Sándor Petőfi

Sándor Petőfi (Hungarian: [ˈʃaːndor ˈpɛtøːfi]; Petrovics;[2][3] Slovak: Alexander Petrovič;[2] Serbian: Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849)[1] was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He is the author of the Nemzeti dal (National Song), which is said to have inspired the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire. It is most likely that he died in the Battle of Segesvár, one of the last battles of the war.

Sándor Petőfi
Alexander Petrovics (la)
Portrait of Petőfi painted by Miklós Barabás
Portrait of Petőfi painted by Miklós Barabás
Born1 January 1823
Kiskőrös, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire
Died31 July 1849 (aged 26)[1]
Fehéregyháza, Grand Principality of Transylvania, Austrian Empire; (Now Albești, Romania)
OccupationPoet, revolutionary
Notable worksNational Song, John the Valiant
Júlia Szendrey (m. 1847)
ChildrenZoltán Petőfi
Political partyOpposition Party

Philosophy career

Early life

Petőfi was born in the early New Year's morning of 1823, in the town of Kiskőrös, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire. The population of Kiskőrös was predominantly of Slovak origin as a consequence of the Habsburgs' reconstruction policy designed to settle, where possible, non-Hungarians in areas devastated during the Turkish wars.[4] His birth certificate, in Latin, gives his name as "Alexander Petrovics",[2][3] where "Alexander" is the Latin equivalent of the Hungarian "Sándor". His father, István (Stefan) Petrovics, was a village butcher, innkeeper and he was a second-generation Serb[5][6] or Slovak[1][7][8] immigrant to the Great Hungarian Plain.[9] Mária Hrúz, Petőfi's mother, was a servant and laundress before her marriage. She was of Slovak descent and spoke Hungarian with something of an accent.[4][10][11] Petőfi's parents first met in Maglód, married in Aszód and the family moved to Kiskőrös a year before the birth of the poet.[4]

Petrovics Hruz
Petőfi's parents (painted by Petrich Soma Orlay)
Petofi anyak
Petőfi's entry in the parish register in Latin (kept at the Kiskőrös Petőfi Museum)

The family lived for some time in Szabadszállás, where his father owned a slaughterhouse. Within two years, the family moved to Kiskunfélegyháza, and Petőfi always viewed the city as his true home. His father tried to give his son the best possible education and sent him to a lyceum, but when Sándor was 15, the family went through a financially difficult period, due to the Danube floods of 1838 and the bankruptcy of a relative. Sándor had to leave the lyceum which he was attending in Selmecbánya (today Banská Štiavnica in Slovakia). He held small jobs in various theatres in Pest, worked as a teacher in Ostffyasszonyfa, and was a soldier in Sopron.

After a restless period of travelling, Petőfi attended college at Pápa, where he met Mór Jókai. A year later in 1842, his poem "A borozó" (The Wine Drinker) was first published in Athenaeum under the name Sándor Petrovics. On 3 November the same year, he published the poem under the surname "Petőfi" for the first time.

Petőfi was more interested in the theatre. In 1842 he joined a travelling theatre, but had to leave it to earn money. He wrote for a newspaper, but could not make enough money. Malnourished and sick, he went to Debrecen, where his friends helped him get back on his feet.

In 1844 he walked from Debrecen to Pest to find a publisher for his poems and he succeeded. His poems were becoming increasingly popular. He relied on folkloric elements and popular, traditional song-like verses.

Among his longer works is the epic "John the Valiant" (1845). The poem is a fairy-tale notable for its length, 370 quatrains divided into 27 chapters, and for its clever wordplay. It has gained immense popularity in Hungary,[note 1] however, he felt influenced by his editor, Imre Vahot, to continue writing folklore-style poems, while he wanted to use his Western-oriented education and write about growing revolutionary passions. (The government's censorship would have made such works difficult to publish.)

