S. I. Hayakawa

Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (July 18, 1906 – February 27, 1992) was a Canadian-born American academic and politician of Japanese ancestry. A professor of English, he served as president of San Francisco State University,[1] and then as U.S. Senator from California from 1977 to 1983.[2]

S. I. Hayakawa
SIHayakawa
United States Senator
from California
In office
January 2, 1977 – January 3, 1983
Preceded byJohn V. Tunney
Succeeded byPete Wilson
9th President of
San Francisco State University
In office
November 26, 1968 – July 10, 1973
Preceded byRobert Smith
Succeeded byPaul Romberg
Personal details
Born
Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa

July 18, 1906
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
DiedFebruary 27, 1992 (aged 85)
Greenbrae, California, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (before 1973)
Republican (1973–1992)
Spouse(s)Margedant Peters
Children3
EducationUniversity of Manitoba (BA)
McGill University (MA)
University of Wisconsin, Madison (PhD)
Academic background
ThesisOliver Wendell Holmes: Physician, poet, essayist (1935)
Doctoral advisor.
Academic work
DisciplineEnglish
Sub-disciplineLinguistics, semantics
Institutions
Notable worksLanguage in Thought and Action

Early life and education

Born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Hayakawa was educated in the public schools of Calgary, Alberta, and Winnipeg, Manitoba, and received an undergraduate degree from the University of Manitoba in 1927 and graduate degrees in English from McGill University in 1928 and the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1935.[3]

Academic career

Professionally, Hayakawa was a linguist, psychologist, semanticist, teacher, and writer. He served as an instructor at the University of Wisconsin from 1936 to 1939 and at the Armour Institute of Technology (now Illinois Institute of Technology) from 1939 to 1948.

His first book on semantics, Language in Thought and Action, was published in 1949 as an expansion of the earlier work, Language in Action, written since 1938 and published in 1941 to be a Book-of-the-Month Club selection. It is currently in its fifth edition and has greatly helped to popularize Alfred Korzybski's general semantics and semantics in general, while semantics or theory of meaning was overwhelmed by mysticism, propagandism and even scientism. In the preface, Hayakawa cautioned:

The original version of this book, Language in Action, published in 1941, was in many respects a response to the dangers of propaganda, especially as exemplified in Adolf Hitler's success in persuading millions to share his maniacal and destructive views. It was the writer's conviction then, as it remains now, that everyone needs to have a habitually critical attitude towards language—his own as well as that of others—both for the sake of his personal well being and for his adequate functioning as a citizen. Hitler is gone, but if the majority of our fellow citizens are more susceptible to the slogans of fear and race hatred than to those of peaceful accommodation and mutual respect among human beings, our political liberties remain at the mercy of any eloquent and unscrupulous demagogue.

In addition to such motivation, he acknowledged his debt as follows:

My deepest debt in this book is to the General Semantics ('non-Aristotelian system') of Alfred Korzybski. I have also drawn heavily upon the works of other contributors to semantic thought: especially C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards, Thorstein Veblen, Edward Sapir, Leonard Bloomfield, Karl R. Popper, Thurman Arnold, Jerome Frank, Jean Piaget, Charles Morris, Wendell Johnson, Irving J. Lee, Ernst Cassirer, Anatol Rapoport, Stuart Chase. I am also deeply indebted to the writings of numerous psychologists and psychiatrists with one or another of the dynamic points of view inspired by Sigmund Freud: Karl Menninger, Trigant Burrow, Carl Rogers, Kurt Lewin, N. R. F. Maier, Jurgen Ruesch, Gregory Bateson, Rudolf Dreikurs, Milton Rokeach. I have also found extremely helpful the writings of cultural anthropologists, especially those of Benjamin Lee Whorf, Ruth Benedict, Clyde Kluckhohn, Leslie A. White, Margaret Mead, Weston La Barre.

