.
Some common materials and translations to other standards:
UNS K11547 is T2 tool steel
UNS S17400 is ASTM grade 630, Cr-Ni 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel
UNS S30400 is SAE 304, Cr/Ni 18/10, Euronorm 1.4301 stainless steel
UNS S31600 is SAE 316
UNS S31603 is 316L, a low carbon version of 316. The digits "03" were assigned since the maximum allowed carbon content is 0.03%
UNS C90300 is CDA 903Warrendale, Pennsylvania
Warrendale is a northern suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. It is located in the northwestern corner of Allegheny County. It is the home to the corporate headquarters of rue21, Joy Mining Machinery, Printing Industries of America and SAE International, as well as the United States Postal Service Pittsburgh Network Distribution Center, one of 21 such mail delivery hubs in the country. It is also the home to one of American Eagle Outfitters' four North American distribution centers.