Marriage and family

Szendrey julia
Júlia Szendrey, Petőfi's wife

In 1846, he met Júlia Szendrey in Transylvania. They married the next year, despite the opposition of her father, and spent their honeymoon at the castle of Count Sándor Teleki), the only aristocrat among Petőfi's friends. Their only son Zoltán was born on 15 December 1848.[12]

Political career

Petőfi became more possessed by thoughts of a global revolution. He and Júlia moved to Pest, where he joined a group of like-minded students and intellectuals who regularly met at Café Pilvax. They worked on promoting Hungarian as the language of literature and theatre, formerly based on German.[13] The first permanent Hungarian theatre (Pesti Magyar Színház), which later became the National Theater, was opened in that time (1837).

Petőfi Sándor
Petőfi's daguerreotype, 1844

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848

Among the various young leaders of the revolution, called Márciusi Ifjak (Youths of March), Petőfi was the key in starting the revolution in Pest. He was co-author and author, respectively, of the two most important written documents: the 12 Pont (12 Points, demands to the Habsburg Governor-General) and the "Nemzeti Dal", his revolutionary poem.

When the news of the revolution in Vienna reached them on the 15th, Petőfi and his friends decided to change the date of the "National Assembly" (a rally where a petition to the Hungarian noblemen's assembly would be approved by the people), from 19 March to the 15th. On the morning of the 15th, Petőfi and the revolutionaries began to march around the city of Pest, reading his poem and the "12 Points" to the growing crowd, which attracted thousands. Visiting printers, they declared an end to censorship and printed the poem and "12 Points".

Crowds forced the mayor to sign the "12 Points" and later held a mass demonstration in front of the newly built National Museum, then crossed to Buda on the other bank of the Danube. When the crowd rallied in front of the Imperial governing council, the representatives of Emperor Ferdinand felt they had to sign the "12 Points". As one of the points was freedom for political prisoners, the crowd moved to greet the newly freed revolutionary poet Mihály Táncsics.

Petőfi's popularity waned as the memory of the glorious day faded, and the revolution went the way of high politics: to the leadership of the nobles. Those in the noblemen's Assembly in Pozsony, (today Bratislava) had been pushing for slower reforms at the same time, which they delivered to the Emperor on the 13th, but events had overtaken them briefly. Petőfi disagreed with the Assembly, and criticised their view of the goals and methods of the Revolution. (His colleague Táncsics was imprisoned again by the new government.) In the general election, Petőfi ran in his native area, but did not win a seat. At this time, he wrote his most serious poem, Az Apostol (The Apostle). It was an epic about a fictional revolutionary who, after much suffering, attempts, but fails, to assassinate a fictitious king.

Petőfi joined the Hungarian Revolutionary Army and fought under the Polish Liberal General Józef Bem, in the Transylvanian army. The army was initially successful against Habsburg troops, but after Tsar Nicholas I of Russia intervened to support the Habsburgs, they were defeated. Petőfi was last seen alive in the Battle of Segesvár on 31 July 1849.


Petőfi is believed to have been killed in action during the battle of Segesvár by the Imperial Russian Army. A Russian military doctor recorded an account of Petőfi's death in his diary. As his body was never officially found, rumours of Petőfi's survival persisted. In his autobiographical roman a clef Political Fashions (Politikai divatok, 1862), Mór Jókai imagined his late friend's "resurrection". In the novel Petőfi (the character named Pusztafi) returns ten years later as a shabby, déclassé figure who has lost his faith in everything, including poetry.

Although for many years his death at Segesvár had been assumed, in the late 1980s Soviet investigators found archives that revealed that after the battle about 1,800 Hungarian prisoners of war were marched to Siberia. Alternative theories suggest that he was one of them and died of tuberculosis in 1856.[14] In 1990, an expedition was organised to Barguzin, Buryatia, Siberia, where archaeologists claimed to have unearthed Petőfi's skeleton.[15] Furthermore, in Hungary they have a saying after him: "Eltűnt, mint Petőfi a ködben" (Disappeared, like Petőfi in the fog).