He was a lecturer at the University of Chicago from 1950 to 1955. During this time he presented a talk at the 1954 Conference of Activity Vector Analysts[4] at Lake George, New York, in which he discussed a theory of personality from the semantic point of view. This was later published as The Semantic Barrier. This was a definitive lecture as it discussed the Darwinism of the "survival of self" as contrasted with the "survival of self-concept". His ideas on general semantics influenced A. E. van Vogt's Null-A novels, The World of Null-A and The Pawns of Null-A. Van Vogt in The World of Null-A (i.e., non-Aristotelian) makes Hayakawa a character, introducing him as: "Professor Hayakawa is today's Mr. Null-A himself, the elected head of the International Society for General Semantics."[5]

Hayakawa was an English professor at San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) from 1955 to 1968. In the early 1960s, he helped organize the Anti Digit Dialing League, a San Francisco group that opposed the introduction of all-digit telephone exchange names. Among the students he trained were commune leader Stephen Gaskin and author Gerald Haslam. He was named acting president of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) on November 26, 1968, when Ronald Reagan was governor of California and Joseph Alioto was mayor of San Francisco.[6] On July 9, 1969, the California State Colleges Board of Trustees appointed Hayakawa the ninth president of San Francisco State.[7] Hayakawa retired on July 10, 1973.[1][8]

Hayakawa wrote a column for the Register and Tribune Syndicate from 1970 to 1976. In 1973, Hayakawa changed his political affiliation from the Democratic Party to Republican Party and became president emeritus at what became San Francisco State University.[9]

Student strike at San Francisco State College

In 1968–69, there was a bitter student and Black Panthers strike at San Francisco State University in order to establish an ethnic studies program. It was a major news event at the time and chapter in the radical history of the United States and the Bay Area. The strike was led by the Third World Liberation Front supported by Students for a Democratic Society, the Black Panthers and the countercultural community.

It proposed fifteen "non-negotiable demands", including a Black Studies department chaired by sociologist Nathan Hare independent of the university administration and open admission to all black students to "put an end to racism", and the unconditional, immediate end to the War in Vietnam and the university's involvement. It was threatened that if these demands were not immediately and completely satisfied the entire campus was to be forcibly shut down.[10] Hayakawa became popular with conservative voters in this period after he pulled the wires out from the loud speakers on a protesters' van at an outdoor rally.[1][11][12][13] Hayakawa relented on December 6, 1968, and created the first-in-the-nation College of Ethnic Studies[14]

Political career

Hayakawa won an unexpected victory in the 1976 Republican senate primary over three better-known career politicians including HEW Secretary Robert Finch, long-time Congressman Alphonzo Bell, and California Lt. Governor John L. Harmer. Much like Jimmy Carter, Hayakawa touted himself as a political outsider.

1977 Hayakawa p15
1977, Congressional Pictorial Directory

On the Democratic side, incumbent Senator John Tunney faced a surprisingly strong challenge from another political outsider, Tom Hayden. Hayden's extremely liberal candidacy forced Tunney to run more to the left in the primary, which hurt him in the general election.

Nevertheless, Tunney was favored to easily win re-election. Comfortably ahead in the polls, Tunney did not aggressively campaign until the final weeks before the election. But Hayakawa's position as a political outsider was popular in the wake of the Watergate Scandal. In addition, Tunney had a high absenteeism rate while serving in the Senate and missed numerous votes. Hayakawa exploited this with a TV ad that showed an empty chair in the US Senate chamber. Hayakawa gradually closed the gap with Tunney, and ultimately defeated him by just over three percentage points.

During his 1976 Senate campaign, he spoke about the proposal to transfer possession of the Panama Canal and Canal Zone from the United States to Panama. Hayakawa said, "We should keep the Panama Canal. After all, we stole it fair and square."[15] However, in 1978 he helped win Senate approval of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, which transferred control of the zone and canal to Panama.[16] He also supported a bill that led to the creation of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, which examined the causes and effects of the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.[17] During his time in the U.S. Senate, Hayakawa was one of three Japanese Americans in the chamber, the other two being Daniel Inouye and Spark Matsunaga, both of Hawaii.

He planned to run for reelection in 1982 but trailed other Republican candidates badly in early polls and was short on money. He dropped out of the race early in the year and was ultimately succeeded by Republican San Diego mayor Pete Wilson.