Petőfi started his career as a poet with "popular situation songs", a genre to which his first published poem, A borozó ("The Wine Drinker", 1842), belongs. It is the song of a drinker praising the healing power of wine to drive away all troubles. This kind of pseudo-folk song was not unusual in Hungarian poetry of the 1840s, but Petőfi soon developed an original and fresh voice which made him stand out. He wrote many folk song-like poems on the subjects of wine, love, romantic robbers etc. Many of these early poems have become classics, for example the love poem A virágnak megtiltani nem lehet ("You Cannot Forbid the Flower", 1843), or Befordultam a konyhára ("I Turned into the Kitchen", 1843) which uses the ancient metaphor of love and fire in a playful and somewhat provocative way.

The influence of folk poetry and 19th-century populism is very significant in Petőfi's work, but other influences are also present: Petőfi drew on sources such as topoi of contemporary almanac-poetry in an inventive way, and was familiar with the works of major literary figures of his day, including Percy Bysshe Shelley, Pierre-Jean de Béranger and Heinrich Heine.

Petőfi's early poetry was often interpreted as some kind of role-playing, due to the broad range of situations and voices he created and used. Recent interpretations however call attention to the fact that in some sense all lyrical poetry can be understood as role-playing, which makes the category of "role-poems" (coined especially for Petőfi) superfluous. While using a variety of voices, Petőfi created a well-formed persona for himself: a jaunty, stubborn loner who loves wine, hates all kinds of limits and boundaries and is passionate in all he feels. In poems such as Jövendölés ("Prophecy", 1843) he imagines himself as someone who will die young after doing great things. This motif recurs in the revolutionary poetry of his later years.

The influence of contemporary almanac-poetry can be best seen in the poem cycle Cipruslombok Etelke sírjára ("Branches of Cypress for Etelke's Tomb", 1845). These sentimental poems, which are about death, grief, love, memory and loneliness were written after a love interest of Petőfi's, Etelke Csapó, died.

In the years 1844–45 Petőfi's poetry became more and more subtle and mature. New subjects appeared, such as landscape. His most influential landscape poem is Az Alföld ("The Plains"), in which he says that his homeland, the Hungarian plains are more beautiful and much dearer than the Carpathian mountains; it was to become the foundation of a long-lived fashion: that of the plains as the typical Hungarian landscape.

Petőfi's poetic skills solidified and broadened. He became a master of using different kinds of voices, for example his poem A régi, jó Gvadányi ("The Good Old Gvadányi") imitates the style of József Gvadányi, a Hungarian poet who lived at the end of the 18th century.

Several of Petőfi's poems were set to music by the young Friedrich Nietzsche, who composed as a hobby while studying classics at Pforta before beginning his career in philosophy.

Petőfi maintained a lifelong friendship with János Arany, another significant poet of the time. Arany was the godfather of Petőfi's son Zoltán.

Honours and memorials

Petofi Budapest
Petőfi statue in Budapest

After the Revolution was crushed, Petőfi's writing became immensely popular, while his rebelliousness served as a role model ever since for Hungarian revolutionaries and would-be revolutionaries of every political colour.

Hungarian composer and contemporary Franz Liszt composed the piano piece Dem Andenken Petőfis (In Petőfi's Memory) in his honour. Liszt has also set several of Petőfi's poems to music.

In 1911, a statue of Sándor Petőfi was erected in Pressburg (Pozsony, present-day Bratislava), on the Main Square. In 1918, after the army of the newly independent First Czechoslovak Republic occupied the city, the statue was dynamited.[16][17] After this sculpture was boarded over round temporarily until its removal, and replaced with a statue of Slovak poet Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav.[18] Today, there is a statue of Petőfi in the Medic Garden (Medická záhrada).[19]

During the late 1940s, Boris Pasternak produced acclaimed translations of Petőfi's poems into the Russian language.

Today, schools, streets and squares are named after him throughout Hungary and Hungarian-speaking regions of neighbouring states; in Budapest alone, there are 11 Petőfi streets and 4 Petőfi squares, see: Public place names of Budapest. A national radio station (Radio Petőfi), a bridge in Budapest and a street in Sofia, Bulgaria also bear his name, as well as the asteroid 4483 Petöfi, a member of the Hungaria family. Every Hungarian primary school child learns some of his poems by heart.

The Hungarian 10 Forint banknote valid between 1947-1992 depicted Sándor Petőfi on the obverse.

Petőfi has a larger than life terra cotta statue near the Pest end of Erzsébet Bridge, sculpted by Miklós Izsó and Adolf Huszár. Similar Petőfi statues were established in many other cities, as well, during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.[20]

Petofi Sandor CPL
The bust of Sándor Petőfi at Cleveland Public Library
Sándor Petőfi memorial in Tarnów 1
Sándor Petőfi memorial in Tarnów

Hugó Meltzl was who made well known the works of Sándor Petőfi in abroad. [note 2]

In Uzhhorod, Ukraine, there is a city square named after Sándor Petőfi.

In Oradea, Romania, there is a street and a park named after Sándor Petőfi.

In Tarnów, Poland there is a Petőfi Memorial Square with hand carved Székely gate leading to Petőfi's bust.

Postage stamps issued by Hungary:

  • two Postage stamps issued on 12 June 1919 in his honor[21]
  • five Postage stamps issued on 13 January 1923 on the centenary of his birth.[22]
  • stamp issued on 16 October 1948 in the Poets and Writers series[23]
  • three stamps on 31 July 1949 on the account of the death centenary of Sándor Petőfi[24]
  • a stamp was issued on 15 March 1952 in the series of the Heroes of the 1848 Revolution[25]
  • three stamps issued on 30 December 1972 commemorating the sesquicentennial of his birth[26]


  1. ^ It has several musical and film adaptations and is today considered a classic of Hungarian literature.
  2. ^ E.g. Petőfi, Gedichte. München, 1867; Petőfi's Wolken. Lübeck, 1882; Petőfi's ausgewählte Gedichte. München, 1883.


  1. ^ a b c Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon 1000–1990. Mek.oszk.hu. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  2. ^ a b c LUCINDA MALLOWS, BRADT TRAVEL GUIDE BRATISLAVA, THE, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 7
  3. ^ a b Sándor Petőfi, George Szirtes, John the Valiant, Hesperus Press, 2004, p. 1
  4. ^ a b c Anton N. Nyerges, Petőfi, Hungarian Cultural Foundation, 1973, pp. 22–197
  5. ^ Vesti – Na današnji dan, 31. jul. B92 (31 July 2006). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  6. ^ Kahn, Robert, A. A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918.
  7. ^ Élet És Irodalom Archived 17 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Es.hu (16 May 2010). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  8. ^ Nemzetközi Magyar Filológiai Társaság (1996). Hungarian studies: HS., Volumes 11–12. Akadémiai Kiadó.
  9. ^ Rein Taagepera, The Finno-Ugric republics and the Russian state, Routledge, 1999, p. 84
  10. ^ Sandor Petofi Archived 30 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Budapestguide.uw.hu. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  11. ^ Illyés Gyula: Petőfi Sándor. Mek.iif.hu. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  12. ^ Petőfi Zoltán. 40 felett. retrieved on 15 March 2012.
  13. ^ A PESTI MAGYAR SZÍNHÁZ ÉPÍTÉSE ÉS MEGSZERVEZÉSE György Székely – Ferenc Kerényi (eds.): MAGYAR SZÍNHÁZTÖRTÉNET 1790–1873. Chapter I.III.4. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó 1990
  14. ^ Sandor Petofi (Hungarian poet) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  15. ^ Adam Makkai (1996). In Quest of the 'Miracle Stag'. University of Illinois Press. p. 298. ISBN 0-9642094-0-3.
  16. ^ "A vándorló Petőfi". Madách-Posonium Kft. n.d. Archived from the original on 24 January 2005. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  17. ^ Ferenc Keszeli, "Pozsony... Anno... Századfordulós évtizedek, hangulatok képes levelezõlapokon ", p. 122, p. 150, p. 154 (Hungarian)
  18. ^ Ferenc Keszeli, "Pozsony... Anno... Századfordulós évtizedek, hangulatok képes levelezõlapokon ", p. 150, p. 154 (Hungarian)
  19. ^ Mallows, Lucinda. Bratislava. p. 191. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  20. ^ Marcel Cornis-Pope, John Neubauer, HISTORY OF THE LITERARY CULTURES OF EAST-CENTRAL E, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010, pp 15–16
  21. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1919/page/3
  22. ^ Stanley Gibbons Catalogue Part 2 Austria and Hungary, 2014
  23. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/191924-S%C3%A1ndor_Pet%C5%91fi_1823-1849_Johan_the_Hero-Poets_and_Writers-Hungary
  24. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1949
  25. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/178819-Sándor_Petőfi_1823-1849-Freedom_fighters_of_1848-Hungary
  26. ^ colnect.com/en/stamps/list/country/6955-Hungary/year/1972/page/8