Hayakawa founded the political lobbying organization U.S. English, which is dedicated to making the English language the official language of the United States.[18]

[19] Hayakawa, who lived in Chicago as a Canadian citizen during World War II and was thus not subject to confinement,[2] argued that the internment of Japanese Americans "eventually worked to their advantage" and that Japanese Americans should not be paid for "fulfilling their obligations" to submit to Executive Order 9066.[17][20]

Personal life

Hayakawa was a resident of Mill Valley, California, until his death in nearby Greenbrae, in 1992. He had an abiding interest in traditional jazz and wrote extensively on that subject, including several erudite sets of album liner notes. Sometimes in his lectures on semantics, he was joined by the respected traditional jazz pianist Don Ewell, whom Hayakawa employed to demonstrate various points in which he analyzed semantic and musical principles. Hayakawa was often favorite fodder for the news media reporters, every time he was found napping through important legislative voting.[2]

See also

Bibliography

  • Hayakawa, S. I. Choose the Right Word: A Modern Guide to Synonyms and Related Words. 1968. Reprint. New York: Perennial Library, 1987. Originally published as Funk & Wagnalls Modern Guide to Synonyms and Related Words.
  • Hayakawa, S. I. "Education Revisited". In The World Today, edited by Phineas J. Sparer. Memphis: Memphis State University Press, 1975.
  • Hayakawa, S. I. Language in Thought and Action. 1939. Enlarged ed. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978. Originally published as Language in Action.
  • Hayakawa, S. I. Symbol, Status, and Personality. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963.
  • Hayakawa, S. I. Through the Communication Barrier: On Speaking, Listening, and Understanding. Edited by Arthur Chandler. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.
  • Hayakawa, S. I., ed. Language, Meaning, and Maturity. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954.
  • Hayakawa, S. I., ed. Our Language and Our World. 1959. Reprint. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971.
  • Hayakawa, S. I., ed. The Use and Misuse of Language. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Publications, 1964.
  • Hayakawa, S. I., and William Dresser, eds. Dimensions of Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1970. Includes Hayakawa's essays "General Semantics and the Cold War Mentality" and "Semantics and Sexuality".
  • Paris, Richard, and Janet Brown, eds. Quotations from Chairman S. I. Hayakawa. San Francisco: n.p., 1969.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Hayakawa will retire". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). (Los Angeles Times). October 13, 1972. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b c "S.I. Hayakawa, 85, dies; challenged '60s radicals". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). (Los Angeles Times). February 28, 1992. p. 7A.
  3. ^ Hayakawa, Samuel I. (1935). Oliver Wendell Holmes: Physician, poet, essayist (Ph.D.). University of Wisconsin–Madison. OCLC 51566055 – via ProQuest. (Subscription required (help)).
  4. ^ "WebAVA". Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  5. ^ Alfred Elton Van Vogt (1977). The World of Null-A. New York: Berkley Books. p. 11. ISBN 9780425054543.
  6. ^ "Case 3: Prelude / Demands". On Strike! Shut it Down! (Exhibit 1999). Leonard Library, San Francisco State University. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  7. ^ Reagan: A Life In Letters. Simon and Schuster. 2004. p. 187. ISBN 0743219678.
  8. ^ Bittlingmayer, George (July 17, 1973). "San Francisco State Faculty Protests Selection of Hayakawa's Successor". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  9. ^ "Guide to the Samuel I. Hayakawa Papers". Online Archive of California. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  10. ^ Hayward, Steven. The Age of Reagan, Volume I. Crown Forum. p. 446.
  11. ^ James M. Fallows (January 15, 1969). "Song of Hayakawa". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  12. ^ Yaga.com
  13. ^ "The San Francisco State College Strike Collection, Chronology of events". Leonard Library. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  14. ^ Hayakawa & angry demonstrations, Part I. KQED News. San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive. December 6, 1968. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  15. ^ "We Should Keep The Panama Canal. After All, We Stole It Fair And Square. – S.I". Anvari.org. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
  16. ^ staff (February 28, 1992). "Ex-Sen. Hayakawa Dies; Unpredictable Iconoclast ..." Los Angeles Times.
  17. ^ a b Robinson, Greg. S.I. Hayakawa. Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
  18. ^ "Language politics and policy in the United States: Implications for the immigration debate*, Working Paper 141" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2006.
  19. ^ Maki, Mitchell Takeshi; Kitano, Harry H. L.; Berthold, Sarah Megan (1999). Achieving the Impossible Dream: How Japanese Americans Obtained Redress. University of Illinois. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-252-02458-3.
  20. ^ Testimony of S.I. Hayakawa on Senate Bill 2116. Presented to Subcommittee on Appropriations, August 16, 1984. (Transcript available in Densho Digital Archive, courtesy of Cherry Kinoshita.)