External links

Anna Cave

The Anna Cave (also called Petőfi Cave) is a natural limestone cave in Miskolc-Lillafüred, Hungary, near the waterfall.

The cave was discovered in 1833, when opening a shaft in the limestone in order to provide the iron furnace at Hámor with water. It soon became a tourist attraction, even Sándor Petőfi visited it in 1847. However, in the second part of the century, when the iron furnaces were closed, the cave was forgotten.

It was opened again in 1912. In 1927, when the Palace Hotel was built, new caverns were found. The entrance that's used today was constructed then.

The cave has not only nice limestone structures, but also plant fossils.

The cave can be visited all year round.

Battle of Segesvár

The Battle of Segesvár (Transylvania, now Sighișoara, Romania) was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 31 July 1849 between the Hungarian revolutionary army supplemented by Polish volunteers under the command of General Józef Bem and the Russian V Corps under General Alexander von Lüders in ally with the Austrian army led by General Eduard Clam-Gallas. The battle was won by the Russian-Austrian army and it is presumed that the Hungarian poet and national hero Sándor Petőfi died in the battlefield, though his body was never found.

Csokonai Theatre

The Csokonai Theatre is the oldest and largest theatre in Debrecen, Hungary. Designed by Antal Szkalnitzky with Moorish styled ornamentations, the theatre opened on Kossuth Lajos utca in 1865, with Róza Laborfalvi as Gertrude in a performance of József Katona's 1819 play Bánk bán.Inside, the theatre is richly decorated, and outside are sculptures of Sándor Petőfi, Ferenc Kazinczy, Mihály Vörösmarty, Károly Kisfaludy, Ferenc Kölcsey, and Mihály Csokonai Vitéz, after whom the theatre was named in 1916.Among the important actors that have performed in the theatre are Lujza Blaha, Kornélia Prielle, Csortos Gyula, Kálmán Rózsahegyi, László Mensáros, István Dégi, László Márkus, Zoltán Latinovits, József Szendrő, and Géza Hofi.

Dem Andenken Petőfis

Dem Andenken Petőfis (In Petőfi's Memory; its original Hungarian title was "Petőfi szellemének") is a piece for piano by Franz Liszt, who was a contemporary of Sándor Petőfi. Written in 1877, it is an elegy, like many of Liszt's works. This was written in memory of the Hungarian nationalist and poet Sándor Petőfi, whose poems Liszt sometimes set to music.

It was one of the ABRSM's grade 8 piano exam pieces in 2005–06.