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
George Murphy
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from California
(Class 1)

1976
Succeeded by
Pete Wilson
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
John V. Tunney
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from California
1977–1983
Served alongside: Alan Cranston
Succeeded by
Pete Wilson
Academic offices
Preceded by
Robert Smith
President of San Francisco State University
1968–1973
Succeeded by
Paul Romberg
1906 in Canada

Events from the year 1906 in Canada.

1976 United States Senate election in California

The 1976 United States Senate election in California took place on November 2, 1976. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator John Tunney ran for re-election to a second term, but was defeated by Republican Sam Hayakawa.

1976 United States Senate elections

The 1976 United States Senate elections was an election for the United States Senate that coincided with Democratic Jimmy Carter's presidential election and the United States Bicentennial celebration. Although almost half of the seats decided in this election changed parties, Carter's narrow victory did not provide coattails for the Democrats, and the balance of the chamber remained the same.

This was the first election in which the Libertarian Party competed, running candidates in 9 of the 33 contested seats. There were no special elections in this election cycle.

As of 2018 this is the first and so far only time both party leaders retired from the senate in an election cycle since the creation of the positions.

1982 United States Senate election in California

The 1982 United States Senate election in California took place on November 2, 1982. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator S. I. Hayakawa decided to retire after one term. Republican Pete Wilson won the open seat.

1982 United States Senate elections

The 1982 United States Senate elections were held on November 2, 1982. They were elections for the United States Senate following Republican gains in 1980. A total of four seats changed hands between parties, and the lone independent, Senator Harry Byrd Jr., retired. Democrats made a net gain of one seat in the elections. A special election in 1983 was then held after the winner of Washington's 1982 election died at the beginning of the term.

Dianetics

Dianetics (from Greek dia, meaning "through", and nous, meaning "mind") is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics is practiced by followers of Scientology, the Nation of Islam (as of 2010), and independent Dianeticist groups.

Dianetics divides the mind into three parts: the conscious "analytical mind", the subconscious "reactive mind", and the somatic mind. The goal of Dianetics is to erase the content of the "reactive mind", which Scientologists believe interferes with a person's ethics, awareness, happiness, and sanity. The Dianetics procedure to achieve this erasure is called "auditing". In auditing, the Dianetic auditor asks a series of questions (or commands) and elicits answers to help a person locate and deal with painful experiences of the past, which Scientologists believe to be the content of the "reactive mind".Practitioners of Dianetics believe that "the basic principle of existence is to survive" and that the basic personality of humans is sincere, intelligent, and good. The drive for goodness and survival is distorted and inhibited by aberrations "ranging from simple neuroses to different psychotic states to various kinds of sociopathic behavior patterns." Hubbard developed Dianetics, claiming that it could eradicate these aberrations.When Hubbard formulated Dianetics, he described it as "a mix of Western technology and Oriental philosophy". He said that Dianetics "forms a bridge between" cybernetics and general semantics (a set of ideas about education originated by Alfred Korzybski, which received much attention in the science fiction world in the 1940s)—a claim denied by scholars of General Semantics, including S. I. Hayakawa, who expressed strong criticism of Dianetics as early as 1951. Hubbard claimed that Dianetics could increase intelligence, eliminate unwanted emotions and alleviate a wide range of illnesses he believed to be psychosomatic. Among the conditions purportedly treated were arthritis, allergies, asthma, some coronary difficulties, eye trouble, ulcers, migraine headaches, "sexual deviation" (which for Hubbard included homosexuality), and even death. Hubbard asserted that "memories of painful physical and emotional experiences accumulate in a specific region of the mind, causing illness and mental problems." He taught that "once these experiences have been purged through cathartic procedures he developed, a person can achieve superior health and intelligence." Hubbard also variously defined Dianetics as "a spiritual healing technology" and "an organized science of thought."Dianetics predates Hubbard's classification of Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy". Early in 1951, he expanded his writings to include teachings related to the soul, or "thetan". Dianetics is practiced by several independent Dianetics-only groups not connected with Scientology, and also Free Zone or Independent Scientologists. The Church of Scientology has prosecuted a number of people in court for unauthorized publication of Scientology and Dianetics copyrighted material.

General semantics

General semantics is a self-improvement and therapy program begun in the 1920s that seeks to regulate human mental habits and behaviors. After partial launches under the names human engineering and humanology, Polish-American originator Alfred Korzybski (1879–1950) fully launched the program as general semantics in 1933 with the publication of Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics.

In Science and Sanity, general semantics is presented as both a theoretical and a practical system whose adoption can reliably alter human behavior in the direction of greater sanity. In the 1947 preface to the third edition of Science and Sanity, Korzybski wrote: "We need not blind ourselves with the old dogma that 'human nature cannot be changed', for we find that it can be changed." However, in the opinion of a majority of psychiatrists, the tenets and practices of general semantics are not an effective way of treating patients with psychological or mental illnesses. While Korzybski considered his program to be empirically based and to strictly follow the scientific method, general semantics has been described as veering into the domain of pseudoscience.Starting around 1940, university English professor S. I. Hayakawa (1906–1992), speech professor Wendell Johnson, speech professor Irving J. Lee, and others assembled elements of general semantics into a package suitable for incorporation into mainstream communications curricula. The Institute of General Semantics, which Korzybski and co-workers founded in 1938, continues today. General semantics as a movement has waned considerably since the 1950s, although many of its ideas live on in other movements, such as neuro-linguistic programming and rational emotive behavior therapy.

Gerald Haslam

Gerald William Haslam (born March 18, 1937) is an author who has focused on rural and small towns in California's Great Central Valley including its poor and working class people of all colors. A native of Oildale, California, Haslam has received numerous literary awards.

Hayakawa

Hayakawa (written: 早川) is a Japanese surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Chuko Hayakawa (born 1945), Japanese politician

Hiromi Hayakawa (1982-2017), Mexican singer

Kazue Hayakawa (早川 一枝, born 1947), Japanese swimmer

Kenichi Hayakawa (born 1986), Japanese male badminton player

Kiyotaka Hayakawa (1946–2005), Japanese handball player

Nami Hayakawa (born 1984), Japanese athlete

Norio Hayakawa (born 1944), American activist

Noritsugu Hayakawa (1881–1942), Japanese businessman

Ren Hayakawa (born 1987), Japanese female archer

S. I. Hayakawa (1906–1992), semanticist and United States Senator from California

Sakura Hayakawa (born 1997), Japanese rhythmic gymnast

Sayo Hayakawa (born 1983), Japanese fashion model

Sessue Hayakawa (1889–1973), motion picture actor

Tokuji Hayakawa (1894–1981), founder of Hayakawa Kinzoku Kougyou (the present-day Sharp Corporation)

Tomonobu Hayakawa (born 1977), former Japanese footballer

Hayakawa Senkichirō (1863–1922), Japanese politician and president of the South Manchurian Railway

Lady Hayakawa (died 1613), a common nickname for one of Ujiyasu's daughters and Ujizane Imagawa's wife

John V. Tunney

John Varick Tunney (June 26, 1934 – January 12, 2018) was a United States Senator and Representative from the state of California.

List of United States Senators from California

California elects United States Senators to Class 1 and Class 3. The state has been represented by 44 people in the Senate since it was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850. Its current U.S. Senators are Democrats Dianne Feinstein and Kamala Harris.

Pete Wilson

Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American politician. A member of the Republican Party, he served as a United States Senator and as the 36th Governor of California.

Born in Lake Forest, Illinois, Wilson graduated from the UC Berkeley School of Law after serving in the United States Marine Corps. He established a legal practice in San Diego and campaigned for Republicans such as Richard Nixon and Barry Goldwater. Wilson won election to the California State Assembly in 1966 and became the Mayor of San Diego in 1971. He held that office until 1983, when he became a member of the United States Senate.