Imre Augustich

Imre Augustich or Agostich (Slovene: Imre Augustič September 29/30, 1837 – July 17, 1879) was a Slovene writer, poet, journalist, and representative of Vas county in the National Assembly of Hungary. He was the author of Prijátel (Friend), the first newspaper in Prekmurje Slovene.

Augustich was born in Murski Petrovci (Prekmurje). His father, Lajos Augustich, was a petty nobleman and economic officer for the Szapáry family. His mother, Julianna Zanaty, was born in Szombathely. Augustich studied in Szombathely and Budapest, and early in his career was a notary for the Batthyány family in Murska Sobota and Alsószölnök, and became a reporter and journalist in Budapest.

The first works that Augustich wrote in Hungarian supported magyarization in the Slovene March. Augustich translated verses by Sándor Petőfi, János Arany, Pál Gyulai, and others, at the same time renewing Prekmurje Slovene language and literature.

He died of tuberculosis in Budapest.

Johnny Corncob

Johnny Corncob (Hungarian: János vitéz) is a 1973 Hungarian animated adventure film directed by Marcell Jankovics. It tells the story of a young man who goes on an adventure as a soldier, while longing to be reunited with the woman he loves. The film is based on the 1845 epic poem János Vitéz by Sándor Petőfi. It was the first Hungarian animated feature film.

János Fliszár

János Fliszár (Slovene: Janoš Flisar; June 21, 1856 – June 21, 1947) was a Hungarian Slovenian translator, poet, writer, journalist, and teacher.

He was born in the village of Šalamenci in the Prekmurje region of the Kingdom of Hungary; his parents were Miklós Fliszár and Ilona Zsibrik. He enrolled in the elementary school in Puconci in 1862, and later studied in Nemescsó near Kőszeg. Until 1868 he studied at the Lutheran Lyceum in Sopron, graduating in June 1875. In October the same year he started working as teacher in Križevci. Hhere he married to daughter of the writer János Berke in 1878 (she died in 1905).

In 1911 he retired and worked in Murska Sobota. Until 1923 he worked as the director of the Murska Sobota dormitory.

Fliszár wrote some poetry and translated the Hungarian literature (by János Arany, Kálmán Mikszáth, Sándor Petőfi, Mór Jókai, etc.). His translations were published in the United States, in the newspaper Amerikanszki Szlovencov glász, published by the Hungarian Slovenian and Prekmurje immigrants to the United States.

After World War I, Fliszár lived in Yugoslavia and supported radical Hungarian irredentism. His Magyar-vend szótár (Hungarian-Slovene Dictionary) contains 50,000 words.

János Görbe

János Görbe born as Görbe János (November 12, 1912, Jászárokszállás - September 5, 1968, Budapest) was a prominent Hungarian actor of film and theater. He was the father of actress Nóra Görbe, star of the popular 80's TV series, "Linda".

In the course of his career, he worked with the most prominent contemporary directors in Hungary, Károly Makk, Miklós Jancsó and Zoltán Fábri. His most famous films include the Cannes favorite The Round-Up (1965 film) by Jancsó or hu:Föltámadott a tenger in which he played Hungary's national hero, poet Sándor Petőfi who perished in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 against the Habsburgs.

His movies Ház a sziklák alatt (The House Under the Rocks by Makk, 1959), Húsz óra by Fábri (Twenty Hours, 1965), Ének a búzamezőkről (1947), and Emberek a Havason (People on the Alps/Men on the Mountain, 1942) are also considered landmarks of Hungarian and international cinematic history.

Although apolitical all his life, Görbe recited Petőfi poems to the cheering crowd during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 against the USSR, standing on the balcony of Debrecen Theater.

János Görbe was also an acclaimed "Tiborc" in János Katona's Bánk bán. The role of Bánk was played by his The Round-Up (1965 film) co-star Zoltán Latinovits.

Görbe won a Kossuth Prize in 1951 - Hungary's most important prize for an artist.