In the Senate, Wilson supported the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, while he opposed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. He resigned from the Senate after winning the 1990 California gubernatorial election. As governor, he signed a three-strikes law and supported energy deregulation and term limits. He was also an advocate for California Proposition 187, which established a state-run citizenship screening system with the intention of preventing illegal immigrants from using social services. He sought the presidential nomination in the 1996 Republican primaries but quickly dropped out of the race.

Wilson retired from public office after serving two terms as governor. Since leaving office, he has worked for several businesses and has been affiliated with several other organizations. He is a distinguished visiting fellow at the conservative Hoover Institution. Wilson also co-chaired Arnold Schwarzenegger's successful 2003 gubernatorial campaign.

Philadelphia Society

The Philadelphia Society is a membership organization the purpose of which is "to sponsor the interchange of ideas through discussion and writing, in the interest of deepening the intellectual foundation of a free and ordered society, and of broadening the understanding of its basic principles and traditions". The membership of the Society tends to be composed of persons holding conservative or libertarian political views, and many of those associated with the Society have exercised considerable influence over the development of the conservative movement in the United States.

It was founded in 1964 by Donald Lipsett in conjunction with Bill Buckley, Milton Friedman, Frank Meyer, and Ed Feulner, and the former Presidents of the Society include Henry Regnery, Edwin J. Feulner, Russell Kirk, Mel Bradford, Forrest McDonald, T. Kenneth Cribb, M. Stanton Evans, Ellis Sandoz, Edwin Meese, Claes G. Ryn, Midge Decter, Roger Ream, Steven F. Hayward, Lee Edwards, William F. Buckley, and George H. Nash.Notable speakers at past meetings of the Society have included Larry Arnhart, Andrew Bacevich, Wendell Berry, Robert Bork, Mel Bradford, Warren T. Brookes, William F. Buckley, Vladimir Bukovsky, Ronald Coase, T. Kenneth Cribb, Midge Decter, M. Stanton Evans, Edwin J. Feulner, Milton Friedman, George Gilder, Victor Davis Hanson, William Hague, S. I. Hayakawa, Friedrich von Hayek, Henry Hazlitt, W.H. Hutt, Herman Kahn, Russell Kirk, Irving Kristol, Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Forrest McDonald, Edwin Meese, Frank Meyer, Charles Murray, Robert Nisbet, Michael Novak, Richard Pipes, Norman Podhoretz, Henry Regnery, William A. Rusher, Paul Ryan, Ellis Sandoz, Shelby Steele, George J. Stigler, Terry Teachout, Edward H. Teller, and Eric Voegelin.

Robert Finch (American politician)

Robert Hutchinson Finch (October 9, 1925 – October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from La Canada Flintridge, California. In 1967, he served as the 38th Lieutenant Governor of California. Following Richard Nixon's presidential campaign in 1968, he was appointed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1969. He was the Counselor to the President from 1970 until 1972. During the 1976 California United States Senate election, he lost in the Republican primary to S.I. Hayakawa.

San Francisco State University

San Francisco State University (commonly referred to as San Francisco State, SF State and SFSU) is a public university in San Francisco. As part of the 23-campus California State University system, the university offers 118 different bachelor's degrees, 94 master's degrees, 5 doctoral degrees (including two Doctor of Education degrees, a Doctor of Physical Therapy, a Ph.D. in education and a Doctor of Physical Therapy Science), along with 26 teaching credentials among six academic colleges.The university was originally founded in 1899 as a state-run normal school for training school teachers, obtaining state college status in 1921 and state university status in 1972. The 141 acre campus is located in the southwest part of the city, less than two miles from the Pacific coast. San Francisco State has 12 varsity athletic teams which compete at the NCAA Division II level, most as members of the California Collegiate Athletic Association.

Shall We Tell the President?

Shall We Tell the President? is a 1977 novel by English author Jeffrey Archer. A revised edition was published in 1986.

In the first edition, a plot to kill the President of the United States, Edward Kennedy, is foiled by a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent working with the head of the FBI. A love story complicates the plot. The book includes descriptive details of official Washington, for which the author lists sources.