János Kardos

János Kardos, also known in Slovene as Janoš Kardoš (around February 13, 1801 in Újtölgyes, Kingdom of Hungary, today Noršinci, Slovenia – August 12, 1875 in Őrihodos, Austria-Hungary, today Hodoš, Slovenia) was a Hungarian Slovenian Lutheran priest, teacher, and writer.

He worked and lived in Hodoš, in what was then known as the Slovene March and is today referred to as Prekmurje. After finishing studies in theology in Vienna, he returned to his homeland and wrote and translated several ecclesiastical books and schoolbooks. Kardos was the first to translate works by Hungarian writers and poets from Hungarian into the Prekmurje dialect. Among others, he translated works by Sándor Petőfi, János Arany, Mór Jókai, Sándor Kisfaludy, and Mihály Vörösmarty.


Kiskőrös (Slovak: Malý Kereš / Kiškereš, Yiddish: קישקעריש‎ Kishkerish, German: Körösch, Croatian: Kireš;) is a town in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary. It is located at around 46°37′14″N 19°17′19″E. Sándor Petőfi, the national poet of Hungary, was born here.

Kossuth Memorial

Kossuth Memorial is public monument dedicated to former Hungarian Regent-President Lajos Kossuth in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building on Lajos Kossuth Square in Budapest. The memorial is an important Hungarian national symbol and scene of official celebrations.

After the death of Lajos Kossuth (21 March 1894) and his sumptuous funeral in Budapest a public subscription was almost immediately announced to build a memorial for the leader of the 1848 Revolution. During the next years 850,000 forints came together, a huge sum in those days. In 1906 the competition was won by János Horvay after long debates about the style and message of the memorial. Although the public was dissatisfied with Horvay’s idea the sculptor began working. Until 1914 all the figures of the group were completed except Kossuth himself but then the work came to a halt because of World War I. The colossal Ruskica marble plinth remained in the quarry in Transylvania and was confiscated by the invading Romanian troops. In the years following the war Horvay completed the Kossuth statue and a new plinth was made of simple limestone.

The first Kossuth Memorial was officially inaugurated on 6 November 1927 by Governor Miklós Horthy before a crowd of 100,000 people. The speaker of the celebration was Albert Apponyi. The group depicted the members of the first Hungarian parliamentary government: Lajos Kossuth (in the middle), Pál Esterházy, Gábor Klauzál, József Eötvös, István Széchenyi, Prime Minister Lajos Batthyány, Bertalan Szemere, Ferenc Deák and Lázár Mészáros. Horvay’s composition was criticised because Kossuth played only a minor constitutional role in the first cabinet. Art critics condemned the melancholic atmosphere of the memorial and the sculpture remained somewhat unpopular.

In 1950 the government of Mátyás Rákosi, the Stalinist dictator of Hungary ordered the dismantling of the „pessimistic” memorial. Zsigmond Kisfaludi Strobl made a new bronze statue of Kossuth pointing towards a brighter future with a raised hand. Although the sculpture is a typical product of its age, Kisfaludi Strobl was a talented artist who managed to picture Kossuth as a great orator. The new memorial was inaugurated in 1952. The six other figures (among them poet Sándor Petőfi) were made by András Kocsis and Lajos Ungváry. The plinth was clad with red marble blocks.

The dismantled Horvay-group was given to the town of Dombóvár in 1959 where the figures were separately re-erected in 1973 in the City Park.

The Hungarian government launched the overall rehabilitation of Kossuth Lajos Square in 2012 after a long period of planning. A parliamentary decision ordered the reconstruction of the historical sculptures of the square as they appeared in 1944. This means that the present-day Kossuth Memorial will be demolished and an exact copy will be made of the original sculpture group that was preserved in Dombóvár.

List of places in Târgu Mureș

The following is a list of notables places in Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Mihály Csokonai Vitéz

Mihály Csokonai Vitéz (Hungarian: [ˈmihaːj ˈt͡ʃokonɒi ˈviteːz]; archaically English: Michael Csokonai Vitez; 17 November 1773 – 28 January 1805) was a Hungarian poet, a main person in the Hungarian literary revival of the Enlightenment.

Having been educated in Debrecen, where he was born, Csokonai was appointed while still very young to the professorship of poetry there. Shortly thereafter he was deprived of the post on account of the immorality of his conduct.

The remaining twelve years of his short life were passed in almost constant wretchedness, and he died in his native town, in his mother's house, when only thirty-one years of age.

Csokonai was a genial and original poet, with something of the lyrical fire of Sándor Petőfi, and wrote a mock-heroic poem called Dorottya or the Triumph of the Ladies at the Carnival, two or three comedies or farces, and a number of love-poems. Most of his works have been published by Schedel (1844–1847).

Mihály Tompa

Mihály Tompa (September 28, 1819 – July 30, 1868), was a Hungarian lyric poet, Calvinist minister and corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Together with János Arany and Sándor Petőfi they formed the triumvirate of young great poets of the Hungarian folk-national literature of the 19th century.

Nemzeti dal

The Nemzeti dal ("National Song") is a poem written by Sándor Petőfi that is said to have inspired the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Petőfi read the poem aloud on March 15 in Vörösmarty Square in Budapest to a gathering crowd, who by the end were chanting the refrain as they began to march around the city, seizing the presses, liberating political prisoners, and declaring the end of Austrian rule.

Hungarians celebrate the anniversary of the revolution on March 15. Red-white-green ribbons are worn to commemorate the fallen revolutionaries and the ideal of the revolution. Hungary briefly achieved independence from 1848–1849, but was defeated by the combined forces of the Habsburgs and the Russian Empire. Despite its ultimate defeat, the revolution initiated a chain of events that led to the autonomy of Hungary within the new Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1867.

The poem has come to rank third after the Himnusz and Szózat as a statement of Hungarian national identity.

The translation below of the "National Poem" is literal, attempting to convey the precise meaning of the original text.

Petőfi Bridge

Petőfi híd or Petőfi Bridge (named after Sándor Petőfi, old name is Horthy Miklós Bridge, named after governor Miklós Horthy) is a bridge in Budapest, connecting Pest and Buda across the Danube. It is the second southernmost public bridge in Budapest.

Its two ends are

Boráros tér (southern end of Grand Boulevard and terminus of the Csepel HÉV)

Goldmann György tér (next to the campuses of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics)Budapest already made a proposal in the early 1900s to build the bridge, but the competent state bodies was believed that a bridge in Óbuda is a way more important. After the start of World War I., the idea was postponed, however, the bridge was still important for the townspeople.The bridge was built between 1933–1937, according to the plans of Hubert Pál Álgyay. It is 514 m in length (along with the sections leading up) and 25.6 m in width and rebuilt after the Second World War.

Red Psalm

Red Psalm (Hungarian: Még kér a nép) is a 1972 Hungarian film by Miklós Jancsó. The literal translation of the title is "And the People Still Ask", a quote from a poem by Sándor Petőfi.

The Sea Has Risen

The Sea Has Risen (Hungarian: Föltámadott a tenger) is a 1953 Hungarian historical drama film directed by László Ranódy, Mihály Szemes and Kálmán Nádasdy. It stars János Görbe, Zoltán Makláry and Lajos Básti. The film portrays Sándor Petőfi and the events of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

Valentin Kolumb

Valentin Khristoforovich Kolumb (Mari and Russian: Валентин Христофорович Колумб, 3 May 1935, Mizener - 8 December 1974) was a Mari poet.

He was also a translator, translating works of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, William Shakespeare, Sándor Petőfi, Nikolay Nekrasov, Alexander Blok, Sergei Yesenin, Aleksandr Tvardovsky and others into Mari.

Early sources
15th – 17th century
18th – 19th century
20th century


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