After the success of Kane and Abel and The Prodigal Daughter, in the revised edition Archer replaced Kennedy with the fictional character of Florentyna Kane, and original Vice President Dale Bumpers with the real-life Senator Bill Bradley of New Jersey. The author makes frequent references to William Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar.

U.S. English (organization)

U.S. English is the umbrella name for two American political advocacy groups founded in 1983 by former United States Senator S.I. Hayakawa to advocate the adoption of English as the official language of the United States.

The group operates two separate nonprofit entities out of its headquarters in Washington, D.C.—U.S. English, Inc. and the U.S. English Foundation.

United States congressional delegations from California

These are tables of congressional delegations from California to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

Warren M. Robbins

Warren Murray Robbins (September 4, 1923 – December 4, 2008) was an American art collector, whose collection of African art led to the formation of the National Museum of African Art at the Smithsonian Institution.

Robbins was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, on September 4, 1923, to Jewish immigrants from Ukraine. He attend the University of New Hampshire where he earned a bachelor's degree in English in 1945. He was awarded a master's degree from the University of Michigan in 1949, majoring in history. After graduating from college, he taught briefly at Nurnberg American High School and then became a cultural affairs officer for the Department of State.While working as a cultural attaché for the State Department at the United States Embassy in Bonn, he was walking the streets of Hamburg in the late 1950s or early 1960s with future United States Senator S. I. Hayakawa when he impulsively entered into an antiques shop and spent $15 on a carved-wood figure of a man and woman, the work of the Yoruba people of Nigeria. Back in Hamburg a year later, he spent $1,000 on 32 African masks, textiles and other pieces in a different shop.Returning to the United States, Robbins purchased a home in Washington, D.C. which he decorated with the 33 items he had brought back from Europe, and adorned the rooms with tropical plants to evoke the jungles of Africa. After an article was printed about his collection in The Washington Post, he invited in curious visitors who started appearing at his door to take a look. He created this informal museum in his basement as part of an effort to promote cultural communication during the Civil Rights Movement. Robbins was unapologetic in the face of complaints that he was a white man operating a museum of African art, noting that "I make no apologies for being white. You don't have to be Chinese to appreciate ancient ceramics, and you don't have to be a fish to be an ichthyologist."He established the beginnings of a freestanding museum near Capitol Hill in 1963, raising $13,000 and taking a mortgage to purchase for $35,000 half of a home at 316-18 A Street Northeast that had been the residence of abolitionist Frederick Douglass from 1871 to 1877. When it opened in May 1964, it was the first museum in the United States dedicated to African art exclusively. The Frederick Douglass Institute of Negro Arts and History was established in 1966. In addition to Robbins' existing collection, the museum also displayed items borrowed from Life magazine photographer Eliot Elisofon and items on loan from the University of Pennsylvania Museum.In succeeding years, Robbins raised money to acquire the remaining half of the Douglass house, naming it the Museum of African Art. As the collection grew, he purchased adjoining residences, with his museum ultimately including nine townhouses, 16 garages and two carriage houses.His first visit to Africa was in 1973, by which time his museum's collections had grown to 5,000 pieces with a staff of 20. Robbins had raised funds to purchase from a Manhattan art gallery a bearded icon called Afo-A-Kom, considered sacred by the Kom people of West Africa, which had been taken from a hill-top village in Cameroon in 1966. Returning the figure, Robbins was welcomed by Nsom Nggue, then king of the Kom people, greeted by men and women in tribal dress.Robbins lobbied his friends in Congress to have the Smithsonian Institution assume management of the collection, which took place in 1979. He was the museum's first director, remaining in the position until 1983 when he was named founding director emeritus and a Smithsonian senior scholar, and replaced as director by Sylvia H. Williams. The museum was relocated to the National Mall in 1987 and renamed the National Museum of African Art. By the time of his death in 2008, the Museum included more than nine thousand objects from Africa, including headdresses, pottery, copper reliefs, musical instruments, baskets, and ceremonial objects, as well as more than 30 thousand volumes on African art, culture and history.Robbins died at age 85 on December 4, 2008 at George Washington University Hospital from complications resulting from a fall at his home a month before his death. His interment was at Congressional Cemetery.

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